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TRUE Tales of deeds with interest- 
ing data in the life of Bloominglon, 
Indiana Unirersity and Monroe Coun- 
ty, written in simple langua^ and 
about real people, luith other important 
things, and illustrations. 


Copyright, February 10, 1922 

mu»jniiiiU]UJ|U|UJLmiJmujm i u | iuaimmq ^ 

Memorial Fund 


A Union Building for Men 

Including an Auditorium $500,000 

A Stadium to be Erected on the 

New Athletic Field $250,000 

A Dormitory for Women $250,000 

A Splendid War Record is worthy of a fitting memorial 
A Contribution to this Fund is an Investment, not a 


Prestige for Indiana University 
Pride for the University 
Satisfaction of a Great Purpose Achieved 
A Greater Indiana 

What is our Debt to Indiana? 

How do we Plan to Pay It? 

Help K eep Indiana in the Front 

__j-^ ^ 

Rank of American Universities 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 





Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

Historic Treasures 

True Tales of Deeds with Interesting Data in the Life of Bloomington, Indiana Univer- 
sity and Monroe County— Written in Simple Language and About 
Real People, with Other Important Things 
and Illustrations 

Compiled and Published by 

Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

Copyright Feb. 10, 1922 

Forest M. Hall 

Bloomington, Indiana 

Printed by 

Lokke Book Bindei-y Co. 
Bloomington, Ind. 


Page PaKC 

Title i)age 1 Two Views of Bloomineton's Public Square 27 

t.,. „, „• „ ' • ■■ ■ , „ St. Marorarefs Hall 28 

Front pieces 2-3 ^^^ ^^^^ 2S 

A Tribute 4 gi^g ^f Bloomington Was Wheat Field in 1818 28 

Introductions 5 Railroad Passenger Stations - 29 

Prerace - 6 We Take Sky-Lark 30 

A Message of Victory 7 Freight Yards - - - 30 

Table of Contents Continued on Page 8 Public Square during a parade 31 

Indian Fighting of ISll-l.'i 9 "Aunt Mollie" Stewart 31 

Our 0:d Town Pump » On Moonlight Nights : 32 

O'd Mnnon Station 11 This Counti-y of Ours 32 

Indiana University Libraiy 12 Religious Activities of Pioneers (with illustrations) 33 

Life of Colonel Ketcham 14 Record of the Rev. George W. Terry - 34 

Od Sail Works - 16 Harmony Movement 3o 

Remarkable Letter by Prof. Pering (with illustration) 17 "God's Acre" 36 

James Parks. Sr., Wrote History 22 Early-Day Preacher ™ 37 

Monroe County's Magnificent Modem Court House 22 Congregation in Tears as Fairview Church Bums (with lHus- 

Fir.<l IncorpiiiMtion of Bloomington 24 tration) 3S 

Why Bloomington People Are Never Ashamed : 26 Coed Sixty-nine Years of Age 39 

Birds-eye view of Bloomington and Indiana University 2G Largest Man in County 40 

(Table of Contents Ck)ntinued on Page 8.) 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

This work is dedicated to the coming gen- 
erations and my "Little Lady," Virginia M. 
Hall, on her fourth birthday, Jan. 21, 1922. 

We found these tales of yesterday, 
And give without erasures; 

My innocents, so pure in play, 
To you we leave these treasures. 

g)7, A6o4795 

^i \ 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


Life was ever an adventure, rich in acts — 
As simple deeds, they teach that beauty 
Lives on and on, as we know duty — 

Time tells her tale and leaves but fading tracks. 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


Sometimes you find a man with a heart so big you don't see how he 
carries it around. This kind of man doesn't sit on a gilded throne or have 
his breakfast served in bed. He just goes out and does things. 

Pop Hall is one of these men. He has a heart that is measured in 
square miles. He has hit the line hard all his life. Still, I expect he's got 
more religion than most of us. 

He has received several degrees from the University of Life. One is 
a Ph.D. in "Human Understandin'." He certainly desei-\'ed that degree. 
In his life he's made lots of friends. I'm glad to be one of them. 

Mr. Guest was thinking of men like Pop when he wrote the following 


By Edgar A. Guest. 

Somebody said that it couldn't be done, 

But he, with a chuckle, replied. 
That "maybe it couldn't," but he would be one 

Who wouldn't say so till he tried. 
So he buckled right in, with a trace of a grin. 

On his face. If he worried, he hid it. 
He started to sing as he tackled the thing 

That couldn't be done, and he did it. 

Somebody scoffed: "Oh, you'll never do that; 

At least no one ever has done it." 
But he took off his coat and he took off his hat. 

And the first thing we knew he'd begun it. 
With the lift of his chin, and a bit of a grin. 

Without any doubting or quiddit. 
He started to sing as he tackled the thing, 

That couldn't be done, and he did it. 

There are thousands to tell you that it cannot be done; 

There are thousands who prophesy failure; 
There are thousands to point out to you, owe by one, 

The dangers that wait to assail you. 
But just buckle in with a bit of a grin, 

Then take off your coat and go to it; 
Just start in to sing as you tackle the thing, 

That "cannot be done" — and you'll do it. 

From THE PATH TO HOME. CopyiiKht 1919 by the Reilly 
& Co. Reprinted by permission. Indiana University 
Memorial Campaign. 

We need more men like Pop. 


Director of the Campus Campaig-n Among Men 
of the Million Dollar Memorial. 

NOTE— The criticnl eye will detect a number of typographical errors within the pasres of Historic Treasure?, which we do not care to 
excuse, but rather to point out with pride, as monumental evidence of the sincere efforts of our fellow-craftsman. O. A. Miller, superinten- 
dent of Indiana University Press, in speeding this work to completion, which is the largest job of printing ever to have been entirely printed 
and bound in the City of Bloomington, Ind. F.M.H. 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


To gather up the threads of a community's unwritten history is to help that com- 

.munily to complete the pattern of its life. Genei-al history shows only broad lines 

and deep colors. Local history supplies the minute variety of tone and shade. Yet 

local history is not to be confused with legend. Legend has its place in the tale, but 

the harder-earned treasure of fact is of more enduring worth. 

In choosing Bloomington and its environs as the seat of his work, Mr. Hall has 
chanced upon a locality which is rich in interest. He has set himself the task of de- 
termining and presenting the facts of our local history. Such work is of value in itself, 
and it suggests a worthy precedent for all communities. Time runs away from facts. 
The local historian attempts to catch them before it is too late. The endeavor should 
call forth not only sympathy and interest, but practical encouragement. 



I have read with much interest Mr. Forest- M. Hall's chapters on local history as 
they have appeared in the local press from time to time. It has been a real pleasure 
to know that there is a man among us who has the faculty and disposition for this 
kind of work, and who is willing to give his time and energy to digging out and pre- 
serving in print so many interesting stories and personalities of the past. The col- 
lector of such material renders a valuable service to the community. 

Mr. Hall has made a good collection of personal and liistorical material. It illus- 
trates vividly, and I have no doubt for the most part truthfully, the past life of Bloom- 
ington and Monroe county. For this unusual service Mr. Hall should receive the ap- 
proval and support of our citizens. It gives me pleasure to write for his work this 
brief word of commendation. He brings again to our knowledge the story of men and 
women whose lives and deeds should not be allowed to be forgotten. 

Many of the things of which Mr. Hall has written are within the memory of men 
and women still living. But the time will soon come when they will not be, for the 
places and faces that know them now will soon know them no more forever. It is 
well to preserve these accounts and to put them into easily accessible forms for those 
who come after us. It is a common observation that we are not interested enough 
either in our ancestry or in our posterity. We live too much for the present. We 
forget how interested in us those will be who may be here a hundred years from now; 
and we are prone to care too little, or we find it too difficult to learn, about those 
who were here a hundred years ago. A work like Mr. Hall's tends to correct this 
unfortunate tendency, and to enable us not only to preserve for the future the life 
of the present generation, but to recover, in some degree, the knowletlge of the genera- 
tions that are gone. 

These interesting chapters of Mr. Hall on our local history are in interesting and 

attractive form. For what he has done for this community he deserves its gratitude 

and appreciation. 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 



Those who look in this book for rhetorical composition, sublime metafor.s or ef- 
fusions may be disappointed; but those who care for worth-while deeils and facts of 
pioneer days talked of in simple, human interest manner, will find accounts of people's 
lives in every walk of our civil and military life of by-gone days. We have tried to 
tell some important thing of each community of the county, which should be preserved 
for our children's children. Some of these accounts may seem more complete than 
others, because our notes have been more complete, but we have been obliged to v/rits 
and compile these stories in such order as we were able to obtain the facts; and, we 
have not designed to show partiality, except in recogniizing the news value of the early 
day happenings to the citizens of today. The pictures may give future generations 
an idea of scenes in Bloomington and the community today, as do the present day topics 
we have written of in this book. 

We ai'e pained at the thought that, while the deeds of some Monroe County and 
Bloomington soldiers, as well as civilian heroes, are emblazoned in these pages, 
others no less worthy of note, are seemingly ignore<l. This is no fault of the compiler 
of this work. No fidelity on his part could have obviated the difficulty, from the fact 
he was compelled to find these facts alone — chiefly, through old books, conversation 
with older persons now living, and newspapers of the present period — verify by tracing 
old records of data. To all these helpful sources of information he feels humbly gi-ate- 
ful, especially the citizens of Bloomington, the newspapers, and Indiana University, 
as without their support and encouragement this work would not have been possible 

Now, as the work is sent forth, he cherishes but little hope that it will go through 
the fiery ordeal of criticism without being somewhat scorched; for 

"He that writes. 
Or makes a feast, more certainly invites 
His judges than his friends : there's not a guest 
But will find something wanting or ill drest." 

We undertook the arduous task of compiling stories of human interest and interest- 
ing data concerning history of Bloomington, Indiana University and Monroe County, 
Indiana — the labor of gathering these facts and compiling them in short, interesting 
narratives — with some inisgivings; knowing, as we did, that more illustrious foot-steps 
had gone befoi-e, and that older and wiser heads had long been doing work of this 
nature. We have given credit to newspapers for each article printed from its files. 

But, it seemed that the duty of giving the present and future generations the 
things we found in pioneer life, in a form the present-day reading public have grown 
to care for, was one not to be avoided; and we have endeavored to accept this duty 
with meekness. The result of our labor now goes to the reader, resting not so much 
upon the merit of this work as upon the intrinsic value of work and motives of others 
which inspired the actions recalled in "Historic Treasures". 

But sufficient has been said to indicate the design and character of this work; 
therefore we close this preface by acknowledging our obligations to our teachers in 
Indiana University and the Rehabilation Department of the United States Government, 
for the development of what little ability we are able to use in preserving these Historic 
Treasures. We also appreciate the support of commercial concerns of Bloomington 

in 1922, who are represented in the last pages of this book. 

F. M. H. 
Bloomington, Ind. 
January 21, 1922. 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

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Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 



It was Hard to Be Good 

Austin Seward - 

Hoosiers Made Fine Record in World War 

Alone in The Mjstery of Death 

Armistice Day Proclamation 

Foch's Famous Message — 

New Dollar Not to Show Broken Sword 

City Pays Homage — 

That Peace May Live ~...^. 

Names of Monroe County Heroes Who Made Supreme Sacrifice. 

Monroe County's Honor Roll At Close of Rebellion 

Indiana University Had Big "Honor Roll" 

The Student Building -. 

We must Prove Our Trust 

Monroe County Leads 

First Library 

Dudley C. Smith First School Teacher (with illustrations) 

Prof. D. E. Hunter Established First Graded Schools 

Hardships Children of Pioneer Families Endured 

Romance of Ancestors of Fee Family 

Dr. David H. Maxwell Drafted Indiana Constitution 

Three Hinkle Brothers 

Medical Men Form Clinic 

Old Seminary System (with illustration) 

Early History of Indiana College (with illustration) 

School Lands of Monroe County 

Name of "Hoosier" Now Commands Respect 

Indiana University Lives Through Adversity (illustrations) 

Sacrifices of People in the Past ._ 

Entrance Drive to Indiana University 

Dr. William Lowe Br>an I with illustrations) 

"Kirkwood's Laws" Brought Fame 

Observatory at Indiana University 

"City of Higher Learning" Receives Praise 

Typical University Student Organization "Houses 

Scenes on Indiana University Camjius After Snow Storm 

Indiana L^niversity Buildings in 1915 

Indiana University Downs Purdue (with illustrations) 

The Downf alien 

The Team and Stiehm - 

Trustees of University Select Sites - 

Bankers Convinced Prospects for 1922 Business are Good 

Historic Old Elm Trees 

The Widow's Soliloquy - 

First Store Established in Bloomington 

Population of Bloomington in 1830 

Condition Found in 1921 at Center of Population 

Families Are Growing Smaller 

Hard Times Faced Early Settlers 

City of Bloomington Is Fortunate - 

What We See and Hear— What We Think 

Early Manufactories of Bloomington 

Pleasing Summer Scenes 

Pioneer Fire Department Formed 

J. W. Jackson. Old-Time Fire Fighter - 

First Steam Mill Started 

Views of Bloomington Buildings 

First Railroad Built into Bloomington 

Fairfax is Old Landmark 

Save an 1S12 War Relic 

Friendship Almost Was 

Building of Bloomington 

Stage Line and "Temperance House" 

Bloomington Chamber of Commerce 

Bloomington Architect Predicts Bright Prospects 

Scenes in Great Quarries 

Bloomington Election, 1921 - 

Bloomington City Hall 

Homes of the People from Early Times 

Where Finest Building Stone in the World is Taken from Earth.. 

Bloomington Buildings in 1921 

Old Geographical Designations 

Street Scenes 

Rural Scene in Picturesque Beauty Spot 

Where One is Tempted to Linger 

Scene on Indiana University Campus 

Scene on Campus 

A Winter Picture _ — •- 

I'irst Settler to Bring Family - 

Old Court House - 

Monroe County Court Opens for First Term in 1818 

Tempting Old Log - 

Pioneers of Monroe County Drank Whiskey 

Early Political Records of Monroe County 

William Mathers. Soldier of Revolution 

First Militia Regiment 

Capt. Sluss and" Daniel Lunderman Head Companies in Mexican 

Smithville Sprang Up With Railroad - 

Palestine Now Deserted - - 

Crisis. Just Before War of Rebellion 

Wayport and Hindoostan 

People Thrown into Frenzie — Ft. Sumter Taken 

Monroe County Organizes Ten Companies 

Draft Ordered For State 

The Sentinels .-. 

Incidents Worth Mention During Civil War 

Along the Road ~ - 

"Butter Nuts" Resist Law 

Morgan Invaded Indiana 

Disloyal Element Grows Bold 

Great Celebration Held in Bloomington — 

Last Call For Men — Bounties Offered 

100-Day Men Called 







































































































A Wild Spot in the Hills \''J' 

End of Civil War {06 

Feats of Confederate Navy - - - 107 

Bloomington Woman SO Years of Age Protests _ lOi 

A Good Spot to Wade - - ^S, 

Parade a Mile Long - 1"8 

Soldiers' Monument at Rose Hill Cemetery — 109 

Company H. 195th Regiment, in Spanish-American War 109 

We've Drunk From the Same Canteen 1*9 

Whip-Saw Enables Pioneer Woodsman to Build Home Ill 

Indiana University Campus Before Fire in Wylie Hall Ill 

Iron Was Mined in Monroe County 112 

Bloomington Had Representative Press 112 

Indiana University School cf Journalism is Pioneer 114 

Journalism Building H-l 

"Far West" Printed in 1833 and Other Old Newspapers..- HE 

Earth Emerging From Torrid, Dry Period 116 

Making a Newspaper 117 

Named Site Beuna Vista , 117 

Oldest Man in World? Hi 

Telephone Wires Could reach Moon 100 Times 11" 

Air Record - ■• H^ 

Get-Together Home Coming Banquet Scene 118 

Mausoleum. Rose Hill Cemetery 119 

Mt. Tabor, Once Thriving Village 11^ 

Hotels 120 

Dr Woodbum. on Sixty- fourth Birthday (with Illustration) 121 

Indiana Schools Get Sl.623,785 From State 121 

Monroe County Medical Society 121 

"According to Hoyle" - 121 

Old Unionville Scene of Horrible Tragedy 122 

Scene on Indiana University Campus « 122 

Says Rest of World Works While U. S. Plays 123 

Indiana University Income and Expenses Given 123 

Bloomington's Postmasters Change in 1922 (with IllustrBtions)..I23 

Bloomington's Post Office Building 124 

First Piano to Enter Bloomington Is Returned 124 

Annual Pow-Wow of Monroe County Ex-Service Men 125 

Burton Woolery 125 

The Towne Quartette - 125 

American Legion Memorial ._. ...126 

Names of Bloomington's Heroes Among Those of Indiana Uni- 
versity 126 

Care of Disabled Soldiers of World War Discussed 127 

A Soldier's Last Letter - 127 

History of G.A.R. In United States 127 

Residence Hall 127 

The Harris-Grand 127 

Smithville Public School Building _ 128 

Local Council of Women - 128 

Small Corner in Largest Furniture Factory in the World 129 

Monroe Chapter American War Mothers 130 

Bloomington's Beautiful Modern City High School Building 130 

Partnership Formed in First Days Lives 74 Years 131 

Student Building 131 

Bloomington Modern Hospital (with Illustrations) 132 

Ellettsville First Named Richland 133 

Scene Among Monroe County Hills 133 

"Indiana. We're All For You" _ 135 

Indiana. Our Indiana - 135 

Banking Houses of City _ - 136 

Cozy Ward in Bloomington Hospital - 136 

Counterfeiters and Crooks Run Out , 137 

New .f200,000 Masonic Temple 137 

"London Paper, 1834, " Tells of Remarkable Invention 138 

Salvation Army Work in Bloomington „ 139 

.Salvation Army Baskets Ready for Christmas Delivery 139 

View of Uni^■ersity Library „ 139 

Town of Harrodshurg Has Varied Career 140 

Entrance to Maxwell Hall 140 

W. W. Wicks Enlisted When Sent on an Errand 141 

Above All Things— By "The Stroller" _ „ 141 

The New Dollar „ 141 

HeniT J. Feltus _ _ 142 

Water Supply Has Been Issue in Local Elections 142 

Oldest Woman in County Is Ninety-eight 143 

Class in University Hears Galli-Curci by Wireless Telephone.. ..143 

Indiana University Celebrates 102d Anniversary 144 

Circus Day Always Fresh in Memory 146 

Marion Township has Magnificent Scenery 146 

Indiana's Recent Awakening From .Neglect of History 146 

Gosport Actor Wins Success in Role of "Abraham Lincoln" 148 

Telescope in Kirkwood ObscrCatory, Indiana University 148 

The Reporter and the Bible _ 149 

Go to Colleges for Executives 149 

Winter Scene on University Campus 150 

No Longer a Mere Dream (with Illustrations) 161 

State American Legion Endorses I.U. Memorial '. „..152 

Shell-Shocked, and After „ 163 

Oldest Voters „ 163 

Haynes Proves Nation is Dry _ _ 153 

The Years _ _ _ 153 

35,143 Deaths and 67.850 Births 153 

Real Deadwood Dick Dies 153 

Complete List Monroe County Men in W^orld War 154 

U. S. Veterans Bureau 154 

Indiana University Library 154 

Typical Scenes in Training Camp - 155 

Scene on University Campus 157 

l«gion Makes Plan To Begin Drive for Members - 158 

Scene on University Campus - ~ 158 

Advertising Section of Bloomington Representative Business and 
Professional Life in 1922 -169 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

Indian Fighting of 1811-1813 Recounted by 

Pioneer of Monroe County— Work 

of Rangers Against Savages. 

Colonel John Ketcham Wrote Account of Adventures — Scalped Indian — Many 
Murders and Depredations of Red Men Before Town of Bloomington Was 
Later Established — Early Scenes in Territory of West Fork on White 
River — Fought With General Tipton and Captain Boone. 

Probably the most popular and well- 
known man among the pioneers of In- 
diana, and especially Monroe county 
was John Ketcham, whose titles 
showed g'reat honor, as he was knov^m 
as Colonel Ketcham, Judge Ketcham, 
and the Hon. John Ketcham, as rep- 
resentative in the Legislature — besides 
being chosen one of the electors of 
General Jackson. 

Having come from fighting stock 
and a rather religious family, John 
Ketcham showed a character far above 
the average man, in his courage and 
charitable deeds; and to him, great 
credit is due for the prosperous and 
habitable condition of our county, and 
in a large part, the State of Indiana. 

In the late years of his honorable 
life, John Ketcham, in his own char- 
acteristic language, wrote a detailed 
account of his early life as an Indian 
fighter and scout, along with a de- 
scriptive account of the Indian trou- 
bles of 1812-1813. A copy of which has 
been preserved by D. W. Ketcham, a 
descendant of Colonel Ketcham, which 
we are able to quote as follows: 
Settled In 1811. 

"I propose to give a short history 
of our Indian troubles of 1812-13," 
reads Mr. Ketcham's manuscript, "in 
that part of the Indiana Territory 
commonly called the 'Forks,' situated 
between Muscackituck and the Drift- 









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In the old days, when the most important gathering place for political 
ai'guments, gossip, and chat was the old town pump, situated at the 
northwest corner of the public square, in Bloomington, there was not the 
ever-present smell of gasoline to inhale. Instead of driving old "Dobbin" 
to the pump for a drink, we now "crank up the Lizzy." This picture wav, 
taken some time in the early nineties, and shows the old pump, looking 
southeast, toward the Court House, at "Campbell's Corner" — Old hitchrack 
and court house dimly seen in the background. Trees, "as used to be" all 
around the square. Remember those tall derby hats worn by men in this 
picture? Probably the mayor and town marshal. The absence of auto- 
mobiles in this scene is noticeable. 

wood fork of White river, called by the 
Indians 'Hangonahakqua Sepoc' 

"In April, 1811, we settled on Sec- 
tion 14, Township 5 N., Range 4 East. 
Said section was made fractional by 
the Indian Boundary line cutting off 
the northwest corner. 

"The Indians were numerous and 

friendly in that part of the Territory 

until after the Tippecanoe battle, 

which took place November 7, 1811. 

Indians Murder Hinton. 

"The Delaware tribe expressed dis- 
approbation of the battle, and many 
of the Indians left our part of the 
Territory then, but not all. We en- 
joyed peace, but not without fear, 
until AprU 7, 1812. 

"About two and a half miles above 
our location there lived three fami- 
lies together — Hinton, Cox and Red- 
dick. Their horses grazed in what was 
called the Cherry Bottom, five or six 
miles above. 

"Hinton started in the morning to 
get a horse for some purpose, but not 
returning that day, his friends went 
in search of him, and ascertained that 
their horses were stolen, and that 
Hinton was either murdered or taken 

"The circumstances being made 
known to our neighborhood, we all 
went in search of the missing man. 
When we arrived at the Cherry Bot- 
tom, two men were sent to examine 
the river shore, the balance were di- 
vided so as to sweep the bottom at 
one trip through. 

"He was found shot through the 
head, stripped and thrown into the 
river. We laid him on a blanket, tied 
the corners over a pole and started 
home. Night overtaking us, we cut 
forks and raised the corpse out of the 
reach of v/olves. A proposition was 
then made to John Ketcham and Noah 
Wright that if Ketcham would write a 
letter, and Wright take it to the Gov- 
ernor, then at Charleston, they would 
be exempt from helping to bring in 
and bury the dead — agreed to. 
Three Indians Call. 

"Next morning (Sunday) about 10 
o'clock, myself and fatally were shut 
up in the house. I was Ij'ing on a 
pallet before the fire, when sudden- 
ly, without speaking, three Indians, 
each having a gun, pushed open the 
door and came in. 

"I requested them to take seats. 
They placed their guns in the corner 
of the house and took seats. I took 
occasion to examine their guns, found 
them primed and loaded. It was not 
common when the Indians called on 
Whites to have their guns with them. 
Sometimes they had one, but that not 

"They could speak pretty good Eng- 
lish. I asked them, 'What news?' They 
answered, 'None!' I told them of the 
murder of Hinton and the horses 
stolen. They then observed that three 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

days past, seven Winnebago Indians 
had passed their camp, going toward 
Chei'ry Bottom. 

"I then let them know that we had 
sent a man to tell the Governor what 
was done, and in a little time he would 
send men to hunt up the bad Indians, 
etc. I asked him if they would go 
with me to the burying — they con- 

"My wife objected to my going with 
them, and wept. The oldest sympa- 
thized with her, and shed tears, too. 
We started, I leading the way. We 
proceeded near a mile — they stopped, 
said 'we no go, make white man heap 
mad.' So we returned, but found no- 
body at the house. 

"My wife and children had secreted 
themselves in the bushes, supposing 
that they would kill me and return 
and kill them, and plunder the house. 
The conduct of the three Indians was 
very suspicious. 

"They had brought skins to trade 
with me, but left them hid some dis- 
tance from the house, saying nothing 
about them until after our return. 
Indians Flee. 
"Just as we returned, McColough, 
who had a squaw wife, and another 
white man, happened to come there. 
McColough told them if they didn't 
leave immediately, 'every devil of 
them should be killed.' They returned 
to their camp, and left in great haste, 
leaving some of their valuables. They 
were the last camp of Indians that 
left our frontier that season. 

"In about ten days after, the Indian 
Agent, residing at the Delaware town, 
sent two Indians, Salt Peter and Peter 
Vanvactor, with a letter and a white 
flag, stating that it was not the Dela- 
wares who had done the mischief, but 
the Kickapoos, who had passed 
through their town with the stolen 

"The two messengers remained with 
the whites many weeks. Peter Van- 
vactor (one of the Indian messengers) 
hired to work and never returned — 
was murdered in Kentucky by some 
unprincipled white man, because he 
was an Indian. 

"A man was killed near Widow 
Solida's, a few miles from Muscacka- 
tuck — his name not now recollected. 
Another man was killed on White 
river at McCowen's Ferry. 

"At the commencement of our In- 
dian troubles, there were upwards of 
seventy families living in the Forks, 
but in a few weeks after Hinton's 
murder, upwards of fifty families left 
the country, and some for safety 
crossed the Ohio river. 

"The balance, fifteen or eighteen 
families, determined not to leave, and 
built block-houses, or forts. 
Lived in Forts. 

"John Sage and others built a fort 
at his place, but the principal fort 
was at Valonia; Huff's Fort, higher 
up, and Ketcham's Fort, still above, 
and outside. 

"We all lived in forts, and went in 
companies to work our little improve- 
ments — some stood sentinel, while 
others worked — and thus, we got 
along for a while. 

"The good people of Harrison and 
Clark counties, considering the small 
number left in the Forks, and they 

shut up in forts, could not hold out 
long. The most good they seemed to 
do was to be a kind of Indian bait, 
for the safety of the interior coun- 
ties, who probably taking that view 
of the subject, reinforced us, by send- 
ing company after company to help 
us maintain our stand. 

"The Indians began to understand 
by our preparations, that we would 
sooner fight a little than quit our 
location, although very few that re- 
mained during the war were owners 
of land, many having settled over the 
boundary line, where the land did ilot 
come into the market for several years 

Kill Twenty-Three Whites. 

".A.bout the time that Ft. Harrison 
and Ft. Wayne were beseiged by the 
Indians, namely on September 4,"l812, 
a marauding party of Indians who 
passed north of our parts, fell on the 
unsuspecting neighborhood of Pigeon 
Roost, killing twenty-three men, wo- 
men and children — mostly women and 

"After robbing the houses, they set 
fire to them, and stole horses to 
carry off their booty. 

"About the same time, Major Du- 
vall, of Salem, with a small company 
of men, made a scout up White River, 
and it so happened that while they 
were passing over some fallen timber 
on Sand Creek, that they came in 
contact with the Indians on their re- 
turn from the Pigeon Roost. 

"Those of the Indians who had 
horses, thi-ew off their large packs 
and made good their retreat. Two 
others who had no horses, fled in an- 
other direction, pursued by the white 

John Zink Shot. 
"John Zink, one of the party, being 
young and athletic, outran his com- 
rades, and when the Indians discov- 
ered that he was separated { they de- 
vised a plan to shoot Zink. In crossing 
a ravine, one Indian secreted himself 
while the other showed himself in 
plain view, within shooting distance. 
"Zink stopped to shoot, but the se- 
creted Indian fired first, giving him a 
mortal wound. Zink lay in his gore 
that rainy night — and was found by 
his companions next morning, still 
alive. He was brought to Ketcham's 
fort, where he was washed and com- 
fortably clothed, and Dr. Lamb, of 
Salem was sent for. 

"The doctor arrived, drew a silk 
handkerchief through the wound, and 
started home. Zink died before they 
reached Valonia. 

"The three large packs were opened, 
and found to consist of men's and 
women's and children's clothing. We 
knew then that some settlement had 
been destroyed, but at the time knew 
not what one. 

Absalom Buskirk Killed. 

"About the last of September, 1812, 
Absalom Buskirk and his brother-in- 
law took a two-horse team to his field 
to get some corn and pumpkins. The 
Indians killed Buskirk, and stole his 
two fine horses. 

"The corpse was brought to Ket- 
cham's fort the same evening, and on 
the next morning John Johnston, Ro- 
bert Sturgeon and others came and 

hauled the corpse to Huff's fort for 

"After which. Sturgeon started 
home, and was killed at the 'Half- 
mile Branch," near Valonia. Although 
there were at Valonia a number of 
militia men stationed, they were un- 
willing to ri.'^k their own scalps, and 
refused to go for the dead. After ' 
night,, the citizens, namely, Craig 
Rogers, Beems, etc., went with their 
dogs, and brought back the corpse 
to the fort. 

Incidents at Ketcham's Fort. 

".\fter the murder of Buskirk and 
Sturgeon, no other persons were killed 
during the fall and winter followinp., 
but many alarms were given. I will 
insert a few cases: 

"One night, Daniel Stout, who now 
lives in Bloomington (1865), and 
others were at Ketcham's fort. After 
their sentinels were placed out in dif- 
ferent directions around the tort, two 
heard and a chird s'j'v two Indians, 
and fired at them, and then fled to 
the foi-t; expecting, next morn'ng, to 
find a dead Indian, ir a trail of blood 
— but a hard rain fell that night, and 
we found no Indian or blood. 

"At another time, about corn gath- 
ering, Captain Hiram Boone, with 
twelve or fifteen men, were at Ket- 
cham's fort. They tied their horses 
to stakes driven in the ground in th? 
yard, not far from the fort. 

"A large popular stump stood 
rather between two of the houses, 
not more than five steps from either. 
In that stump holes were bored and 
hooks driven in, and four or five 
horses fastened to them. 

"The night was clear, the moon did 
not rise until after night. While it 
was yet dark the Indians opened the 
yard fence into the corn field, and 
let down one bar on another square 
of the yard fence. The bars were 
within twelve or fifteen steps of the 
big stump. 

Steal Capt. Boone's Horse. 
"An Indian slipped through the 
bars, and got to the horses undis- 
covered, but while loosening his 
choice horse — a fine gelding — one of 
the guards fired on him, but he clung 
to the horse. Another guard fired on 
him, but he led the horse off through 
the gap. into the corn field. 

"By this time. Captain Boone and 
five or six of his men pursued the In- 
dian having the horse. While the 
chase was going on, Ketcham was 
standing in the yard giving some di- 
rections, when an Indian secreted near 
the bars, not more than twenty steps 
distance, fired at him. Boone halted 
and asked who had shot? I replied, 
an Indian. 

"One of his men said: 'Captain, let 
us tree!' He replied: 'We don't know 
on which side of the tree to get, we 
will return to the fort' 

"The party was composed of about 
sixteen Indians. We counted their 
trail next morning, through a newly- 
cut buckwheat patch, and at that time 
discovered what their policy had been. 
On each side of the gap opening into 
the corn field there had been placed 
a strong guard; also, on each side of 
the bars — if an Indian had been close- 
ly pursued in either direction, the 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


guard would have shot down his pur- 

People Became Hardened. 

"Although it was believed that the 
Indians were continually prowling 
around some of our forts, the people 
got so hardened to danger that they 
seemed not to dread their enemy. 

"One night, Mr. Hutchersoii and 
family, together with some of the 
militia men, concluded to stay at his 
house, a short distance from Huff's 
fort. They felt safe, and happy; and, 
having a fiddle, concluded to have a 
dance and enjoy themselves first-rate. 
But, in the morning, when they awoke, 
they found that their horses were all 
gone. J 

"While they were dancing, the In- 
dians were catching their horses. Pur- 
suit was made, and after following 
their trail a few miles they met David 
Sturgeon's old, ugly horse, coming 
back with a leather tug tied so tightly 
around its throat that it could scarce- 
ly draw its breath. 

"The Indians did this, probably, to 
show their contempt for the white 
man's ugly old horse. No more horses 
were recovered, however. 

Tells of Gen. Tipton. 

"Long after that time, the Indians 
stole two horses from Flinn's settle- 
ment. They were pursued by General 
Tipton, David and James Rogers, and 
others, who followed them for several 
days, when it was found they were 
close upon the Indians, the water be- 
ing fresh in the tracks. 

"Tipton's plan was to follow them 
slowly and cautiously until night, then 
have fine sport tomahawking them. 
But his spies. Major Sparks and Mr. 
*****, disobeyed orders. 

"The Indians had haulted over the 
turn of a hill, dressing the horses' 

manes and tails. The Major and 

got within thirty or forty steps 

Old Monon Station in 1900 

of the Indians before they discovered 

"The temptation was too great — 
they fired — and missed! 

"When Tipton came up and saw 
what these men had done, he cried 
like a child, and was tempted to toma- 
hawk the Major. Their provisions 
were exhausted, and they were far 
from home. 

Name Bean Blossom Creek. 

"The rain had swelled the creeks 
until they were past fording; those 
who could swim had to do so. 

"They came to a large creek in the 
north end of Monroe county. A man 
by the name of Bean Blossom, in 
attempting to swim the creek, came 
very near drowning, and Tipton 
narned the creek 'Bean Blossom,' af- 
ter his name — and so it is called to 
this day. 

"At another time. General Tipton 
and Captain Bean, with perhaps 
twenty men, made a scout to the West 
Fork of White river. Before they 
got to the river, they crossed a beauti- 
ful stream that empties into Bean 
Blossom, near its mouth. 

Huffman Boy' Stolen. 

"A man by the name of Jack Storm, 
and another named John Ketcham, in 
crossing the stream, got both of their 
horses mired and stuck fast in the 

"They then named the creek 'Jack's 
Defeat,' and so it is called today. 

"No disturbance was made in the 
winter of 1812. Perhaps the Indians 
thought they might be tracked in the 
snow. In March, 1813, they com- 
menced again, fiecer than ever. They 
made another descent on the Pigeon 
Roost country, killing old Mr. Huff- 
man, wounding his wife and daughter, 
and taking his grandson, a small boy, 
son of Benjamin Huffman, prisoner. 

"On their return, they divided their 

company. One pai-ty stole Reed's 
horses, and the other party went 
eight or ten miles from Reed's and 
stole Kimberlin's horses; and, the 
same night, made good their retreat. 

"After the war was over, Benjamin 
Huffman went north, perhaps to De- 
troit, in search of his lost son. He 
heard that his son had been sold to 
a Frenchman, living in Canada. 

"Huffman was poor; his means ex- 
hausted, he returned home discour- 
aged, despairing ever seeing his child 

Jonathan Jennings Helps. 

"Our kind and benevolent Repre- 
sentative in Congress, Jonathan Jen- 
nings, got an appropriation made to 
enable Huffman to seek further aft- 
er his little son. He hired a man 
to go with him. 

"They went down the St. Lawrence, 
into Canada, and found Huffman's 
son. The child was so young when 
stolen, and had been gone so long, 
that he had forgotten his father's 
name. He recollected that he was 
called Ben, but had forgotten the bal- 
ance of the name. 

"In the spring of 1813, the Potto- 
wotamies made a descent on Flinn' 
settlement — now Leesville, killed Mr. 
Guthrie and took Martin Flinn pris- 

"He remained a prisoner with them 
until the fall of 1814. At that time 
a young warrior crossed the Tippe- 
canoe river in a splendid canoe, on 
a courting expedition. 

Took Lover's Canoe. 

"While the Indian lover was enjoy- 
ing himself with, his beloved one, 
Flinn gathered his axe, which they 
had stolen when they captured him, 
and a few ears of corn, and quietly 
stepped into the lover's canoe, not 
asking any questions 'for conscience 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

sake;' and, with his beautiful paddle, 
rowed himself down stream all night. 

"He secreted himself in the day 
time, and in this way spent several 
days and nights before he landed at 
Ft. Harrison. When he landed, he 
was unable to get out of the canoe. 
He was helped out, and cared for, and 
in a few days considered himself able 
to travel home. 

"The Rangers then at the fort, and 
others, made up a pony purse, and 
bought him a horse to ride home on. 
In a few days he was able to ride, 
and carried his lost axe home. 

"Oh! Then — the happy meeting of 
friends and relations. 

Waylaid and Fired On. 

"About the middle of March, 1813, 
John Ketcham and George Doom, a 
militia man from Harrison county, 
then on duty, went on an errand to 
Joshua Lindsey's — Lindsey having, 
during the winter of 1812 removed 
from Ketcham 's fort to his farm, some 
miles above. 

"On their return home, they were 
waylaid and fired on by the Indians — 
Doom was killed, and Ketcham badly 
wounded. When he reached the fort, 
a messenger was sent to Valonia for 
reinforcements. About twenty men, 

under command of Lieutenant , 

proceeded to where Doom's corpse 
lay; after carrying it to Lindsey's, 
William Reddick, John Samuel and 
Frederick Funk were detailed to bury 
the dead, and remained at Lindsey's 
until next mornig. 

"The scout proceeded up the coun- 
try for miles without making any 
discovery of Indian signs, and return- ' 
ed home. The fatigue party, having 
completed the burial, the sun yet an 
hour high, concluded that the Indians 

were all gone, and that they would 
return to the fort. 

"They had proceeded about 300 
yards when the Indians, laying in 
ambush near their path, fired on them 
and wounded Reddick and Samuel, 
then retreated. 

At Tipton's Island. 

"Shortly after this, General Tip- 
ton, Richard Beem, William Dyer and 
a number of militia men from Har- 
rison county went on a scout up White 
river; some distance above Ketcham's 
fort, struck a fresh Indian trail. They 
eagerly and cautiously pursued the 
same, until they ascertained that the 
Indians had crossed over on drift tim- 
ber into an island. 

"Tipton stood ready with his gun 
presented, while Beem and others 
were crossing on the drift logs. An 
Indian, who was secreted, raised his 
gun to shoot Beem; but, Tipton touch- 
ed trigger first. The Indian threw 
down his gun — it cocked — and re- 
treated, badly wounded. He was 
supposed to be their leader. Tipton 
and all his men crossed over to the 
island, except Dyer, who had charge 
of Tipton's horse. 

"Several shots were exchanged be- 
tween the parties. The whites got 
one scalp, and tracked several of the 
enemy by the blood, to the water, 
where they attempted to swim. Dyer 
being below the island, had a fair 
view of the river. 

Government Rangers Organized. 

"He saw a number bulge into the 
water with their blankets on. All sunk 
before they reached the opposite 
shore. It is believed that the whole 
party perished. This good licking 
caused the Redskins to treat us with 
more politeness. 

"In the spring of 1813, the General 

Government authorized the raising ot 
four companies of Mounted Rangers, 
to protect the Territorial frontier. 

"Captain Shoultz, of Lawrenceburg 
(I believe), raised a company; Cap- 
tain Williamson Dunn, of Madison, a 
company; Captain James Bigger, of 
Charlestown, a company, and Captain 
Andrew, of Vineennes, a company. 

"Captain Bigger's company was 
principally made up of citizens of 
Clark county, ten or twelve of whom 
had been shut up in forts and block- 
houses in the Forks, for more than a 
year, making nothing. They concluded 
to join the company, and make a busi- 
ness of hunting Indians and guarding 
their own frontier; as, in doing so, 
they would get some pay for their 
services — otherwise, they would not. 
The pay of a Ranger was a dollar a 
day, each man 'finding himself — that 
is, each man furnishing his own horse, 
arms, ammunition and provisions— 
every man his own commissary. 
Became Much Attached. 

"The soldiers became much attached 
to each otlier during their services, 
and the kindest feeling toward each 
other seemed to have existed between 
them all, except David Barnes and 
Samuel Ridge, who often fought each 

"They were too full of spirits — 
very spirited men, some times. Others 
again did wrong, because they had 
not spirit enough.' Ensign Owen and 
Richard Lewis marred the good feel- 
ings of their comrades by desertion, 
oh the Peoria campaign. It was said 
by Daniel Williams and others, as an 
apology for them that they had caught 
the Kickadoo fever. 

"After General Tipton had handled 
our Red brethern so i-oughly on Tip- 
ton's Island (so-called), they were 
more cautious and sly toward us. No 

Indiana University Library, as it appears in 1922, looking north from Kirkwood Observatory. 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


more of our neighbors were killed by 
them, but occasionally they would ride 
off a horse that was not their own. 

"After the four companies of Rang- 
ers were organized, it was thought 
best to carry the war into Egypt. Ar- 
rangements were made for a cam- 
paign against the Indians, composed 
of Rangers and a few volunteer Mili- 

"Captains Dunn and Bigger, with 
part of their companies, and some of 
Captain Payton's men (of Kentucky), 
together with General Bartholomew 
and volunteer Militia, was assigned to 
that duty. 

Campaign Against Indians. 

"They rendezvoused at Valonia 
about the middle of June, then pro- 
ceeded under the command of General 
Bartholomew to the upper towns on 
the West Fork of White river. The 
tovjrns had mostly been destroyed be- 
fore we got there, probably by a com- 
pany from the White Water settle- 

"We then went down the river to 
towns not interrupted, and come to 
Strawtown late in the evening, and 
discovered fresh Indian signs. Early 
next morning. General Bartholomew, 
Captain Dunn and Ca'itain Shields and 
about twenty Rangers, went in pur- 
suit of the Indians. 

"When we had proceeded about 
three-fourths of a mile we discovered 
three horses; we surrounded ana se- 
cured them — two were hobbled. Fol- 
lowing their back track, we came to 
their camp. General Bartholomew di- 
rected three mounted Rangers, name- 
ly, Severe Lewis, David Hays, and 

(that is John Ketcham) to 

keep in the rear, but at the fire of 
the first gun to dash fonvard. 

"Captain Dunn went on the right 
under cover of the river bank. Cap- 
tain Shields on the left, and General 
Bartholomew brought up the center 
division. The directions were to sur- 
round their camp and take them 

Ketcham Shot Indian. 

"The Indians had a large brass 
kettle hanging over a fire, with three 
deer heads boiling, and were sitting 
near the fire. Captain Shields slipped 
carefully through the bushes, and 
when oposite the camp, at 100 yards 
distance, the Indians discovered us, 
jumped to their guns and fled. 

"Shields fired his gun to notify 
the horsemen. One of Bigger's men 
(to wit, John Ketcham) immediately 
started in pursuit, ran two or three 

hundred yards, when he got into the 
path the Indians had run on. He was 
within thirty steps of his game, and 
shot down an Indian. 

"The other horsemen soon made 
up, but the other Indians were just 
out of sight. They were directed by 
Ketcham to where the Indian was 
last seen. Hays got separted from 
the other two horsemen, and unfor- 
tunately, met with the secreted In- 
dian', who gave him a mortal wound. 

"The horses and kettle were sold to 
the highest bidder, on a credit, and 
the notes were given to Hays. His 
wounds were dressed by David Max- 
well. He was carried on a litter to the 
mouth of Flat Rock, now Columbus, 
where we made two canoes and sent 
him and the guard by water to Val- 
onia, where his wife and family were. 
He died in two or thre° days, after 
they had reached the fort." 

(This is the end of Mr. Ketcham's 
narrative of the Indian difficulties.) 
Old Muster Roll Saved. 

Colonel John Ketcham preserved 
the old muster roll of the company of 
Rangers he was a part of, which fol- 


Of a Company of U. S. Mounted 
Rangers, Commanded by Captain 
James Bigger. 

Commissioned Officers. 

Captain, James Bigger; First Lieu- 
tenant, John Carr; Second Lieutenant, 
James Curry; Third Lieutenant, Wil- 
liam Meredith; Ensign, Jack Owen.^. 
Non-Commissioned Otticers. 

First Sergeant, John Ketcham; Se- 
cond Sergeant, Josiah Williams; Third 
Sergeant, William E. L. Collins; 
Fourth Sergeant, Johnathan Watkins; 
Fifth Sergeant, John Herrod. First 
Corporal, Basil Bowers; second, Wil- 
liam Patrick; third, Samuel Herrod; 
fourth, Robert Wardle; fifth, Andrew 
B. Holland; sixth, Jonathan Gibbons. 

Privates — Moses Allen, James Al- 
lison, Martin Adams, George Arm- 
strong, Luther Beadle, Thomas Ber- 
net, John Baldwin, John Blair, John 
Bartholomew, David Barnes, George 
Bratton, Michael Beam, John Cosner, 
John Owen, James Cowen, Isiah Coop- 
er, James Collins, John Cloak, John 
Clai-k, Isaac Clark, John R. Clark, 
John Craig, Stephen Dunlap, Moses 
Dunlap, John Dunlap, Robert Evans, 
John Evans, William N. Griffith, Wil- 
liam Gainer, John Gibson, John Gib- 
son (two men, same name), James 
Hay, John D. Hay, William Hiler, 

Aaron Holeman, Philip Hart, Isaac 
D. Huffman, James Herrod, Benja- 
min Noble, Lewis Hankins, Esram 
Hutchins, Robert Jones, Jonathan 
Johnston, Lewis Ketcham, Abraham 
Kelly, William Kelly, Thomas F. 
Kelly, James S. Kelly, Davis Kelly, 
William Lindsey, Richard Lewis, John 
May, John McNaught, John McNight, 
Harvey Owen, George W. Owen, Jer- 
emiah Pierceall, Adam Peck, Henry 
Pearcy, Andrew Ferry, Charles F. 
Ross, George Ross, James Ro.;s, John 
Reed, Thomas Ryan, James Ilogers, 
Isaac Rogers, Lewis Rogers, Samuel 
Ridge, Thomas Rose, Stephen Ship- 
man, William Stewart, Robert Swany, 
John Sage, George Ulmer, Reece Wil- 
liams, Daniel Williams, Thomas 
Weathers, Martin Wilson, James Wil- 
son, Robert Pearcy, Hugh Ross. 

New Recruits — Lewis Cutting, John 
Flint, Samuel Haslett, Jen- 
kins, Levi Nugent, James Mooney, 
John Milton, Joseph Rawlins, David 
Studebaker, John Storm, John Sands, 
James Sands, Elam Whitley. 

Captain Dunn's Muster Roll. 

Captain Williamson Dunn's Com- 
pany of U. S. Rangers. 

Commissioned Officers — Captain 
Williamson Dunn; Lieutenants, Henry 
Briton, Henry Ristine, David Hillis; 
Ensign, Green B. Field. 

Non-Commissioned Officers — Ser- 
geants, John Thorn, John Danolds, 
Josuhua Wilkinson, Ebenezer Hillis, 
John Griffin; Corporals, Joshua De- 
puty, Joseph Strickland, Peter Ryker, 
Andrew J. Storms, Matthew Cowley, 
Willis Law. 

Privates — Alexander Anderson, 
John Adkinon, Robert Anderson, 
James Anderson, John Barnes, Wil- 
liam Blankenship, Maurice Baker, Isa- 
iah Blnkenship, David Bigger, Henry 
Banta, John Bandy, Isaac Bergin, Na- 
than Chalfant, George Craig, Wiatt 
Coleman, John Colbert, Benjamin 
Combs, Isaac Crawford, Elijah Col- 
lier, Nathaniel Dunn, John Dunn, An- 
drew Davidson, William Dickey, John 
Davis, Hanniabal Dougherty, Thomas 
Davis, Charles Easton, William Far- 
ley, Samuel T. Cray, Henry Giles, 
George Gunn, John Guthrie, William 
Gilniore, William Hamblen, Absolom 
Hankins, William Johnston, William 
Irwin, Thomas Jones, James Johnston, 
jr.; Samuel Long, Severe Levris, 
James Lewis, Jacob Lewis, John Lee, 
Peter Metz, David H. Maxwell, James 
Monroe, James McCarthey, James 
McCollough, John Maxwell, James 

Indiana Lmnersiiy Looking South from Dunn Meadow. 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall^ 

McKay, William McKay, Robert Mc- 
Kay 3rd, Robert McKay 4th, Thomas 
McConnell, John H. Newland, Brackett 
Owen, Moses Overton, David Patton, 
John Peters, John Purcell, John Ris- 
tine, William Russell, John Ramsey, 
Peter H. Roberts, William Renis, Her- 
ardus Ryker, John G. Ryker, John 

Ryker, Jacob Smock, William Sage, 
John Smith, James Stevens, Samuel 
Snodgrass, David Stucker, John 
Shank, Richie Smith, Isaac Short, 
Henry Salyers, Peter Storm, William 
D. Stuart, Jacob Tiumbo, James Ven- 
tioneer, Abraham Varvell, William 
Wright, Thomas Wise, Daniel Whitak- 
er, Thomas Wendsaw. 


Monroe County Man Born in 1782— Joined Mounted Rangers in 1813— Ap- 
pointed Judge by Governor Harrison— Came to Community in 1818— 
Built Old Court House— Parentage Rivalled. 

We are carried back to the days be- 
fore the adoption of the Constitution 
of the United States, in tracing the 
lives of some of Monroe county and 
Bloomington's early settlers. Most 
significant among whom was Colonel 
John Ketcham. 

In the winter of 1865, when the 
terrible civil war was still raging 
throughout our land, the inhabitants 
of Monroe county, Indiana, were call- 
ed, most unexpectedly, to pay their 
last tribute of respect to this old and 
honored patriot, who a half-century 
before had participated in the sti-ug- 
gles and strifes of his people, and who 
was familiar with all the hardship 
that pioneer life had held. 

Late in life. Colonel Ketcham wrote 
an account in very brief and charac- 
teristic style of his own public life, 
which we are fortunate in being able 
to publish herewith. This data has 
been preserved as follows: 

Public Record of Honor. 

"In June, 1813, I enlisted in the 
United States service, a Mounted 
Ranger. In my first month's service 
I killed and scalped an Indian — was 
very proud of it— got leave to go to 
Kentucky to show my Daddy and 
Mama — I guess they thought I had 
done about right. 

"I continued in the service two 
whole years — saw some hard times — 
was eighty-eight days from my fam- 
ily on one campaign, and lived sev- 
enteen days on seven day's rations. 

"The war now being ended, Govern- 
or Harrison, hearing that I was a 
fellow of pluck and had killed an In- 
dian, sent me a commissian as asso- 
ciate judge. I never had much to do 
on the bench, but was 'Judge 

Came to Monroe in 1818. 
"In April, 1818, I moved to Mon- 
roe county, and built a mill. While 
mill-building we ground our meal on 
a hand-mill, there being no other but 
hand-mills in the country. 

"After Bloomington was located, I 
was solicited to build the court house 
(the old court house which made! 
place in recent years for the present 
handsome structure), which I ditT 

thirty or forty years ago. It still 
stands firm. 

"Because I had built a good court 
house, and had a sword and .several 
pistols, the people thought I ought to 
be colonel. I was so elected, and 
served until I was forty-five years 
old. But my honors did not stop here. 
"The people knew I had killed an 
Indian, and had decided three law 
suits in about forty minutes — they 
said I must go to the Legislature. I 
agreed to it. 

"My popularitj- not high enough 
yet — my old friend. Dr. Foster, God 
bless him, who had done some sei-vice 
in the defense of his country, knew 
I had been wounded by the Indians, 
and killed and scalped an Indian, went 
to the Democratic convention at In- 
dianapolis, and told them what 
Ketcham had done, and said he must 
be appointed one of General Jackson's 
Electors. It was agreed to, and here 
I am yet, one of General Jackson's 

Lived Long Life. 
At the ripe age of 83- years, on 
February 7, 186.5, John Ketcham, who 
was born on September 10, 1782, in 
Washington county, Maryland, arose 
from his favorite seat with his usual 
elestic step, and passed out of his 
house, never more to return alive. 

His lifeless body was found a short 
time afterward by his widow and the 
wife of his son. The body was car- 
ried into the house, only to be 
mourned for by a large number of 
relatives and the whole community — 
for Colonel Ketcham had made a 
friend of every person he knew as a 
neighbor or fellow citizen. 

At the large funeral which occurred 
on Februai-y 9, two days following 
Colonel Ketcham's death, a long and 
eloquent sermon was preached by the 
Rev. T. M. Honkins, extracts of which 
we are now able to quote as follows: 
"We stand today on that line which 
separates the most of us from that 
generation of hardy and noble men 
which first inhabited this land. A 
few of them still remain, and we can 
clasp their hands and look into their 
eyes; but so few as to lead us to ask, 
'The Fathers, where are they?' 

"Bom of revolutionary parents, 
drinking in the spirit of the fathers, 
he was launched on ti.' tccan of life 
to act well his part, and to leave a 

noble inheritance to his children, and 
children's children after him. 

Married Elizabeth Pearcy. 
"In 1802, he married Elizabeth 
Pearcy, who survived him to mourn 
his sudden departure. To them were 
given t\\elve children — six being born 
in the state of Kentucky, and six in 
the Territory and State of Indiana 
— to them w'ere also given forty-six 
grandchildren and fifteen great- 
grandchildren — making a family of 
seventv-five persons. 

"In the eventful year 1811, Mr. 
Ketcham moved with his family to 
Jackson County, Indiana Territory. 
That being the year in which the 
General Government instituted meas- 
ures for expelling the savages from 
the Territory, they ha\'ing< become 
dangerous to the whites. 

"Finding it impossible to maintain 
his family in safety, he returned to 
Kentucky. But. not being contented 
to remain there long, he returned to 
Jackson county, to participate in the 
difficult task of removing or sub- 
duing the hostile Indians who ob- 
structed the progress of civilization. 
Was Indian Scout. 
"Shortly after his return to Jack- 
son county, he and one of his neigh- 
bors were pursued by some savages 
— his companion was shot and in- 
stantly killed, while he barely escaped 
by means of the swiftness of his 
horse, after having received a severe 
wound in the shoulder. 

"After recovering from his wound, 
he enlisted for two years in the 
Ranger service, under command of 
Governor Harrison, and established a 
reputation as a successful scout, for 
which he was subsequently honored 
with the Colonelcy of a regiment of 
State Militia. 

"After the settlement of Indian 
difficulties, and the introduction of 
the Territory of Indiana into the Fed- 
eral Union "as a state, Mr. Ketcham, 
in the spring of 1818, removed with 
his family to the then County of Or- 
ange, in which the present County of 
Monroe was embraced; settling in the 
region occupied by the town of El- 
lettsville. In the" fall of that year, 
he removed to the place where he re- 
sided when death overtook his earth- 
ly efforts, and where his body is to 
be laid. 

Was Liberal and Prosperous. 
"Coming to the county when it was 
sparsely inhabited, and when the peo- 
ple were frequently reduced to grave 
straits, he had repeated opportuni- 
ties for ■ manifesting that noble gen- 
erosity for which he has always been 

"It is the testimony of a gentleman 
who had for many years assisted him 
in slaughtering his hogs, that not a 
year passed in which he did not set 
apart a liberal portion of the pork for 
some of his neighbors. 

"He was exceedingly kind to the 
early settlers who wished to enter 
and, especially In lending them 
money. On one occasion a total 
stranger came to Mr. Ketcham, and 
desired to borrow money to secure 
some land. The man was young and 
seemed quite embarrassed. Mr. Ket- 
cham listened to his story, and with- 
out answering the man's plea, showed 

Historic -Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


him to bed. But, after spending a 
sleepless night, the young man was 
relieved of his worries the next morn- 
ing, when his host gave him the 
money he had asked for. That man 
became an extensive land owner in 
Moni'oe county, and he said recently; 
'1 owe all I am worth to John 

Had Corn For Poor Onl" 

"During a season of great scarcity 
of corn, two farmers, only, had corn — 
Mr. Ketcham was one of them 
When a man came to him with money 
to buy corn, he sent him to the neigh- 
bor who sold. But, when a man came 
without money, Mr. Ketcham gave 
him corn and sent him away rejoicing. 

"Living on a public highway, at 
an early period, when hotels and inns 
were scarce, and when there were no 
railroads, and much ti'aveling on 
horseback and in wagons, it was his 
uniform habit never to refuse accom- 
modations to travelers, and never to 
receive any remuneration for his 
trouble. All this was done without 
parade or ostentation. 

"As a husband, he was affection- 
ate; as a father, indulgent and kind; 
as a neighbor, generous; and as a citi- 
zen, loyal and true. Having in addi- 
tion to these qualities a sound judg- 
ment and a clear understanding, it 
is to be supposed that he would be 
honored with positions of responsi- 
bility. For a number of years he was 
Associate Judge in this county, and 
was the people's choice as Represen- 
tative during two or three terms of 
the legislature. 

An Honorable Character. 

"Do you ask, whence this nobility 
of soul, and these desirable traits of 
character ? 

"Say not they are the endowments 
of nature. Had it not been for more 
than nature bestows, Mr. Ketcham 
might have died a miser. 

"Go back to the State of Maryland, 
and to that pious mother, who was a 
member of the Methodist church. Or 
go back to that pious school teacher 
in Kentucky, who opened his school 
with prayer, and whose prayers so 
impressed young Ketcham's mind as 
to lead him to seek a quiet retreat, 
where he poured out his soul to God, 
and where he supposed he experienced 
a change of heart, and you have the 
secret of his whole life." 

"For then he became influenced by 
a religion which is 'Pure and unde- 
filed before God, and the Father, 
which is this, to visit the fatherless 
and widows in their affliction, and to 
keep himself unspotted from the 
world.' " 

Much has been said concerning the 
bravery and honorable character of 
Monroe County's pioneer. Colonel 
John Ketcham, and not enough can 
be said in the narrow confines of 
these columns. But, when we go back 
to the historic parentage of this re- 
spected Indian fighter, we may see 
readily, where the foundation for this 
wonderful character was laid, in the 
days before the United States be- 
came a Constitutional Government — 

the Constitution having been adopted 
September 17, 1787. 

The father and mother of Colonel 
Ketcham were natives of Maryland, 
who emigrated to the wild west, and 
fought their battles with Indians in 
an endeavor to conquer the vast wild- 
erness, and rear their children accord- 
ing to what they thought were God";? 

Fortunately, at this time we are en- 
abled to give a little sketch from the 
life of Daniel Ketcham which is of 
much importance to people of Bloom- 
ington and Monroe county, as well as 
the whole State of Indiana. 

This sketch is taken from a sketch 
made by the Rev. T. M. Hopkins, who 
was the officiating minister at the 
funeral services in Bloomington, of 
Colonel Ketcham, in 186.5. 

Father Locates in Kentucky. 

In 1784, when John Ketcham was 
only two years of age, his father, 
Daniel Ketcham, emigrated, with his 
family, from Washington county, 
Maryland, in search of a place to 
start their home, afresh, away out 

They traveled overland, sometimes 
having to hugh the way through the 
brush, and then by boat down the 
rivers, to the Territory of Kentucky. 
They landed at Louisville in May of 
that year, finding that city composed 
of just one house — a "block house." 
They moved east about forty miles, 
and settled in a region wliich after- 
ward constituted Shelby county, Ken- 
tucky, and purchased land about six 
miles from Boone's Station. 

Three men were killed on his farm 
by Indians, and on' two occassions 
Ketcham had to seek protection at 
Boone's Station. Ultimately, in 1792, 
the father of John Ketcham was cap- 
tured by some Tawa Indians, who 
kept him through many months. This 
exciting episode is too rare to be, 
and we give tlie details briefly, as 
follows : 

Capture and Escape. 

He was pursued by the Indians one 
day, and his horse was shot from un- 
der him; he ran forty or fifty yards 
and was overtaken by one of the In- 
dians with a tomahawk in hand. He 
immediately surrendered, giving his 
hand to the captor, who took his 
overcoat and draned it about his own 
body and led Ketcham to the com- 
pany of Indians. The company of 
eleven Indians and the prisoner took 
un a line of march for the North. 
After many hardships the band 
crossed the Ohio river at Madison, 
Ind., the prisoner being compelled to 
carry a pack like a horse as long as 
his endurance held out. They camned 
on the Miami river a while and then 
nroceeded to near what i.s supposed to 
be the location of Detroit. 

Ill Treatment by Indian.s. 

It seems the exposure had 
cau.sed Daniel Ketcham to have a se- 
vere attack of rheumatism, which so 
crinnled him that he could scarcely 
trudge along with his captors. After 
hav^g been convinced that their un- 
fortunate captive was not feignins-, the Indians were disnosed 
to be a little more merciful, and did 

not compel him to carry any burdens. 

Ketcham soon recovered from his 
attack of rheumatism, but it was 
greatly to his interest to conceal the 
fact. Unfortunately, one day, while 
crossing a creek on a log, he forgot 
to limp. This being observed by one 
of the Indians, they burst into a 
hearty laugh, and from that time they 
loaded him down to the limit of his 

When the party reached their des- 
tination, which proved to be an In- 
dian village, one of the villagers, an 
old Indian man, fastened his eyes on 
the captive, advanced, offering his 
left hand with a very gracious smile; 
while with his right fist he gave 
Ketcham a vicious blow on the side 
of the head which felled him. When 
Ketcham recovered, a similar saluta- 
tion was given him, only more vi- 
cious. A French trader informed iiim 
that he was fortunate if his initiation 
was no worse. 

On a favorable day the whole com- 
munity assembled, and Ketcham 
found himself the center of attrac- 
tion. He was blackened all over, and 
given a mirror to look for the last 
time upon his poor mortal being. He 
was then securely tied to stakes and 
preparations made to burn him. 
Second Pocahontas Comes. 

Just as the fire brand was being 
applied, a daughter of the chief in 
costly attire, appeared bedecked with 
at least 500 silver broaches, and made 
a long speech, with rapid fire of ut- 

At the close of this speech, she ad- 
vanced to Daniel Ketcham, Pocahon- 
tas-like, and released him. Two wom- 
en, Honwonika and Quinmakoons, 
then took him to the river to wash 
the black off him and the white 
blood out of him, that they might 
adopt him in their family, as a re- 
spectable Indian. 

After this ceremony the two Indi- 
an damsels took Ketcham to their 
tent and introduced him to his 
"mama," who in the kindness of her 
heart offered him her hand, but she 
was so drunk she tumbled from her 
seat. He was compelled to carry 
wood for all the villagers, and only 
got the skim from their soup as food. 

Soon he realized that he could not 
exist long on this fare, so gathering 
a handful of corn and a small piece 
of squash, he departed from the vil- 
lage in the night. The Indians pur- 
sued hotly after the fugitive when 
daylight showed his absence. But, 
with the aid of French settlers, he 
was enabled to elude the Indians, and 
after many perils finally reached De- 
troit, where he hired to a French 
priest, who' paid him with an old 
beaver hat, a second-hand scarlet vest 
and §2 in money. With this liberal 
(?) financial aid, he succeeded in 
reaching his native land, Washington 
county, Maryland, and after resting 
he managed to finally reach his fam- 
ily in Kentucky. 

Strong Faith of Wife. 

As an instance of strong faith, it 
mav be recorded that his pious wife, 
the mother of Colonel John Ketcham, 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

never once despaired of her husband's 

When Daniel Ketcham was cap- 
tured, she insisted that the neighbors 
should not pursue, lest the Indians 
might tomahawk her husband, for she 
believed that God in His providence 
would bring him back to her. 

When the neighbors who had de- 
pended on Ketcham to stack their 
wheat, began, as harvest drew near, 
to ask what they would do, she would 
ever make answ^er, "Never mind, my 
stacker will be here." 

And, sure enough, that year, as 
formerlv, Daniel Ketcham stacked 
the wheat of his neighbors who had 
no bams. 

With such parentage, we can in a 
way understand how it was that John 
Ketcham could be possible, as the per- 
sonification of honor, energy, cour- 
age and resoluteness for that which 
he considered right. 




When Monroe county, and in fact, 
all of the territory of Indiana was in 
wilderness, and only the very neces- 
sary necessities of life were consider- 
ed luxuries, salt — that common ar- 
ticle — was considered one of the most 
important of things to be thought of 
by the pioneer settlers. 

If it is remembered that at that 
time salt was a scarce and costly 
article in the woods, made so by the 
great cost of transportation, the 
value of an excellent salt well will be 
readily understood. 

Salt At Door Is Asset. 

It is not necessary to inform old 
settlers of the commercial value of 
good salt works within from one to 

Summer or Wiultr, Sprmg or Autumn, Nature's Artistic Touch is to be Seen 
in Views Most Pleasing on Indiana University Campus. 

fifteen miles of their doors. And 
Bloomington, along with the sur- 
rounding community, felt rather well 
off when it was discovered that salt 
could be manufactured within the 
very limits of the county — at their 
very door. 

Salt Creek took its designation 
from the numerous salt springs along 
its course, which were discovered at 
a very early day, by the great resort 
made of them by wild deer, which 
came to them to drink. 

These springs became famous in 
times as "deer-licks" where, as long 
as the animals were found in abun- 
dance in Monroe county, they could 
be killed by the hunters. 

Some of the salty localities 
showed such evidence of strength in 
salt that it was resolved to evaporate 
the water — and thus began the busi- 
ness of manufacturing salt in Mon- 
roe county. 

Bored Salt Well in 1822. 

We find that as early as 1822 oi 

1 ^2-3, Henry Wampler, Thomas Lit- 

lal and several others bored a well 

n Section 12, Township 8 north, 

Vlange 1 east (now a part of Salt 

Creek township, Monroe county), and 

found an abundance of excellent 


These men erected "shanties", pro- 
cured several large iron kettles, and 
began the work of converting the 
salt water into salt. They received 
a wide patronage from the start, and 
soon increased their output by ad- 
ding more kettles and employing men 
to help refine the salt. 

The salt works were conducted for 
a number of years, and it is said by 
older settlers, more than 800 bushels 
of excellent salt was made in one 
year at this plant. Exact figures 
cannot be given at this late period, 
as most of the information has come 
through word of mouth and part 

Petition for Road. 
Travel by settlers to the salt works 
became so great — even from the 
start — that the owners and others 
(shown by old records) petitioned 
the county board in 1823 to construct 
a road from Bloomington, the county 
seat, to the salt works. The road 
was constructed as petitioned for. 

In later years other wells were 
sunk in the township, one being 
near the iron bridge which now 
crosses Salt Creek. This early manu- 
facture of salt was before the settle- 
' ment of the township, and in 1825 
the township received a separate ex- 
istence, and was named from the 
works which made the Salt Creek lo- 
cality famous in that day, and is 
now known as Salt Creek township. 
Although Salt Creek township, in 
Monroe county, has added considerable 
to the growth of the county life by 
its old salt works, the township can 
boast of no towns in the domain of 
its boundary lines. 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


Remarkable Letter Written From Bloomington to Friends 
in Chard, England, About 1833, by Prof. Pering 

lAddition to Historical Literature of Indiana and Monroe County Unheard of 
Until 1909 — Describes With Wonderful Detail Life, Manners and Customs 
in 1833— Half of Lines Written Over Other Half To Save Space. 

By stage and by boat to New Yoi'k, 
and then on the long slow journey 
across the Atlantic went this remark- 
able letter to "S. Eilwards, Esquire, 
Chard, Somerset, England," there to 
rest among musty papers for seventy- 
six years before its unexpected re- 
turn to the country and state, and 
even to the town from which it had 
been sent. 

The original copy is now in the 
possession of Alfred E. Pering of 
Bloomington, who has preserved it 
under glass. Mr. Pering is a grand- 
son of the author of the letter and 
feels rather proud of his ancestor's 
old letter, which gives us a picture 
of life in early Indiana as complete 
and as vivid as the most exacting his- 
torian would desire. 

The letter by Cornelius Pering, a 
cultured Englishman, who had just 
settled at Bloomington, Monroe coun- 
ty, Indiana, to become the principal 
of the Young Women's Seminary (In- 
diana College at that time accepted 
only men), was sent to an old friend 
at his former home in Chard, Eng- 
land, who had asked that he give his 
observations of the new country. 
LTnusual Recovery. 

In 190S, the English government 
sent John Alexander Gunn, of Chard 
over to Canada on business, and he 
took the opportunity to visit a rela- 
tive. Dr. Gunn, living in Springville. 

While the Englishman was at the 
home of Dr. Gunn, he met Mrs. Char- 
lotte Short, of Springville, and in 
their conversation she mentioned that 
her grandfather had come to this 
country from Chard. (Mrs. Short 
now lives in Bloomington.) 

This led to more talk, and Mr. Gunn 
promised upon his returned to Chard 
to send some papers that would be 
of interest to her. Several months 
later, Mrs. Short received a pack- 
age containing this valuable letter, 
written to "S. Edwards" by her 
grandfather, Prof. Cornelius Pering, 
and also a letter which her grand- 
mother had written at the same time 
to Mrs. Edwards. 

Several other descendants of Prof. 
Pering live in Bloomington and Mon- 
roe countv, besides Mrs. Short and 
Alfred E." Pering, Mrs. Ella Blewett 
and Clifton Pering the grandchildren. 

It has never been learned just how 
it was that this old letter was pre- 
served all these years, but we may 
well guess that the remarkable artis- 
tic value made the letter a treasure, or 

Wonderful Letter Writer. 

The letter, which was written on 
the thick, heavy paper use<l in that 
day, is yet well preserved. It was 
written in the peculiar criss-cross 
style adopted to economize space. Aft- 

er the page was filled one way it was 
tiu'ned and then filled again by writ- 
ing across the other lines. This was 
done on both sides of the sheet. Tlie 
sheet was then folded to form its 
own envelope, a space being left for 
the address. In this way Mr. Pering 
got several thousand words into his 
letter, all to be sent for 25 cents. But 
he did even more, for with rare ar- 
tistic skill he painted in a small space 
about two and one-half inches by 
three inches, in the center of one side 
of the sheet, eight pictures illustrat- 
ing places and scenes he had de- 
scribed. His color effects, especially 
in the Hudson and Ohio River scenes, 
remain remarkably good even yet. 
The other paintings, including the 
first buildings of the Indiana State 
University at Bloomington, the first 
Monroe County Court House, a typi- 
cal Hoosier grog shop of the early 
day, a "temperance" inn, typical 
farmhouse and a brick residence are 
all of exceptional historical value for 
their faithful portrayal of buildings 
preserved to this generation in no 
other way. 

Studied at Cambridge. 

Cornelius Pering, after studying at 
Cambridge and then pursuing his art 
education on the continent, found 
himself, in 1832, face to face with 
the problem of earning a livlihood, 
though yet with some money to in- 
vest. He turned toward the land of 
opportunity, whither others of his 
relatives had preceded him. It was 
a year later, after traveling slowly 
across from New York to Kentucky 
and visiting there, and then settling 
temporarily at Livonia, this state, 
that he decided to take charge 
of the "Monroe County Female 
Seminary," rather a preparatory 
institution to the "Indiana State 
College." His chief interest was in 
painting, but one could not live by 
painting alone in the rural commun- 
ity that Bloomington then was. He 
remained in Bloomington until 1846 or 
1847, when, his wife having died in 
1845, he left the home of sadness and 
went to Louisville to fulfill his long- 
cherished desire to establish a school 
of art. This he continued to teach un- 
til his death in 1881. His body was 
brought back to Bloomington for bur- 

Daqghter Continues W^ork. 

The art school which he established 
is still in existence, now being in 
charge of his daughter. Miss Cornelia 
Pering, who inherited all of her cul- 
tured father's rare artistic talents. 
She is still active with her brush, 
although 81 years of age, and is 
among the noted residents of Louis- 
ville, Ky., at the present time. 

Many of the observations made by 

Cornelius Pering in his letter were 
truly those of a man gifted with pro- 
phetic judgment. He had been in the 
Western wilderness but a year when 
he wrote, "I am convinced that it 
(America) will one day be the most 
powerful, the most prosperous and the 
most happy community in the world. 
Predicts Great Future. 

And again, he said of the State Uni- 
versity, which then had hardly a 
score of students: "It (the building) 
will remind you more of Mr. Rister's 
factory than the princely halls of Ox- 
ford and Cambridge, but I nave no 
doubt as good scholars will be turned 
out from that humble edifice as from 
the more celebrated seats of learning 
in England." Indiana was fortunate, 
indeed, in gaining a cultured citizen 
of such warm and generous sympa- 
thies to leave his impress at that for- 
mative period of its life. 

Readers of the letter will note that 
even at that early date Bloomington 
was afflicted with a hitchrack, al- 
though Dr. John N. Hurty had not yet 
arrived on the scene to make war- 
fare upon it. The price of beef, mut- 
ton and pork, 3 or 4 cents per pound, 
as stated in the letter, makes one sigh 
for the good old days of long ago. 

And there was a temperance wave 
sweeping things before it in Indiana 
in 1833, just as there is today. Refer- 
ring to the passing of the grog shop 
as he had first seen it in Bloomington, 
"with persons lying about outside, 
unable to stand or sit," the author 
says: "Temperance societies have ef- 
fected an astonishing (and as happy 
as surprising) revolution in public 
opinion. I can not detail a hundredth 
part of the beneficial effects pro- 
duced by the change in public senti- 

Mr. Pering's detailed explanation 
of the financial system in vogue in 
Indiana and the United States in 1833, 
methods of doing business and other 
comments on social and industrial 
conditions are remarkably complete 
and exact, considering that they were 
merely put into a letter for a friend. 
Wife Writes Letter. 

Very womanly is the letter written 
by Mrs. Pering to Mrs. Edwards, and 
filled with the information about so- 
cial and household affairs that would 
interest any woman. It is a delight- 
ful commentary on the social life of 
the period, and, though written by a 
woman who had led a far different 
life amid refined surroundings in Eng- 
land, it is warmly sympathetic and ap- 

"The inhabitants here are sociable; 
indeed, we have found them very 
friendly," she wrote. "A lady, one of 
our nearest neighbors, the day after 
we commenced housekeping, brought 
me a basket of cakes, preserves and 
custards. There is more visiting here 
than might be expected, and the so- 
ciety is genteel and respectable. Peo- 
ple, if they have a party when out 
of a girl, hire a free black woman, 
who goes out to wait on the company 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

at 12 1-2 cents the evening; if she 
goes early in the afternoon and as- 
sists in preparations she gets 25 

"The difficulty of getting and se- 
curing servants is, in my opinion, the 
greatest objection to coming to 
America with a young family. I have 
had a great deal of trouble on this 
account. They will only hire by the 
week. The first we had took umbrage 
at my asking her to go down in the 
town for three dozen eggs; said she 
had never been sent on an errand be- 
fore and left me at the expiration 
of a week. 

Light On Servant Problem. 
"Many of them require to sit down 
at the table and be treated in all re- 
spects- as one of the family. Seventy- 
five cents is the price per week here; 
but in the older states they get a 
dollar or a dollar and a quarter. I 
had four young women successively, 
neither of whom stayed longer than 
a week, and at intervals was out of 
one several days together. At last 
I could not get one grown at any 
price, but heard of a girl about four- 
teen years of age, who has been with 
us the last month, and whom I treat in 
every respect as I did my servants in 
England. She appears satisfied, and 
I hope will continue. The conse- 
quence is I have to assist a good deal 
myself, but as she is fond of and takes 
good care of the children I do not re- 
gard that particularly, as we have a 
cooking stove which Mr. Pering pur- 
chased at Louisville. 

"It cost $50, but I would not be 
without it for any money; it is such 
an abridgement of labor and has 
many belongings to it — saucepans, 
broilers, steamers and every con- 
venience. If I had had such a" one at 
■Chard we could have cooked with 
half the trouble. 

"I put out mv clothes to wash, for 
which I pay 37% cents per week. I 
furnish soap and starch, ari they are 
brought home ironed as well as I 
" could w'sh. I find it much more pleas- 
ant to have a young girl that will do 
as she is told, and put out my wash- 
ing, than to have a woman groviTi, 
who. thoueh she undertakes to wash 
for the familv. does in many resnects 
just as she pleases and acknowledges 
no master or mistress. 

Mentions Mrs. Wylie 
"Mrs. Wvlie. the wife of the presi- 
dent of the college, told me that in 
Pennsylvania, wh.^ie thpv livpd, thev 
had no difficultv in getting help and 
girls knew their places. 

"The reason they are so indepen- 
dent here seems to be that they are 
not obliged to live out; most of their 
parents own a lars-er or smaller por- 
tion of land, on which tli;>y can main- 
tain their familv. They subsist a 
good deal on Indian corn, of which 
the Americans are very fond. It 
costs very little and can be cooked 
in a variety of way,. The boys are 
emnloved out of :ioovs and the girls 
spin and weave the fa^iilv clothing." 
Cont'nuine her interesting revela- 
tion of Hoosier domestic affairs three- 
quarters of a century ago, Mrs. Per- 
ing wrote: 

"Our house, though not large, is 
convenient. A free black woman. 

whom I hired to wash it before we 
entered it, said she would not go 
down on her hands and knees to scrub 
a room for the richest person in the 
land. There are about a dozen free 
colored persons in this town; they 
have an expeditious mode of getting 
a chicken ready for cooking. The 
fowl is just dipped once or twice in 
water nearly boiling and the feathers 
come off as easily as possible, which 
they throw away, the best goose 
feathers bring but 28 cents per pound. 
"Tree sugar, which is made in this 
and neighboring places, is ^M cents, 
cane sugar 12 14 cents, loaf sugar 16 
cents, dried ham and bacon 6^4, cof- 
fee 20 cents here or 17 at Louisville 
by the quantity and 1 cent per pound 
carriage hither. People here, after 
having ground their coffee for use, 
mix the white of an egg with it, which 
refines it nicely. 

"The flies, which are the same sort 
as the common house fly in England, 
are an annoyance in warm weather, 
and make it necessary to keep every- 
thing covered. 

No Regret for Coming. 
"Should our health be continued to 
us I shall not regret coming to Ameri- 
ca.; there is not that anxiety about 
the future, either for ourselves or 
our families, as every one who is in- 
dustrious is sure to do well. People 
are very neighborly, and in sickness 
make it a point of duty to render 
each other all possible assistance. All 
classes live well. They do not take 
more than three regular meals. Break- 
fast at 6, dine at 12 and sup at 6. We 
have good cabinet makers here who 
make bedsteads and other furniture 
tastily. Wood is sold at 75 cents per 
cord in this place. A cord is a pile of 
wood eight feet long, four broad and 
four high. 

"Miss Pering was married the last 
day in February. I would give you 
the particulars of an American wed- 
ding, having witnessed the ceremony, 
but my paper will not allow." 

Surely it must have cost her a 
struggle to withhold that wedding ac- 
count, but postage was very expen- 
sive in that day, and she had filled 
the sheet of paper. 

The letter of Mr. Pering, while of 
unusual length, is so interesting as 
to merit reprinting it in full. To Al- 
fred H. Pering and Mrs. Ella Blew- 
ett of Bloomington we are indebted 
for their copying the original, a task 
of many hours, that it might be giv- 
en to the public in this manner. 

(These letters were subject for a 
feature artice published in the Indi- 
anapolis Star in 1909, just after their 
return to Bloomington.) 

Conditions In 1833. 

BloominEton. August 27, 1833 
Monroe County. 

U. S. North America. 
My dear Sir: 

You will consider nft ajjolopy requisite that 
your queries have not been answered at an 
earlier date, as it was understood, (extren- 
ous.) that some time must tirst elapse, that 
after mature deliberation I might be the 
more comnetent to give you satisfactory re- 
plies. First impressions are often deceitful 
and will not bear the test of a rigid examina- 
tion when there is no longer novelty to 
recommend them. I am happy however to 

inform you ot .ny ircreasing satisfaction 
with this our adopted country. 

The moro I see and know of its govern- 
ment, customs, manners and people, the more 
am I convinced that it will one day be. 'if 
it is not at present.) the most powerful, the 
most prosperous, and the most happy com- 
munity in the World. Some parts of it, it 
is true, particularly here in the West, look 
rude and uncivilized to those accustomed to 
the splendor of European cities : but if we 
do not see the magnificence, we look in vain 
for the sights of wretchedness, the squalid 
miserj' and perhaps destitution which every- 
where excite the commiserations of the sym- 
pathetic. This, in the full sense of the word. 
is a "young country" and those who are 
ignorant enough to expect that in little more 
than half a century, it is eciual in improve- 
ment to European countries, that have been 
for ages progressing to their present high 
state of cultivation, will be quickly unde- 
ceived. The inhabitants however have done 
more than the most sanguine could expect 
in that short space of time. 

Makes Comparison. 
Could a person have visited England a 
centui-y ago. and be now set down there, he 
would perceive little dilference in the face 
of the country. Most of the inland towns 
are I'retty much the same: the inhabitants 
it is true, wear somewhat different dress and 
the number and in"i\'ations ot the poor have 
fearfully increased with the Iu.\uries and 
comforts of the opulent. 

But in this country, the great and good La 
Fayette "le 'Citoyende den monaes." the com- 
panion and friend of Washington, could 
scarcely credit his senses on revisiting this 
country about eight or nine years ago. Roads 
were made: the country was opened, towns 
and cities had sprung up and the "desert was 
made to rejoice and blossom as the rose." 
Sixteen years ago. the spot on which I am 
now writing was Indian Hunting Ground and 
almost pathless Wilderness, an illimitable 
Forest : and now the frontier settlements are 
four hundred miles west of this place. 

It is about sixty years ago that Colonel 
Boone and his daughter were the first white 
persons on the banks of the Kentucky River. 
That state, now containing many handsome 
cities and towns, innumerable fine farms, 
extensive manufactories and beautiful country 

The country about Lexington is the finest 
and most fertile I have seen. The Honorable 
Henry Clay, the great American statesman, 
assured me that he saw no land in Europe 
at all equal to it. He resides at Ashland, 
a handsome country residence about a mile 
from that city. 

Tells of Industry. 

Canals and railroads are being made in 
every direction throughout this vast country, 
thus bringing the most distant parts into 
intimate relationship with each other. The 
employment of steam in navigation intro- 
duced a new era in this country. Formerly 
flat boats only were employed on the Ohio 
River, which were propelled by poles with 
incredible toil : and a journey, from Pitts- 
burg to New Orleans occupying three or four 
months, was a fearful undertaking. It is 
now an excursion of pleasure and the passage 
is made in sixteen or eighteen days. There 
are nearly five hundred gigantic steam boats 
continually g< ing up and down. I have .seen 
more than thirty at once at Louisville. Ken- 

The Ohio River is a noble stream and well 
deserves the appellation of French, "la belle 
riviere." The Indian name too O-hi-o is 
intended to convey pleasure and surjirise at 
the first sight of so magnificent a stream. 
Nearly all the rivers in this country continue 
to be called by their Indian names, which 
in their language arc signficant — thus, 
Missouri means muddy and it is a very tur- 
bulent stream : Mississiiipl, the mother of 
rivers, and so of the rest. 

The Ohio at Louisville is a mile wide, and 
a little below that city are the falls: a canal, 
about three miles in length enables steam- 
boats to avoid them. They are not very 
considerable when the river is at the lowest, 
not more than twenty feet, and when it is 
high they altogether disappear and boats run 
over them. 

Before I detail anything more of the ap- 
pearance and prospects of the country I must 
attend to your questions, lest I should not 
ha\-c sullicient space for the minuteness they 
require that you may the more easily and 
certainly understand the relative value of 

Our Circulative Medium. 
I will commence with our circulative 
medium, which are dollars and cents : one 
hundred of the latter, as the name implies, 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


makinp: one of the former. The dollar is 
worth 4-6 Enprlish, it is nearly as large as 
your 5 shilling piece, the cent is about as 
large as the English half-penny but worth 
rather more. We passed several English half- 
pence as cents but they would not take a 
penny for two cents. Four dollars and forty 
one cents are the worth of the English sov- 
ereign but the exchange varies. Money is 
as marketable a commodity as anything else, 
and at New York we got four dollars and 
seventy five cents per sovei'eign : sometimes 
it is more : (our people got .$4.85.) and at 
others it is difficult to get more than $4.50, 
that is about the average price the banks 
will give in the interior. 

There is a good deal of Spanish money in 
circulation and we have their silver coins 
of 50c. or half dollar. .25. I2V2. and 6^4 
which is somewhat smaller and thinner than 
the English 6 pence. Trades people con- 
tinue to sell their goods at Ihese prices and 
their combinations per yard, lb., etc., as there 
are few copjier cents, for change, to be met 
with in the West ; and if at any time there 
should be a few cents over or under they are 
not regarded ; as peop'o say "any one must 
be poor indeed to mind a few cents." 
French and Spanish Coin. 
The French Government are constantly 
sending out coin on decimal principles to do 
away with the Spanish money, and we have 
5 cent. 10 cent and 20 cent pieces, according 
to the following tab'e : 10 mills one cent, 
ten cents one dime, ten dimes one dollar, ten 
dnl'ars one eagle, which last is a gold coin. 

In this State we have principally silver and 
United States Notes, there being as yet no 
Bank in this State, but it is expected there 
will be one chartered the next Legislature, 
as the United States Notes will soon be with- 
drawn from circulation, in consequence of 
the President's veto on the bill for rechar- 
tering the Bank. The directors are allowed 
five years to wind up their accounts, two of 
which have already expired. This Bank has 
allowed nothing for deposits for a long while, 
but many gentlemen place their money in it 
for security. The Government funds have 
been deposited in it until very lately, but it 
gave no claim on the Government to the 
holders of sums of money placed in it, being 
only a private banking concern. It has always 
been a safe investment of money and has 
never stopped or discontinued payment. It is 
a collossal establishment, and like many other 
great corporate bodies, if pemiitted to exist 
and increase might exercise an unduly in- 
Huence in the community, inconsistent with 
republican institutions. 

Bank of England Influence. 
The Bank of England, during Pitt's admin- 
istration, it is said, was able to control the 
Government. There are branches in all the 
principal cities of the United States, and 
being the most secure, the notes obtained 
the preference, as they are current every- 
where at par. whereas the notes of the 
Banks, in the different States are only taken 
at a discount out of the States. Much of 
the stock, when the Bank was founded, was 
subscribed by foreign capitalists. Baring, 
Brothels & Co.. hold a considerable share 
and many others. This may have been neces- 
sary when there was not sufficient capital 
in this country to enable the people to place 
implicit confidence in the Bank without it : 
but it is now found that there are men of 
sufficient wealth, and therefore it is become 
a duty to withold the millions which are 
annually paid to foreign stockholders, when 
it would be more profitably employed for 
the country by the capitalists at home. The 
late Stephen Girard. (a Frenchman.) who 
died since I came to this country, came hither 
poor. At his death he was the most wealthy 
man in America and perhaps in the World. 
He has bequeathed 30 millions of dollars 
for the establishment of a College at Phila- 
delphia : the Girard College, beside numerous 
other bequests. 

Various are the conjectures respecting the 
profitable consequences of the annihilation of 
the United States Bank. Many suppose that 
it will depreciate property and render it com- 
paratively valueless from the scarcity of 
money : that it will give rise to numerous 
petty Banking Establishments, which will 
enjoy an ephemeral career and then sink 
into oblivion with the hopes of their sup- 
porters. Many such existed before the estab- 
lishment of the National Bank, which were 
begun in fraud, conducted in villany. and in 
an evil hour broke and withered the pros- 
pects of thousands. 

Money Scarce in Indiana- 
Money is scarce in this State, at present, 
but the people are looking forward to their 
State Bank which is to make it plenty 
enough. There has been a Bank chartered 

at Louisville, by the last Kentucky Legisla- 
ture, where previously existed only a branch 
of the United States ; it is likely to facilitate 
commerce and was, it is said, much needed. 

There are no Government Funds, as in 
England, as the National Debt is extinguished, 
and the revenue is to be reduced to the 
necessary expenses of the Government. These 
are not great, as the salary of the President 
is only 25 thousand dollars a year, and other 
oflicers considerably less ; in fact the whole 
expenses of the Fedei'al Government scarcely 
amount to the salary of one great man in 

Money is easily remitted and without any 
difficulty, thi'ough the Banks, by Checks as 
in England, and many of the store keepers, 
in most towns of the West go annually, or 
of tenor, to Philadelphia. New York and 
other Eastern cities to buy goods : who will 
take charge of any sums entrusted to them. 
Americans Intelligent. 

The Americans are great travelers, which 
is one reason they are so much more intelli- 
gent than the majority in England : they 
think no more of setting out on a journey 
of 12 or 14 hundred miles than a person in 
Chard would of going to London for a few 

Money may be remitted to this country, 
from England, with efiual facility, through 
a'most any Bank ; if I wanted a sum from 
England I should draw on some person, or 
Bank, there for the amount, take the draught 
to a Bank here, and as they are unactjualnted 
with me, and the parties in England, they, 
most likely, would not credit it until it has 
been sent to England and accepted. 

Banks in the interior of the country would 
send the Draught to some Banking House m 
the East, with whom they do business, who 
would send it to England as soon as re- 
ceived, and when returned, the money is paid. 
This supposes a single case, and that all par- 
ties are unknown to each other ; but in case 
of frequent intercourse the money would be 
paid when the Draught is presented. If it 
should not be duly honored by the persons on 
whom drawn, it is returned with costs. 

Banks in general transactions are consid- 
ered as safe as those in England, particularly 
in the state of New York, where there is a 
banking fund to prevent failures. Almost all 
of the New York notes are considered as 
good as the United States. 

Of private investments of money. Bonds 
and Mortgages are the best, interest payable 
annually, or semi-annually. 

The rate of lawful interest varies in differ- 
ent states. New York permits 8 per cent, 
Ohio 6 per cent, Kentucky 6 per cent, and this 
state, until the last legislature limited it to 
10 per cent, pennitted any sum agreed on 
between the parties. Money is universally 
considered an ai-ticte of trade, and evei-y one 
endeavors to make what profit he can on it. 

The highest interest any state will pei'mit 
can be obtained on mortgage, 7 per cent for 
a continuance is about the average given ; but 
persons borrowing money, for short spaces of 
time will give, 10, 12*4 and from that to 25 
or higher, but I should not like to lend to 
those who will offer very high interest as 
there is generally great risk. I have loaned 
no money at less than 10 per cent and have 
had more. 

How Law Was Avoided. 

The way the law is avoided, where it 
exists, is in this manner. Suppose a person 
wants to borrow J500 for a year, the state 
allows but 6 per cent, but you have no money 
to lend at that interest. He will then draw 
a Bill in this form,— "Twelve months after 
date, one or either of us. (if a security) 

promise to pay Mr. ■-— five hundred dollars 

in silver or gold with lawful interest of 6 
per -cent, etc.." — You charge the party, be- 
sides, say 10 per cent and deduct $50 and 
if you please the 6 per cent also — $;J0, — pay 
him $450, or $420, and take his note for 
S500. send the bill to the Bank, and when 
due the money is paid. In this way many 
realize immense sums annually ; but it re- 
(]uires some time to know the parties you 
have Lo deal with. 

My uncle of Paris, Kentucky, (Mr. Pyke.) 
who is said to be the richest man in the 
valley of the Mississippi, does a gx'eat deal 
of business in this way. 1 met him at Lex- 
ington on going in and he took me with 
him. in his gig, to Paris which is IS miles 
from Lexington. He told me afterwards 
that he made $300 the day he was at Lex- 
ington : the following day. as we were walk- 
ing out. a man accosted him in the street 
and they had a little private conversation ; 
it was on the same business and by him he 
made $80. 

A day or two afterwards he showed me a 
letter from his Agent at Lexington, enclosing 

a Bill for $1,650, drawn by some Gentleman 
between Frankfort and Lexington, for which 
they were willing to take $1,500. "all," as 
the Agent expressed it "the right sort of 
men," He has only to write a cheque on the 
Bank at Lexington, for the siim and send 
the BiU to the Bank, and they will col'ect 
when due. 

In loaning money on mortgaire it is ns'ial 
to get the property apprai^^ed. and I'ot to 
lend to the amount of m^re t^^^n half i^s 
real value. Should there be a f"i'"*'e f^f the 
mortgager the money is sa^e • f^e m"rtgagee 
has the Power of Sale easily affected. 
Avoid Fraud. 

To prevent fraud, any one w^^o m"'^"'a""^s 
his property is obligated to e^ite" it -^f *be 
Record Office in the county t'-^Ti in w' ^"^ it 
is situated : and no one neeH he d ■•-pd *^v 
a second or third mortgan-e. '' ^e will take 
the pains to consult the Fetrister. 

A good deal of property in t>-e fitv of 
Buffalo is mortgaged to a gen*'ot--ari in T-on- 
don, which I heard pays exreed'^e'y w'V 

Every species of property is s'-metir-'es 
mortgaged in this countrv. — ^o^'^ps c^ws, 
sheep, oxen and even househo'd f>ir"i '•■»•*>, in 
fact all personal as well as rea' property. 

Common debts are recnverpd. in d't*!""!! 
cases, by Magistrates, or by "m"!-'"" p p-m- 
plaint" to the "Squire of the D'st"i"t." as 
he is called, who issues a warrant f'^'- the 
Constable to sell on a summary Tir-cesi T^orc 
is a humane law, as it is c^n'^'dered. w'^'"h 
prevents a person from 'osincr a' I, in < -s'^e 
of distraint. The Constable is obM-^ed to 
leave the necessaries of 1i''e — one b^d for 
every two persons compri^^inir t^e fpmi'v. a"d 
various other things. I need not mention 
articles of luxury and S'iper''"ity. s-ch as 
looking-glasses, carpets, etc..^»-p n'-'sy first 
sold, and if they do nnt yi-^M s-'t^icient to 
satisfy the demand, then arti^'e-^ of cnm*'ort 
which can be most easi'y sna^-ed. T was 
told this by some gent 'er- en in t^e state of 
New York, I cannot s-^y whether t^e 'aw 
obtains in all the states, but I believe it 
does in this. 

Price of Land. 

The price of land varies e'e'^'w^erp prnnrd- 
ing to location and other causes as it does 
in other countries. In the so it hern stMtes 
it is from 20 to 100 dollars per acre. The 
soil of the Eastern states, it is said, was 
never half so rich as the Western, 'and the 
farther emigrants have yet penetrated they 
say the richer it is,) there being se'd'm 
more than 7 or 8 inches of soil, whi'e here 
it is dark, black, rich mould to the depth 
of several feet. 

The prairies, too, are rich, but the soil is 
shallow, and when dug a foot and a hali r 
so. they find a fine bed of sand, '['here is 
a large prairie about 30 miles ''rom hence, 
on which no tree or shnab can grow and lorks 
bare as far as the eye can I'each ; and tliere 
are several in this and the adjoi.u<ig st.-^te 
of Illinois. It is conjectured that the 
prairies are the beds of lakes whicli are 
now dried up. or that they liave been mere 
recently covered with water than other pj»rts. 

It is evident, from an examination of the 
counti-y. that Lake Ontario formerly occu- 
pied a much greater space than it now does ; 
and the same may be said of Lake Erie : as 
it has no natural confines of rock or mountain 
on it s shores, but the land seems to slope 
off" gently into an immense basin. 

Many persons, in the East especially, have 
imprudently continued raising Indian corn, 
wheat and other exhaustive crops, until the 
land is impoverished. It is said sowing it 
down in Clover seed, etc— mixed with Plas- 
ter of Paris, will restore and invigorate it, 
and enable the farmer to go on rai ;ing the 
same crojis for 18 or 20 years. I ;im told 
they are trying Plaster of Paris c.-ctensively 
in Pennsylvania, and it is found to prcd'ice 
the most beneficial results. But m ceneral, 
when a man finds his land unproduccive v,iih- 
out this manure he .oils out and g'-ea farther 

Emigration Westward. 

The emigration westward from the East- 
ern states is almost as great every year as 
from Europe. Last year, when we came 
in, we traveled with many g'^i^.r —^-iv: -d 
and it is thought another iState will so^n be 
added to the Union, for an appea* in., ilie 
territory has already been made lo Congress 
for admission. There will then bo 26 stales; 
double the number when Inderjendence was 

If the States go on increasing, in the next 
century as they have in the past, poriulacion 
will compare favorably with other countries. 
In 1776 there were but 3 millions: in 18.30, 
when the last census was taken, there was 
found to be more than 13 millions. This 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. ''Pop'* Hall 

State, from the last returns, was found to be 
settling faster than any other in the Union ; 
it contains over 348 thousand inhabitants, 
and is divided into 52 counties. 

Lands Increase in Value. 

Chippewa Indians, and other tribes, who 
lately held reser\'ations here and also in the 
more western part of the state, have sold 
out and are now removinjr west of the Mis- 
souri River. I have seen no Indians since 
we left the state of New York. 

Good farms, of 160 acres, may be bought 
here for about $1000, half cleared. Land may 
be boufrht. a few miles from here st 4 dollars 
per acre and from that to 15 :iiid '.'0. Ijands 
are easily let to tenants for a third of the 
produce, or its value. The rem-jiy for Etnt 
in Arrears is by distraint and -^aie of itoij- 
erty, much shorter work than in England ; 
24 hours or less, a lawyer told nio. Estates 
may be bought for about 7 or 8 year.s fur- 
chase of the yearly rent. 

Many ROod speculations are often nicde in 
land : from- the influx of emigr mts, it some- 
limes doubles in value in a vear or two. A 
Kentleman told me of some land offered to 
him not Ions ago for $800 that could not 
now be bought for $1600. 

There is generally very good sale for pro- 
duce of lands, parti -'ularly near navigable 
streams. Vast quantities of produce are sent 
down the White and Wabash rivers in this 
state, and much is sold in Louisville, and 
other places on the Ohio. When the "^Vabash 
and Erie Canal is completed a great deal 
will find its way to New York. 
Labor Situation. 

Many who farm their own lands, hire a 
hand or two for four or five months, paying 
$7 a month, or a third of the produce, find 
ing horses and ploughs and boarding th 
eropper, as such person is called. 

If the cropper boards himself and find 
horses and ploughs the fai-mer receives a 
third, giving the man employed two-thirds. 
Most, who can afford it. find it more profit- 
able to pay the cropper in money, keeping all 
the produce. In some parts I believe $10 
are given, but I do not know any who give 
more than $7. Sixty dollars a year are 
usually given to young men who hire them- 
selves out for that length of time : or $5 
a month. 

Ploughs may be bought at from 5 to 12 
dollars ; wagons 40 to 120 ; ox-carts 30 to 40 ; 
horses at about the same as in England but 
the breed is superior ; they are from $25 to 
$300. They take great pains in the breed 
of horses, and in some places also of cows 
and sheep. 

Good Stock Raised. 

Mr. Clay lately bought an imported bull, 
cow. calf and heifer for which he paid $900. 
The cow has yielded 16 lbs. of butter per 
week on an average. A General Scott, in 
Kentucky, has raised cows with mouths as 
small as a deer, that can drink out of a 

The heavy black horse used in England 
would not do for this country ; ox teams 
are universally used for hea\T loads. Cows 
are from $5 to $20. (I have bought a very 
good cow and calf for $10.) Sheep from 60 
cents to $2. Yoke of oxen $40 to "$100. 

The price of produce varies much in differ- 
ent places and according to the season : it is 
now very low here, in consequence of the 
abundant crops. There has not been such 
a plentiful season since the settlement of the 
state. Wheat ts genrally about a dollar per 
bushel. Apples 25 cents per bu. or Zl^ at 
Louisville. Oats generally 25 now 121.^ 
cents. Barley 37^,^. Indian com 50 cents 
per barrel of five bushels. Beans are 75, pota- 
toes 25, pears $1 and peaches 50cts. usually, 
but sometimes 37^/^. We have bought green 
jieas at the door this season at \2\i2 P^r peck. 
Market Quotations. 

Louisville has an excellent market for fish, 
flesh, fowl and all sorts of vegetables. Beef, 
mutton and pork are about 3 or 4 cts. per 
pound ; turkeys 25 cts.. and fowls $1 per 
dozen. Meat. here, is about 2 or 3 cts. per 
pound, and for fowls we have given but 75 
cts. per dozen, and but 6^,4 cts. per dozen 
for eggs. 

One of the farmer's most profitable employ- 
ments is rearing pigs, and this is done with 
the least possible trouble or inconvenience, 
as they live almost entirely in the woods 
three-fourths of their time. Towards winter 
they come to the house to be fed. when they 
can find no more acorns in the woods, and 
a few ears of Indian corn are thrown over 
the fence to them. Many farmers kill more 
than a hundred annually, the meat is well 
Baited and after reiraining in pickle a short 

time, is hung up in a "Smoke-house" with 
which every farmer is provided, and when 
properly cured, it is put in barrels and sold 
at $5 per hundredweight. 

Sun flowers are beginning to be much culti- 
vated, for the see<l ; which are excellent for 
food, when ground, for hogs, poultry, and 
horses ; also from which an excellent vege- 
table oil is extracted. They yield from SO 
to 100 bushels per acre. At Salem, in this 
state, a short time since, I saw a specimen 
brought into the Forsey's store by a man who 
had puzzled for months to construct a ma- 
chine for taking off the husk of the Sun- 
flower seed without breaking or injuring it. 
and he had succeeded to admiration. 

Clothing is dearer here than in England, 
but likely to be cheaper from modification of 
the Tariff and increasing manufactures. T spe 
by the paper that a manufactury of Cloth, 
latey established at Cincinnati, is turning out 
as good an article as any in Europe. 

Clothing High. 

Good Broad-cloth is about $6 dollar a yard. 
Shoes are $1^/^, boots $5. to $7 ; hats are 
dear, from '$5 to $7. Tailors get a great deal 
for making a dress suit. ( 7 dollars a coat.> 
I think that is. every where, a very good 
trade. House rent varies much in different 
towns: $150 is an averaije for a good house 
in a large place. Pittsburg, Louisvil'e, or 
Lexington. I am renting a comfortable house 
here for $40. with large garden, stable and 
field for cow. 

The taxes vary much in different states, 
they are considerably lower here than in Ohio, 
as that state is in debt yet for its canal. 

Ohio Stock may be bought which pays 6 
per cent. I was recomr-ended to buy Ohio 
sixes, at New York, but did not. It is a very 
safe investment for those who would like a 
certain annual income, as the state is pledged 
and the interest paid from the taxes and 
profits of the canal. The state is settling 
ver>* rapidly : there was much wealth brought 
into it last year, it is said, by foreign emi- 
grants amounting to many millions of dollars. 
The Ohio canal enables any one to travel 
from New York to New Orleans entirely by 

Land holders here pay a tax of one cent 
an acre, (a cent and a half for first rate 
land,) and there is a poll tax of 37^;^ cts. on 
all persons over 21 years of age : every horse 
over 3 years old 37^ cts., every yoke of oxen 
37^ cts. and the same on watches. 
Widows Not Taxed. 

The property of widows is not taxed and 
my Mother pays but $1.60 per year, for land, 
instead of the oppressive demands to which 
she was liable in England. These taxes are 
the revenue of the state Government ; no 
state paying any by the duties on imports 
and sale of public lands. I have received a 
variety of replies as to the relative advan- 
tages of purchasing land and living on the 
rents ; or vesting money on security and 
living on the interest. A gentleman in Ohio. 
(Col. Barker.) at whose house we slept one 
night, and he was an exceedingly intelligent 
and well informed man, and a practical far- 
mer ; assured me that there was not much 
profit in farming unless the owner attended 
to it personally. 

Others say it pays very well to hire and 
give $60 a year for a cropper ; and in the 
event of good crops and timing the market, 
no doubt considerable profit may be realized. 
It is most profitable to raise cattle, sheep, 
hogs and horses. I have seen droves of some 
hundreds cattle going East. Wool is now a 
good price : when carded it is 50 cts. per 
pound, and carding is usually done at 6^4 cts. 
per pound, or every 7. th' pound. That is 
the price here and I believe it is not higher 

As yet I have preferred loaning money, to 
purchasing, but it is possible I may purchase 
land when any thing advantageous offers. 
Describes Climate. 

The climate of the United States, from 
Maine to Florida is, of course, unfortunately 
varied : the Southern states produce every 
thing peculiar to tropical climates : snow is 
seldom seen and ice i s rarely formed on the 
rivers. In Georgia the inhabitants are able 
to make a breakfast of figs, which grow be- 
fore their windows, and even load their table 
with oranges, lemons and other exquisite 
fruits that grow in their own gardens and 

In the North the winters are long and 
severe. In this state we have not found it 
much unlike England : the last winter was 
milder than the generality of English win- 
ters and the summer, with the exception of a 
few days, has not been much warmer and 

many have said they have never known it so 
warm as it has been this season. 

We have had a great deal of, c'ear 
weather, without that humid moisture and fog 
so peculiar to the English atmosphere. It is 
irenerally favorable to European '_-onstitu:ions 
and we hear of fi-equent instances of iemi.rk- 
able longevity. 

It is said to be "unhealthy farther Wei^t" 
but that is a remark you may hear, go \»-hoi-e 
you will. When a country is first sett'ed up, 
cir o!>ened. it is said to be less fovorable 
and that the settlers are more subject to 
f e\er and ague, but it soon becomes sa !u- 

This place is considered the most healihy 
in the state ; which was the t ea.^on of the 
State College being located here. I have made 
you a little drawing 01 this edifice an. I a few 
other scenes which I thought would amuso 
and interest you. 

Describes Indiana College. 

The New College is the centre picture, 
which is not yet finished in the interior. I'^e 
building on the left is the one at present 
occupied. It will remind you more ol Mr. 
P'ster's factory than the princely halls of 
Oxford and Cambridtre. but I have no doub*. 
P. • "-ood scho'ars will be turned out from 
that ''umble edifice as from the more cele- 
brated s?ats of learning in England. 

The President and Professors are men of 
great talent and wou'd d^ honor to any Un'- 
versity in the wor'd. The President. (Dr. 
Wy''e.) is one of the most eminent scho'ar> 
in the United States : he occupies the cha'r 
of Moral Phi'os:;p!'yi. There are several younv 
men who will graduate this session. 

The students are from various states ; we 
have some from Loi-isiana, Tennesjee. Vi*-- 
ginia. Pennsylvania. Kentucky and Illinois, 
besides those of this srate. They board in 
the town at from a doilnr and a ciuarter to 
two d-^IIars per week. The admission fees 
are only $15 a year, which it is cxrected. 
wil' be soon altogether dispensed with, as the 
College is richly endowed by the State. 

The President's salary is $1000 a year and 
a third of the tuitioii tees : each of the Pro- 
fessors $800 and a third of the fees. 
Refers to Picture. 

You will observe that the land has been 
recently cleared, and that the stumps of the 
trees are not yet entii'ely rotten. Trees are 
always cut down with the axe a foot or two 
from the ground and the stumps left to rot. 
which they do in 8 or 10 years. Some per- 
sons in clearing merely cut away the low 
brush-wood, where it exists, and deaden the 
tree by cutting a circle 'round them, with the 
axe, 2 or 3 inches deep : in a year or two the 
trees are quite dead and the first high wind 
blows them down, when they are rolled into 
a pile and burnt. 

"The upper view is in the centre of this 
town, the middle building is the Court House, 
where all judicial business is transacted. On 
the left of it is the jail : on the right the 
Clerk's office and County Library. The white 
weather-boarded house on the right forms the 
angle of the street. A Court House exists 
in every County Town, and all that I have 
seen have been built in precisely the same 
manner. — a square brick building with three 
windows above and one on each side below : 
a cupalo and spire as high above the roof 
as that is from the ground. A parapet brick 
wall surrounds these buildings. 

Near the house, which is occupied as a 
store, is a rack, as it is called, to which i>er- 
sons coming in from the country, fasten their 
horses. You will see a log or two lying about 
the street, which is not unusual in a country 
town. Sixteen years ago, a gentleman told 
me, he could scarcely ride through Louisville 
for logs and mudholes, which was then an 
inconsiderable place : it has now fine. wide, 
paved streets ; shops as gay as any in Bristol : 
splendid hotels, public gardens, hackney 
coaches and cabs in abundance. 

On the left of the upper picture is a view 
on the Hudson, with the Catskill mountains 
in the distance and on the right bank a 
country seat, many of which are to be seen, 
continually peeping through the trees, in 
sailing from New York to Albany. 

The view on the right is a scene on the 
Ohio with its beautiful islands. You will 
observe that the land rises in ridges, or 
knobs they are called, and as yet completely 
covered with wood. There are deep ra\dnes 
between them and here and there a few cot- 
tages may be seen and a clearing going en : 
but as mosquitoes are sometimes troublesome 
on the banks, settlers prefer the interior of 
the country. 

Log House Shown. 

Below this view and on the right of that 
of the College, is a siieciraen of the poorest 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


Part of old letter, its writer and his descendants — Early 
scenes recalled- 

sort of a lop: houye. with mud plastering be- 
tween the lop:s, with clap-hoard roof and logs 
laid across to confine them. The cliimney 
is constructed of split jiieces of wood laid at 
rijirht angles and daubed inside and out with 
mud. Opposite the door is a sign, but the 
space was too small to print "Whiskey, Gin, 
Brandy and Rum For Sale." This is a Grog 
Shop, or "Doggery," where a man can get 
"drunk as a Chloe" for a twopence. It is of 
course disreputable and where no respectable 
man would be seen. Such places were neces- 
sary appendages ,to every village in the 
country not long ago and persons mi^rht be 
often seen lying about outside, unable to 
stand or sit, the objects of pity r.ixl com- 
passion, exciting the regret and disgust of 
the more temperate and reflecting part of 
the community. But Temperance Societies 
have effected astonishing, (and as happy as 
surprising.) revolution in public opinion. 
Thousands of confirmed drunkards bave been 
reclaimed and thousands have ceased to vend 
the intoxicating draught. 

On entering a tavern, however humble, 
the spirit decanters were always first put 
before the traveler, (and in this country 
every one makes for himself.) and all were 
accustomed to drink, in greater or less pro- 
portion, now they are never produced unless 
especially called for and many have alto- 
gether relinquished the traffic. 

I cannot detail a hundreth part of the 
beneficial effects produced by the change in 
jiubllc sentiment. 

Almost the first thing that struck me on 
landing in this country was the jirevalence of 
this vice amongst the lowest class and the 
rotlection involuntarily arose in my mind, that 
to have ardent spirits cheap is a curse to 
any nation. 

Shows "Temperance Inn." 
The view opposite this is a "Temperance 
Inn" in this place, situated a little way below 
it. It is too confined to admit the Sign Post, 
which is on the right of the little Acacia 
tree. It is a log house w'eather boarded. 

The view below it is a tidy log building and 
will give you an idea of three-fourths of the 
country farm houses in this state. Near it 
ought to be a small barn, or stable, and smoke 
house which I could not get in. You will 
see a smuU specimen of fence, most in use, 
at the sides and in front near the road. The 
chimney is of brick and always put up out- 

side. When the house is built the logs are 
cut away the size of the fire-place and the 
chimney constructed. 

The lower view is a residence of a Mr. 
Scott near Paris, Ky. It is a one story brick 
house and introduced principally to acquaint 
you with the antipathy many Americans have 
to rooms upstairs ; "it is so fatiguing to go 
up and down," they say, "and what is the 
use when there is plenty of space for rooms 
below." That house contains nearly as 
splendid a Drawing Room as I have ever 
seen ; it is tastefully and handsomely fur- 
nished. The back buildings are occupied by 
Negro tenants. 

There is a very marked difference between 
the manners of the Southern, or Slave-hold- 
ing states, and the Free states ; they are 
mox'e aristocratic. Their ancestors were 
chiefly English emigrants, a large portion of 
them belonging to the higher classes in Eng- 
land, who brought with them many of their 
native habits. These have been transmitted. 
and in ail the southern states, the planters 
resemble the English country gentlemen ; liv- 
ing in like manner on large Estates. 
Compares North and South. 

They have their race course, their jiacks 
of hounds, their deer chase and their fox- 
hunting with their same liberal and hospi- 
table habits towards those who become their 
guests. Depending upon Slaves to perform 
their labor, they differ from those who Ip.bor 
for themselves. Possessing large estates and 
abundant fortunes they differ from those, 
who living where wealth is much distributed, 
have each a little, and depend upon their 
ingenuity and industry to obtain -nore. 

I do not at all regret not bringing a farmer 
with me as I at first intended, as I should 
have found it exceedingly inconvenient, and 
perhaps made some hasty purchase without 
due reflection ; and being entirely ignorant of 
the advantages or inconveniences oi any par- 
ticular situation. 

I should not like the responsibility of advis- 
ing any one who is living in comfort in Eng- 
land to come to this country : a rood deal of 
his pleasure or disgust would depend en his 
habits and tastes, and his capabili'Jes of 
accommodating himself to circumstances that 
cannot be foreseen. 

Favors America. 

It was remarked by the late lohn Randolph, 
of Roanoke, Virginia, the late chai-g d'affnirt 

to the Court of Russia, that 'En;j:land is a 
Heaven for the Rich and a Hell for the 
Poor," and there is great truth in the obser- 
vation, but as far as I am acquainted I should 
say, that neither of these is the case in this 

Mrs. Trollope has told you that the reverse 
is true of this country, but she was writing 
for the support of a husband and eight 
children and shrewdly guessed what would 
be most likely to refund the dollars she last 
in mad speculation. She was a 'vonian of 
very loose and immoral character and was 
never admitted into good society at Cincinnati. 

She described only the manners, customs 
and speech of the lowest classes and repre- 
sented them as the best. She has made them 
speak much worse English than heard at 
third rate Hotels and confines her descrip- 
tions to persons who usually are to be found 
there, we cannot but wonder at any false 
impressions conveyed in her writinjjs. 
Awed By Wonders. 

As we came through we traveled down the 
Ohio with a Captain Stewart of the British 
Army, who was going across the country, 
hoping to see the Columbia River, (and the- 
Pacific Ocean.) He was exceedingly pleased 
with all he had seen and assured me he had 
never before traveled so far with as little 
inconvenience. He was a perfect gentleman 
in manners and conversation, and informed 
me that he. in all his travels: which included 
ihe greater part of England as well as much 
of Continental Europe he had visited, in com- 
pany with the Duke of St. Albans and others: 
he had never before seen anything that would 
equally excite the astonishment and awe pro- 
duced by the Niagara Falls, which he pro- 
nounced the grandest and most sublime sight 
in the world, especially when ^een in the 
moon-light, when, I am told by many English 
speaking people, they look especially beav.tiful. 

In my description of houses. I forgot to 
include frame houses, which are built by 
carpenters : they are put up in much the 
same way as private ones in England, only 
much stronger; the outside is afterwards 
weather-boarded and the inside plastered and 
stained or papered : the interior could not 
be known from brick or stone houses. 
People Salted Stock. 

In consequence of the great distance from 
the Sea. people are obliged to salt their stock 
as they call it : cows, horses, etc. will follow 
a person who has a handful of salt and will 
eat it, when given them as the greatest lux- 
ury. They require salting 2 or 3 times a 

People are accustomed to assist each other 
gratuitously, (on invitation.) at corn-husk- 
ing, log-rolling and house-raising. 

Newspapers in this country are abundant 
and cheap : one or more being published in 
almost every town, and all classes read them. 
We look generally, with most pleasure and 
interest at the "Latest from Europe." 

I shall feel much pleasure in receiving a 
letter from you, informing me of ail the poli- 
tical, local and personal news you can spare 
time to write. Be pleased to present best 
respects to Mr. Gunn and family and acquaint 
him with my address. It will gratify me 
much to hear from him. 

If the few observations I have been able 
to crowd together in this sheet, should in 
any way amuse and interest you I shall be 
pleased in having had an opportunity of re- 
turning the kindness of one whom we highly 
respect, and whose intercourse with us, while 
at Chard, is often remembered with pleasure 
and spoken of with satisfaction. 

Believe me ever yours most sincerely, with 
kind remembrances to Mrs. Edwards and our 
Chard acquaintances. 


P. S. I wrote to Wm. Treasure a few weeks 
since, hope the letter will be safely received. 
This place is about 38^/^ north latitude, and 
86 west longitude: 50 miles south of Indiana- 
polis and 80 north of the Ohio river ; nearly 
6000 nailes from you. 

Address On Same Sheet. 

(Bloomington, Indiana,) (Paid 25 Cents) 

(September 8.) 


S. Edwards Esq. 


Great Britain. 


Single Sheet. 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 





When Ninety-seven Years of Age, Old Pioneer Gave Realistic Account of 
Early Settlement and Organization of Monroe County — Served in State 
Legislature and Other Public Offices — Amusing Incidents Related. 

Among the early settlers of Mon- 
roe county was a man named James 
Parks, Sr., who settled with others in 
Richland township, in 1817 near what 
is now the site of Ellettsville, Ind. 

James Parks, Sr., then was about 
thirty-six years of age, and was con- 
sidered the leading man of the set- 
tlement. He lived to the remarkable 
age of 101 years, dying about 1882, 
having retained his energy with phe- 
nomenal constancy up to the very 
last years of his life. 

During his ninety-seventh year, 
Mr. Parks demonstrated his wonder- 
ful fertileness of mentality and 
strength of physic by writing a run- 
ning account of his life, which we 
herewith print and trust will prove 
interesting to the present genera- 

"I was bom in Wilkes county. North 
Carolina, near the Yadkin river, on 
the day of September 26, 1781. My 
grandfather, John Parks, moved from 
Virginia to this place before the Rev- 
olutionary war, but how long before, 
I do not know. My grandfather was 
of Irish decent, and my grandmother 
of Dutch. They reared to be men and 

women, fourteen children; seven boys 
and seven girls. 

My father, George Parks, was 
reared and married in the same set- 
tlement. My mother's maiden name 
was Milly Davis. They had six child- 
ren l)orn; all lived to have families 
except one. 

Left Neighborhood. 

"I lived in that neighborhood until 
I was fifteen years of age, when my 
father, with his family, moved to Burk 
county. North Carolina. I lived with 
my father until I was twenty-five 
years of age. 

"I married Nancy Moore November 
.30, 1826, and we settled and lived in 
Burk county for several years. We 
had ten children born to us, all of 
whom lived to become men and wom- 
en except two. 

"Nancy, my wife, died June 26, 
1828, and I married Frances Kend- 
rick, on August 27, 1830. By her I had 
one son born, James Parks, Jr. 

"Now, for some of the incidents of 
my early life. Commence ninety years 
ago, just after the close of the Revolu- 
tionary war: 

"I remember grandfather had a 

roan horse. He went for his horse 
one morning, only to find that it had 
been stolen. Great lamentations fol- 
lowed, but a few mornings afterward 
the old horse stood at the gate weU- 
rigged out with new saddle and bridle 
— all complete. 

Recites Incidents 90 Years Back. 

"When grandfather's property was 
sold, after his death, a family of his 
slaves were exposed to sale, which, 
by his will, were not to be sold out- 
side of the family. That was con- 
sidered humane in those days. Father 
bought a boy named Moses, and he and 
I were reared together. 

"The people of those days were 
thrown upon their own resources. No 
labor-saving machinery. All came out 
of the ground — both eating and wear- 

"Men would raise cotton and flax 
and the women would card, spin and 
weave clothing for themselves and 

"They had dresses of different 
colors and stripes. They got the 
colors from indigo of their o^vn rais- 
ing, copperas and various kinds of 

Gave Steer For Piece of Calico. 

"The first calico dress I ever saw, 
father purchased for my sister, who 
was then about sixteen years of age. 
He gave a three-year-old steer for 
six yards, which completed the dress. 
I suppose if ladies nowadays (he was 
writing about 1878 when dresses were 
rather full), were confined to six 
yards for a dress, they should think 
it rather tight. 

" "Education was quite limited. Our 
school house was made of round logs, 
with a dirt floor. Split logs with legs 

Monroe County's Magnificent modern Court House, construct ed of native stone, as it appeared in 1922. 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


put in served for seats. Large cracks 
were left to admit the light. 

"Our books consisted of, first, a 
primer, then Dike's spelling book, 
then Dilworth's, then Webster's first 
edition, completed one list of spelling 

"Our first i-eader was called a 
'Psalter,' some old English concern, 
then the Testament and Bible. These 
completed our reading books. No 
grammer, geography, nor history was 
in use that I ever heard of till my 
education was completed. I learned 
to cipher as far as the rule of three, 
and some in fractions; could write a 
tolerable hand, and was considered a 
fair scholar for those days. Our 
school house was also used for a 

Girls "Put On Style." 

"When young people walked to 
meeting together, the girls would tie 
their shoes and stockings in their 
handkerchiefs, and carry them on 
their arm until within sight of the 
church, when they would put them on, 
and so march up in style. We boys 
were spared that trouble, from the 
fact that we had none. 

"The girls' dress in winter was of 
woolen goods called 'linsey'; in sum- 
mer, cotton stripe. Boys' dress for 
winter was buckskin breeches and 
shoes — no boots. The custom was for 
almost every farmer to tan his own 
leather and make shoes for himself 
and family. 

"Our diet was hog and hominy for 
breakfast, vegetables for dinner, and 
a hearth full of roasted sweet pota- 
toes for supper. Sugar and coffee for 
only special occasions. Fruit was 
abundant. Peach brandy and honey 
were tolerably plenty; whiskey scarce. 
There were very few drunkards. No 
doctors or lawyers. I never saw either, 
that I know of, until I was fifteen 
years old. 

Emigrate After War of 1812. 

"Soon after the war of 1812, when 
things had somewhat settled, my 
father and family, with enough others 
to make a right smart colony, con- 
cluded to emigrate to some new coun- 

"The Territory of Indiana was the 
place chosen, and we landed in Law- 
rence county, on the east fork of 
White river, October, 1815. The land 
was not yet in the market, but was 
surveyed off, ready to be sold. We 
chose our lots, and settled on them, 
built our cabins, and cleared a con- 
siderable amount of land. As the 
sale was to come off the next season, 
at Jeffersonville, a dozen or more of 
us went down. 

"The land was to be sold to the 
highest bidder. When the sale took 
place, a man by the name of Buslitt 
had a longer pole than ours, and 
'knocked the persimmons,' sweeping 
the entire settlement. Not the first 
man saved his land or improvements. 

"So, we marched home, feeling as 
if we had lost a friend. I had about 
eight acres cleared, surrounded by a 
good fence. 

"The part of the territory where we 
now live did not come into market 
until the next season, so we concluded 

to make another trial. We moved 
again and selected our lots. 

(Editor's Note — This selection was 
in the present Richland township, near 
Ellettsville, as described above.) 
Purchases For Entire Colony. 

"The next sale took place at Vin- 
cennes in October, 1816. By this time 
we became somewhat acquainted with 
fever and ague. 1 was the only one 
able to attend the sale, and I took the 
chills while there.. 

"I purchased for nearly the entire 
colony — about a dozen lots in all. 
After the sale, we went that winter 
and built cabins on our lots, and 
cleared some ground. I got in about 
six acres of fine corn, which was our 
sole dependence for the year. 

"But lo! In October there came a 
frost which bit the last ear (so with 
the whole settlement). Then we were 
in a fix! We had no mills to grind 
our corn, so we were compelled to 
pound it into meal. 

"There was one hand mill in the 
settlement. But the corn was so soft 
it would neither beat nor grind, until 
it was kiln-dried. 

"I made a scaffold up in the chim- 
ney and dried mine; then I had my 
choice, to go a mile to the hand mill, 
or to pound it. 

"Many a time I have worked hard 
all day, and at night taken one-half 
bushel" of corn to the hand mill and 
ground it. 

"I had myself, wife and five child- 
ren to feed. That would be thought of 
as pretty hard, these times. Never- 
theless, we never suffered from 
hunger. I was considered a good shot. 
In a few hours I could bring in ven- 
ison or turkey. We also had plenty 
of milk and butter. So, we passed the 
season safely. 

Indians Were Plentiful. 

"When we first moved here, Dela- 
ware and Pottawattomie Indians were 
plentiful. They had a trading house 
within a half-mile of where I now live. 
They were quite friendly, and often 
would come with their squaws and 
papooses to stay all night with us. 

"When we got our ground ready 
for rolling, we would invite our neigh- 
bors to the frolic. Choosing our cap- 
tains, they would in turn choose their 
hands, and at it we would go. If 
ever you saw logs come together, it 
was about that time. 

"Before we commenced work we 
had to take a little 'critter'! It is 
not worth while to say we did not feel 
the drink, for that was what we drank 
it for. We had none who might be 
called drunkards, but such a gather- 
ing- nowadays might all be counted as 

"Such was the custom of the coun- 
try at that time. Oh, what a thing 
custom is when rightly considered, 
whether good or bad. 

"The year after we moved to the 
Territory, delegates were elected for 
the purpose of forming a state con- 
stitution. Counties were then laid off 
and established. 

"Before Monroe county was or- 
ganized, an election was ordered to 
choose three commissioners, a clerk 
and a sheriff. B. Woodward, Michael 

Buskirk and myself (James Parks, 
Sr.) were elected commissioners. 
Organized Monroe County. 

"We proceeded to organize the coun- 
ty. We purchased a half-section of 
land.where the court house now stands 
(in Bloomington). We laid off the 
public square, and had a court house 
and jail built thereon. 

"Lots were surveyed and sold, 
bringing a considerable revenue. We 
were now ready to hold court, and the 
county machinery was ready for 

"It now became necessary to have 
a school commissioner. I offered my 
services, and was elected. 

"In order to put the school in opera- 
tion, it became my duty to sell all the 
sixteen sections to the highest bidder. 
By this means, a large fund was 
raised and the school placed on a firm 
basis. (I have to make long strides 
on account of my records being burned 

"In the year 18.32, I offered for the 
legislature (lower house), and was 
elected. I served my time at $2 a 
day, and boarded myself. Finding 
that there was not much money in 
such warfare, and perhaps less credit, 
I would not offer any more. 

"Some years afterward, I was again 
elected school commissioner for the 
county. At the expiration of my term 
of office, I retired from public life — 
I never was beaten for any office I 
offered for. 

Voted For Thomas Jefferson. 

"The first president I ever voted 
for was Thomas Jefferson for his sec- 
ond term of office. I have been a 
straightforward Democrat ever since 
— voted for all the candidates for of- 
fice, except Greeley. I thought the 
Democrats got off the track there, and 
I would not follow them. 

"I have lived on the farm where I 
now live for sixty-two years. I have 
been the ancestor of eleven children, 
fifty-six grandchildren, eighty great- 
grandchildren, and five great-great- 
grandchildren, thus being at this time, 
the representative of five generations. 

"I joined the Baptist church in 
North Carolina about the yea'- 1807. 
I was one of the charter members of 
Old Vernal Church, the first congre- 
gation organized in the County of 
Monroe, and was deacon of the church 
for quite a number of years. 

"I have endeavored to live peaceably 
with all men, and to live in accordance 
with the will of my Heavenly Master, 
to the best of my knowledge. 

"I have fought the good fight, have 
almost run my race, and am now pa- 
tiently waiting for the good Lord to 
call me home, where there is a heaven- 
ly mansion prepared for me not made 
with hands, eternal in the heavens. 


We have carefully compared the 
above writing with notes of history, 
and old records, and by casual inquiry 
have verified the statements Mr. 
Parks made in his remarkable sketch 
of his own life events. 

Was Wonderful Man. 

When we consider the fact that 
this sketch was made by a man who 
has lived far beyond the age when 
most men have vitality enough to re- 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

count in verbal conversation sketches 
of early events, we must give James 
Parks credit for being of wonderful 
vitality to have produced this clear, 
understandable historic sketch. We 
trust that future generations in Mon- 
roe county's bounds may appreciate 
the fortitude of the sturdy pioneer in 
giving to us this rare morsel of true 
literature, writen in such interesting 
manner, with due regard to details, 
without becoming dry or monotonous. 
Mr. Parks lived until 1882, four years 
after he had written the above sketch, 
and died at the age cf 101 years. 

We find that he touched upon only 
those points in his career which he 
deemed important to later genera- 
tions. Many other interesting things 
are told by neighbors, about Mr. 

Parks, as the following little epi- 
sode, which is quite amusing: 

One morning, very early, James 
Parks, Sr., was aroused from sleep 
before the usual time by a peculiar 
noise on the door step. Getting up 
as quietly as possible, Mr. Parks 
walked to'a window which commanded 
a view of the door step. 

When he looked out, much to his 
astonishment and with some alarm, he 
saw a big black bear lying there 

The settler got his rifle, and taking 
cautious aim at a vital part of the 
animal's anatomy, pulled the trig- 
ger. The sharp i-eport was followed 
by the death growls of Bruin, and in 
a few moments all was still; the bear 
was dead — the family ate bearsteak 
for breakfast. 




History of Municipal Affairs of Present City Show Signs of Turmoil in Early 
Days — Progress of Citizenship Reflected in Official Business Administra- 
tions — Became a City in 1866. 

It is believed by many people who 
have never taken the trouble to in- 
vestigate further than a mere guess, 
that since Bloomington was laid out 
as the county seat of Monroe county 
at the time of the organization of the 
county, that it was an incorporated 
town from that date. 

Upon investigation, it will be found 
that as early as March, 1827, the citi- 
zens of the town of Bloomington, pur- 
suant to notice, gathered at the court 
house, in order to ascertain at the 
polls whether the county seat of Mon- 
roe county, Indiana should become the 
incorporated town of Bloomington. 
Incorporation Proposed. 

At this meeting, Ellis Stone was 
chosen as president (chairman) of the 
meeting, and Benjamin V. Peele was 
chosen as secretary. 

It was decided, on motion, to put 
the question to test by a viva voice 
vote, and resulted as follows: 

When the question was put, and 
the results counted, the secretary re- 
ported that a majority of 15 voiced a 
desire to have the town incorporated, 
as there were 18 votes for incorpora- 
tion and only 3 votes against the 

An election of the necessary num- 
ber of trustees was ordered for the 
purpose, to be held on the following 
September 8, 1828, and was held with 
the subjoined result, as shown by the 
returns of the board of election: 

"At an election held in the town of 
Bloomington on the 8th day of Sep- 
tember, 1828, to elect Trustees for 
the incoi'poration of the town, agi-ee- 
ably to the act of the Genei'al As- 
sembly, we hereby certify that the 
following persons were duly elected: 
Joshua O. Howe, William Alexander, 
Asher Labertew, Robinson Graham 
and James Evans. Given under our 

hand and seals this 17th day of Sep- 
tember, 1828. 

"Truely and duely done. 

"JACOB B. LOWE, Clerk. 


"JAMES EVANS, Judges." 

Special Charter Granted. 

It is evident that the municipal gov- 
ernment project was allowed to die 
out, after the above mentioned pro- 
ceedings, as we are not able to find 
any record of further action until late 
in "the decade of the forties. 

The incorporation project was evi- 
dently revived late in the forties, as 
we find the proceedings of the legis- 
lature shows the following: 

"Section . Be it enacted by the 
General Assembly of the State of In- 
diana, That such part of the town- 
ship of Bloomington, in the County ot 
Monroe as is included within the fol- 
lowing limits and boundaries, that is 
to say, beginning at the northeast 
corner of Outlot No. 21, thence west 
to the northwest corner of Outlot 39, 
thence south of the southwest corner 
of Outlot 8, thence west to the north- 
west corner of Outlot No. 41, thence 
south to the southwest corner of irac- 
tional Lot No. 2G, thence east to the 
northeast corner of Outlot 35, thence 
south to the southwest comer of frac- 
tional Lot. No. 9, thence east to the 
southeast corner of University Square, 
thence north to the southwest corner 
of Outlot No. 72, thence east to the 
southeast corner of Outlot 75, thence 
to the northeast corner of Outlot 21, 
the place of beginning, including all 
the inlots and outlots of said town, be 
and the same is hereby erected into 
a town corporate which shall hence- 
forth be known and designated by the 
name of the town of Bloomington, sub- 
ject, however, to such repeal, altera- 

tion and regulation as the Legislature 
may from time to time prescribe." 
Provides For Officers. 
Section 2 of this enactment pro- 
vided for the election of a Mayor, a 
recorder and five trustees, who should 
constitute a body corporate with per- 
petual succession, and to be known as 
the Common Council of Bloomington. 
Section 3 provided for the annual 
election of town officers. Section 4 
provided for the administration of jus- 
tice within the corporate limits. Sec- 
tion 5 provided for meetings of the 
Council, specified what should consti- 
tute a quorum, and regulated the pas- 
sage or adoption of town ordinances. 
Subsequent sections regulated the mu- 
nicipal government. 

This act was approved by the Gov- 
ernor of the State of Indiana, on Jan- 
uary 13, 1845. 

Records show that by an act ap- 
proved January 16, 1849, the above act 
was amended so as to regulate the 
working of streets, and another 
amendment approved on Febi-uary 12, 
1851, the corporate limits were 
changed as follows: 

Territory Added. 
"Said town corporate shall include 
the southeast quarter of Section 32, 
in Township 9 north. Range 1 west, 
and the southwest quarter of Section 
33, Township 9 north. Range 1 west, 
and the following: Beginning at the 
southwest corner of Seminary Outlot 
No. 60, thence with and including the 
street to the southeast coi-ner of Sem- 
inary Outlot No. 76, thence north with 
and including the street to the south- 
east corner of said quarter section 
secondly above mentioned." 

The same act also provided that 
eleven Trustees should be elected in- 
stead of but five, and the name be- 
came "The Council of Bloomington." 
A number of changes were made, also 
in the administration of justice with- 
in the corporate town of Bloomington. 
The citizens of Bloomington met in 
the courthouse in March, 1847, in pur- 
suance of the Act of 1845, and pro- 
ceeded to ballot for Mayor, Recordc-, 
Marshal, Treasurer and five Council- 

John Lawrence Mayor 
Wlien the votes were counted, it ap- 
peared that John Lawrence was elect- 
ed Mayor; Robert Acuff, Recorder; A. 
Labertew, Treasurer; D. B. Judah, 
Marshal, and W. H. Smith, Samuel 
Kirk, J. M. Howe, John Gi'aham and 
Joseph McPheeters, Councilmen for 
the incorporate town of Bloomington. 
First Meeting of Council. 
On the date of March 6, 1847, the 
first meeting of the Town Council was 
held in the recoi'der's office. 

The first act was to appoint a com- 
mittee to draft such ordinances as 
wci-e deemed necessary by the com- 
mittee for the town's government, 
which were to be presented to the full 
Council for adoption or rejection. 

Orders were then given for procur- 
ing the necessary record books, and 
the Council adjourned. 

The Council evidently got dowTi to 
business in a hury at its second meet- 
ing, as the records show that Samuel 
Moore was given pei'mission to occupy 
a portion of the street for his brick 

Historic Treasures, Compiled btj Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


shed, and David B. Judah was appoint- 
ed Street Supervisor or Commissioner. 

The Council then proceeded to adopt 
sixteen oi'dinances for the municipal 
government of the town. Ordinance 
13 was rather peculiar and attracts 
attention now, not for its importance, 
but rather for its sly way of getting 
around the "Dog Proposition" in the 
town, which follows: 

Dog Ordinance. 

"13th. No person shall be allowed 
to keep a dog within the limits of the 
corporation. Any person violating 
this ordinance shall be fined 50 cents 
for each dog so kept, provided that 
no person shall be fined more than 
once during the same year for the 
same dog." 

We can readily see that the ordin- 
ance was merely an annual city tax 
of 50 cents on each dog in the 
town, but in no way gave any protec- 
tion to the owTier of the dog, as the 
ordinance made it a misdemeanor to 
keep a dog within the corporate 
bounds of Bloomington. 

But is seems that the dog owners 
saw the "Joker" in the dog tax ordi- 
nance, for, at the August meeting of 
the council a petition signed by 103 
citizens of Bloomington was present- 
ed to the Council, praying that 
above ordinance be repealed. 

The Council proceeded to hear ar- 
guments for and against the repeal 
of the ordinance, and the petitioners 
were finally victorious, for the ordi- 
nance was finally repealed after much 

The ship of town government seems 
to have had some stormy weather to 
face along at this time, as the records 
show that at the next meeting of the 
Council the Mayor tendered his resig- 
nation, which was laid upon the table 
until the next day, and was then re- 

After some promises, it seems that 
the Mayor was persuaded that the 
assurances of support of the Council 
were sincere, and His Honor with- 
drew the document and the skies were 
once more clear and bright. 

At the same meeting Samuel M. 
Orchard was granted permission to 
erect hay scales on Market street. 

Considerable time was spent in re- 
vising and amending the town charter, 
which was then turned over to the 
Representative in the State Legis- 
lature from Monroe county, to be 
passed at the next session. 

Tax 10 Cent on $100. 

In January, 1848, a tax of 10 cents 
on each $100 worth of taxable prop- 
erty was levied for town purposes. 
In February, 1848, the following res- 
olution was passed: 

"Resolved, That Hon. William Berry 
is entitled to the than Us of this Coun- 
cil for his promptness and energy in 
securing the passage of a new charter 
in the State Senate, which was all 
that this board asked or desired on 
his part, and that a copy of this res- 
olution be handed to him." 

Just what were the changes in the 
Charter that were made at this time 
can not be stated, but following this, 
the records show that James S. Hes- 
ter was appointed Town Attorney. 

Mr. Smith resigned as Councilman, 
and Dr. R. C. JIamill was appointed 

as successor to finish the unexpired 
term of Mr. Smith. 

At the election held in 1848, David 
H. Maxwell was elected Mayor of 
Bloomington; J. G. McPheeters, Re- 
corder; D. B. Judah, Marshal; Asher 
Labertew, Treasurer; Joseph M. Howe 
Elias Able, Henery Tanner, William 
Owen and Alfred Mercer, Councilmen. 
Liquor licenses was fixed at $25. 
In May and June, 1848 active work 
was done in improving and grading 
the town streets and sidewalks. 

In 1851, a resolution was presented 
in the Council meeting for the purpose 
of increasing the tax on retail liquor 
dealers with a town license of $500, 
additional to any county, state or gov- 
ernment tax. 

After much discussion and a num- 
ber of warm speeches on both sides, 
the resolution was adopted by the 

Cholera Visits Town. 
Cholera swept this part of Indiana 
in 1851, and Bloomington did not es- 
cape, quite a number of her citizens 
dying from the dreaded disease. 

So dangerous became conditions 
from the epidemic that the State Uni- 
versity closed down and the students 
were sent home. 

The Town Council purchased 200 
bushels of fresh lime, which was scat- 
tered throughout the town. 

It was also decreed by the Council 
that all saloons be closed until the 
scourge was safely passed. This was 
indeed a wise move, as it was at this 
time (1851-52) that the new railroad 
— the New Albany & Salem Railroad 
was being graded and construction 
work going on in the town of Bloom- 
ington, and great gangs of men were 
employed here. 

It was found that some of the 
town's streets would of necessity have 
to be changed in order to facilitate 
the entrance of the railroad through 
the town. 

In several years following much ex- 
pensive work was done upon the 
streets of the town — so much so that 
a strong sentiment was finally en,,en- 
dered against the continuation of town 
affairs under control of the munici- 
pal govei-nment plan. 

Election Held To Determine. 
This growing sentiment of opposi- 
tion led to an opening of the polls in 
January, 1858, to determine whether 
the corporation should be disolved. 
The voters indicated their desire by 
casting 115 ballots with "Yes" on 
them, and 101 had the word "No" on, 
giving a majority of fourteen votes 
in favor of dissolution. The munici- 
pal government was then dissolved. 

The following is a clipping from 
the Bloomington Republican, issued 
in August, 1858, which gives a peep 
further into town affairs at that time: 
"Corporation Meeting — Pursuant to 
public notice, a meeting of the voters 
of the town of Bloomington was held 
at the court house in said town on 
Monday evening, the 2d of August, 
1858, for the purpose of disposing of 
the property, money, and effects be- 
longing to the late corporation of said 
town, which corporation has been 
abolished by a vote of the legal voters 
of the same, 

"The meeting was organized by 

calling Samuel H. Buskirk to the 
Chair, and apnointing Milton McPhet- 
ridge. Secretary. The object of the 
meeting was then stated by the Chair. 

"Robert C. Foster, President of the 
Board of Trustees of said town, sub- 
mitted the following statement of 
property, money and effects of said 
corporation, and libilities of the same, 

"There is due said corporation as 

In Treasurer Sluss's hand-.$ 26.00 
In Marhal High's hands 

(Citizens Bank) 133.00 

In hands of Lemuel Gentry 830.00 
Taxes unpaid for 1855 and 

1856 1,679.50 

Takes unpaid for 1857 160.00 

Due from James W. Throop 

for fines 4.00 

Total $2,833.04 

Resolution To Dismiss Suit. 

"Robert C. Foster offered the fol- 
lowing resoultion, viz: 

"Resolved, That the corporation suit 
now pending in the Supreme Court of 
the State of Indiana, be dismissed, the 
appellants paying all the costs that 
have accrued in the Common Pleas 
Court, Circuit Court and Supreme 

"Resolved, That the funds in the 
hands and now due from Lemuel Gen- 
try, Treasurer of Monroe County, and 
paid in on the taxes of 1855 and 1856, 
be distributed to each of the persons 
who have paid the same, in propor- 
tion to the amount paid. 

"Resolved, That a committee of two 
be appointed by the President of this 
meeting to make such distribution, 
and when so distributed issue certifi- 
cates to the persons entitled thereto; 

"Dr. William C. Foster moved to 
strike out the first resolution and in- 
sert the following: 

"Resolved, That a committee of two 
be appointed to prosecute the suit in 
the Supreme Court, and to collect the 
delinquent taxes of 1855 and 1856; 
which motion was not adopted. 

"Whereupon a division of the ques- 
tion was demanded by Mr. McCul- 
lough, and a vote was taken on the 
first resolution, which was adopted. 

"Dr. McPheeters moved to amend 
the second resolution, by providing 
that the money in the hands of the 
Treasurer of Monroe County be ap- 
plied as follows, viz: 'One-half 
thereof to be applied for the purchas- 
ing of a bell for the court house, and 
the residue donated to the Blooming- 
ton Band;' which amendment was, on 
motion of P. L. D. Mitchell, laid upon 
the table; whereupon the original res- 
olutions were adopted by the meeting. 
"M. McPhetridge offered the fol- 
lowing resolution: 

"Resolved, That we receive from 
Wallace Hight, late Marshal of said 
Town, the notes as money on the Cit- 
izens Bank of Gosport, which was re- 
ceived by him for taxes, in good faith, 
and when they were current here; 
which resoloution was adopted. 
James M. Howe Settles Suit. 
"On Motion of Robert C. Foster, 
"Resolved, That James M. Howe be 
appointed to settle the suit as contem- 



Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

plated by the first resolution passed 
by his meeting. 

"Resolved, That the tax payers of 
1857 who have not paid their taxes, 
be released from same; which resolu- 
tions were adopted by the meeting. 

"On motion it was 

"Resolved, That the $133 of the 
Citizens Bank now in the hands of 
Wallace Hight, be placed in the hands 
of the County Auditor for the purpose 
of aiding the County Board to pur- 
chase a bell for the use of the court 
house; also, that all the books, seals, 
etc., of said corporation be placed in 
the hands of said Auditor for the use 
of any future corporation of said 

"On motion of William F. Browning, 
it was 

"Resolved, That the Bloomington 
Republican and Bloomington Presage 
be requested to publish the proceed- 
ings of this meeting. 

"On motion the meeting adjourned 
with the thanks of the President for 
the good order and decorum which had 
characterized the meting. 

"M. McPHETRIDGE, Secretary. 

"SAMUEL H. BUSKIRK, Chairman." 

Incorporated Anew in 1859. 

The following year, 1859, the town 
of Bloomington was incorporated 
anew. Not, however, under a special 
act of the State Legislature as was 
the previous incorporation, but under 
the State Law which thus provided. 

After this the corporation lived 
without interruption, until the town's 
growth caused it to desire the pres- 
ige of becoming a city. 

In October, 1866, an election was 
held to determine whether the town 
of Bloomington should become the 
City of Bloomington, with the follow- 
ing result: For incorporation, 178; 
against incorporation, 93. 

As there were 513 voters in the 
town, and as a majority of the same 
had not voted for the incorporation or 
at the late election at all, the question 
of the incorporation of the town as a 
city was abandoned for the time. 

The Town Council of Bloomington 
was petitioned in July, 1876 to incor- 
porate as a city, the petition being 
signed by 217 citizens. An election 
was held and resulted as follows: For 
incorporation as a city, 184; against 

First City Officers. 

C. W. Henderson was the first 
IVIayor of the City of Bloomington; 
John Waldron, H. H. Vos, W. N. 
Showers, A. T. Massey, Andrew 
Hoover, and M. B. Dillon were the 
first City Councilmen. 

The first meeting of the City Coun- 
cil was held September 13, 1876. R. 
C. Greeves was the first Clerk of the 
incorporated City; C. H. McPheeters 
was the first City Treasurer, and 
James Slocum was the first Marshal 
of the City of Bloomington. 

In a short time the new City Coun- 
cil and officers had completely over- 
hauled and revised the old-time town 
ordinances by correction, rejection and 
adoption, and the new municipal ma- 
chinery was set in motion in a manner 
that was considered worthy of the 
growing city. 



Many Things of Interest in the City of "Higher Learning" Which Put It in a 
Class of its Own — Manufactories Superior to Those of Many Cities Larger 
in Population, But Not in Welfare of Humanity. 

It is not egotism that causes a 
throb of pride to course through the 
veins of Bloomington citizens, when 
the subject of "Home Town" is being 

Unlike natives of many small cities 
and towns, there is no hesitancy upon 
the part of Bloomington residents 
who happen to be visiting; or having 
departed for various reasons from the 
place of their nativity, and taken resi- 
dence in the larger cities; no shame 
is felt when asked that one question 
which always comes: 

"Where are you from?" 

The answer is always promptly 
given, with no hum-hawing; no blush, 
or timidity — always with that assur- 
ance that we are not going to be 
laughed at when we say: 

"Bloomington, Indiana." 

Why Should Not Pride Be Felt? 

And, when we stop to consider the 
wonderfulness of this beautiful little 
city, seemingly cast upon an ideal 
nole, with its splendid engineering 
scheme, and suitable architecture of 
public buildings, private residences 
and — yes, even beautiful manufac- 
tories — for when they are \he sort 
that Bloomington boasts of, such as 
the great Showers Brothers Furni- 

ture factories, the beauty is internal 
and external, literal and physical. 

Many larger cities may have manu- 
factories with greater capitalization 
of finances, larger working forces of 
human labor, but their is no other 
large factory of any sort in the world 
which can show a more harmonious 
feeling between employes and em- 
ployers than does exist in the largest 
manufactory of moderate-priced fur- 
niture in the world, known as Showers 
Brothers Furniture Company of 
Bloomington, Ind. 

Along with this master industry, 
within the city limits, are many other 
industrial concerns worth mentioning 
as assets to a city's growth; but the 
city being situated in the heart of the 
world-famous Bedford building stone 
territory, the quarring of this wonder- 
ful building material, along with the 
Oolitic quarries, crusher concerns 
gives the city still more staple hopes 
for ultimately becoming a far larger 
city than at the present time. 

Monroe county's court house, locat- 
ed upon the side of a sloping nole, 
resembles some old Greek temple, 
with its red tile roof and massive 
stone columns and steps, all construct- 
ed of native stone, as one may get a 
glance of the structure from some 
surrounding high point. 

Altogether, Bloomington's magnifi- 
cent city building and public school 

Birds-eye view of Bloomington and Indiana University as 
«een from Court House Tower looking east. 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


Two Views of Bloomington's Public Square. (1922) 

buildings are properly crowned, one 
might say, by the wonderful collection 
as a whole of the city's beautiful 
church edifices. 

Most any city, large or small, could 
be justly proud of the numerous fine- 
ly constructed buildings as a repre- 
sentation offered by the religious 
organizations of the city of higher 

City of Higher Learning. 

The city of Bloomington, since the 
early days of the county's organiza- 
tion, has experienced a sort of dis- 
tinctive atmosphere, even among 
cities that boasted a college, especial- 
ly in Indiana. 

Not alone is this above the average 
mental condition noticeable in circles 
of University life in the city's 
population, but among the common 
laborers, the farm hand and mechan- 
ics of the community. 

It is noticeable to the stanger, that 
no matter what occupation a resident 
of Bloomington happens to be inter- 
ested in as a means of livelihood, he 
seems to have a finer set of morals, 
clear ideas of life, better understand- 
ing of what he knows than is the case 
with people of his occupation or craft 
in other communities. 

Indiana University Influence. 

As a whole, the stranger entering 
Bloomington is impressed with a fa- 
vorable feeling for the merchants, 
hotel accommodations afforded, res- 
taurant service of the city, public 
utilities, and the wholly common feel- 
ing of friendliness existing in the 
busines world. 

Of course, Indiana University, with 
its lovely campus and park-like beau- 

ty, along with its massive college 
buildings, is a pleasing sight, not 
alone to the man who has attended 
that institution of higher learning, 
but to the person who has had no in- 
terest there beyond knowing that it 
is one of the greatest colleges of the 

In the fall of the year, after the 
summer's crops have reached their 
maturity, all Bloomington feels a cer- 
tain interest in the welfare of those 
students who come from homes in 
other cities and towns, and from the 
farms of Indiana, to finish their edu- 
cation in the great school, in order 
to become fitted to go out into the 
world; fitted for meeting the trials 
and struggles of life in a successful 

When that crowd of youngsters 
start in the instution, it means that 
most of them will be living in Bloom- 
ington for the winter and for more 
winters to come. This means many 
things to the citizens of the city. 

It means that the town will be re- 
warded handsomely from a financial 
point of view. 

It means that the citizen must be 
able to overcome the desire to spank 
many of the youthful visitors for 
youthful and seemingly thoughtless 
pranks and misdeeds. 

It means that each and every one 
of those students who go out from 
the University in after years will al- 
ways hold a thought of friendly love 
and concern for the town and its citi- 
zens who hpd to tolerate them while 
they were "knocking off the corners" 
in an endeavor not to appear "green" 
and inexperienced in the eyes of their 

fellow-students and the citizens of 

Many men of great accomplish- 
ments in the world, who have gone 
out from the institution of learning 
in Bloomington, and have done things 
which have made life for humanity a 
little more worth while, still recall 
incidents in college life, where the 
broad-minded attitude of Blooming- 
ton's citizens was a help. 

And, as he rears a family, and pon- 
ders over his youth, he feels a strong- 
er feeling of gratitude stealing in 
upon his heart for the "dear old 
town" where he went to school. Then 
he sends his son to the same college, 
not alone because he believes it to be 
the "greatest college in the world," 
but because he "knows" his child will 
be properly taken care of by the 
charitable native element of Bloom- 

Industrial Inducement. 

It is doubtful if there is another city 
of 14,000 population in the United 
States where there has never de- 
veloped an actual need for street car 
service. It may be considered won- 
derful, when we think the matter 
ever, and realize that the town is 
lich in paved streets and good side- 
walks running, like a giant spider 
web, all over the city, with the public 
square as the business center. 

With this scheme of centralized 
business, one finds that it is not a 
great distance to any point in the 
city one desires to reach, although 
the size of the city would indicate 

The two railroads which furnish 
the city of Bloomington and the sur- 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

rounding territory an excentional 
outlet to all the outside markets of 
the world are the Monon and the 
Illinois Central. 

These two excellent freight and 
passenger carriers give manufactur- 
ers one of the best situated shipping 
points — situated as Bloomington, Ind., 
is— in the very central HEART of 
the whole North American Continent 
— in easy touch of Indianapolis, Chi- 

cago, St. Louis, Louisville and the 
whole South; Cincinnati, Columbus 
and the East; Cleveland, Toledo, De- 
troit and Lake shipping points as 
ports for the Canadian trade. 

Then, too, Bloomington is blessed 
with numerous and efficent taxi ser- 
vice concerns and transfer businesses, 
which adequately meet the needs of 
the "tired in foot" feeling of those 
who care to ride. 

St. Margaret's Hall, dormitory for women students. 


From some place in Old Indianie, 
Where she learned of "Orfan' Annie", 
And of wierd ghosts, uncanny. 

Comes a little Miss called Coed. 

There are those who call her hazy. 
Mad, eccentric, wild, or crazy; 
Say: "She's pretty — but, so lazy — 
"Is so young, and easily led." 

Now, her critics make me ponder. 
As I consider youth, and wonder — 
When she makes a fellow flounder; 
Lose his heart, and bump his head. 

It's a job to heat your irons 
In unpleasant, cold invirons — 
Men will ever heed these sirens; 
Have their love, or raise a fuss. 

When man's element is native. 
All his forces are creative; 
Otherwise, they are ablative — 
Hist'ry proves, 'twas ever thus. 

Time will still the last detractor 
Of this charming little factor — 
She's Indiana's chief attractor — 
Keep this human little cuss. 




rown Lots Sold at Public Auction — Good Prices Paid — Whisky Free as In- 
ducement — Settlement Phenomenal — Early Political Race Spirited — Wil- 
liam Harden First Store Keeper. 

Bloomington, today, with its mag- 
nificent public buildings, the wonder- 
ful educational advantages offered to 
future as well as the present gener- 
ation, Indiana University with its 
beautiful campus — and the marvelous 
industrial enterprises now situated 
within the city and surrounding ter- 
ritory — may well be compared with 
the Bloomington of our forefathers. 
Prospects Then and Now. 

When we look back to 1818 and see 
what little encouragement for invest- 
ment, for future outlook; take into 
consideraion all the discouragements 
that might have been offered by the 
first settlers, the true citizenship of 
Bloomington, we are compelled to 

size up her chances as "slim" com- 
pared to the "chance" offered to cap- 
ital for investment in the City's prop- 
erty today, with nothing but encour- 
agement in view. 

The first man to settle permanently 
upon the present site of the city 
of Bloomington can not be named with 
certainty. Neither can the time of 
this first settlement be given. The 
first purchases of land (entries) were: 

First Land Entries 

George Ritchey, N. E. %; George 
Hedrick, N. W. 'i; David Rogers, S. 
W. V4; Joseph Taylor, S. E. 'i; all 
in Sec. 33, Twp. 9, Range 1, 160 acres; 
filed September 26, 1816. 

The land in Sec. 32, Twp. 9, Range 

1, was filed on as follows, in quarter 
section (160) tracts: 

Henry Wampler, N. E. H, Sept. 
27, 1816; Chesley Bailey, S. W. Vt, 
Feb. 5, 1817; Robertson Graham, S. 
E. Vi, May 26, 1817; Ebenezer Dick- 
ey, N. W. 1/4, Feb. 12, 1818. 

It is probable that no man lived 
upon the town site, which was laid 
out by David Rogers and Robertson 
Graham, until 1816, at which time 
both men built log houses — some fix 
the date of erection of these struc- 
tures as 1817. 

Bloomington a Wheat Field. 

At all events, when the first lots 
were laid out, in June, 1818, a crop 
of wheat was growing on the land 
that had been purchased of Mr. Rog- 
ers. Whether it was the first or sec- 
ond crop on the land is not known. 

David Rogers entered the south- 
west quarter of Sec. 33, on which a 
part of the town was laid out, but 
Jonathan Rogers afterward obtained 
part interest in the tract, as his name 
appears on he deed which conveyed 
the land to the county. 

April 10, 1818, the first day of the 
first meeting of the county commis- 
sioners, the county seat was ordered 
laid off and n^med "Bloomington." 

The County Agent was ordered to 
oversee the work, and make the pub- 
lic square 276 feet, and make lots 
66x132 feet, and streets 82 V2 feet 
wide. The number of lots to be laid 
out was left to the direction of the 
agent. (The county agent seems to 
have been Benjamin Parks as shown 
in other records.) 

Public Auction Sale of Lots. 

The first public auction or sale of 
lots was fixed for June 22, 1818, ana 
the agent instructed to advertise the 
sale in the '"Western Sun," of Vin- 
cennes: the Louisville "Correspond- 
ent"; the "Argus of Western Ameri- 
ca"; the "Western Eagle" of Madi- 
son, and the "Liberty Hall" of Cin- 
cinnati. Jonathan Nichols was ap- 
pointed surveyor to lay out the town. 
The following entry appears upon the 
recoi-d of the county board: 

"On motiton of Bartlett Woodward, 
Ordered, that the agent of this coun- 
ty procure one barrel of whisky and 
have it at the sale of town lots in 

When it is seen that the proceeds 
of this first sale amounted to the 
then enormous sum of $14,326.85, and 
that a whole ban-el of whisky cost 
less than one gallon does today 
($33.50 for the barrel), and that pro- 
hibition was unthought of, it is prob- 
able that the action of the board "got 

"Spirited" Bidding (?) 

The bidding was spirited and some 
lots sold for over $200 each; but the 
cash receipts were only about 15 per 
cent, and fell far short of the pro- 
ceeds of the sale. 

The lots sold rather high, consider- 
ing the unsettled condition of the 
county, but some may feel that a tip 
may have been passed that Blooming- 
ton was destined to become a great 
educational center. 

The settlement of the tovim seemed 
phenomenal. At the close of the year 
1818, not less than thirty families 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


Upper — Illinois Central Passenger Station. Lower — Monon Passenger Station in 1922. 

lived in the town in hastily built log 
houses or rough frame dwellings, 
from the saw mill of old man Blair. 

A log court house had been erected, 
in which the first school was being 
conducted, probably by Dudley C. 
Smith. Stores, blacksmith shops and 
a tavern had been started, along with 
the establishing of mail route (a lit- 
tle irregular) with Vincennes. The 
town boasted a population of more 
than 140. 

First Store Opened. 

The first store was opened in 1818 
by' William Hardin, who kept a tav- 
ern at the same time. 

Elias Abel stated in 1882 that when 
he came to Bloomington, in 1824, the 
population was over 500, possibly 600. 
Others who came about the same time 
fixed the population at about 400 in- 

Joshua H. 1/Ucas, an eccentric char- 
acter with but little education, but of 
the highest natural ability, opened a 
good store in 1823. In 1824, he ran 
for the Legislature against William 
Alexander. The race was close, but 
Mr. Lucas was victorious, probably 
due to his skill at tolling stories and 
anecdotes of a quasi immoral charac- 
ter, which captivated the rabble. 

The earliest physicians we can find 
a record of practicing in the com- 
munity were David H. Maxwell, W. 
C. Foster, Roach and Jenkins. 
The County Seat. 

At the time of the organization of 
the county (Monroe), of course the 
population was sufficient to warrant 
such organization. Much of the 

population of the county was near 
the center, or on Township 9 north, 
Range 1 west, where it was known 
the county seat was likely to be lo- 

As soon as the State Comissioner 
head purchased the land from 
Rogers and Graham, the land in the 
vicinity of Bloomington arose in 
value, and the demand for this prop- 
erty was great. 

The town was laid out by the 
County Board, and not by the State 
commission (as some older settlers 
now believe), and while this was 
being done under the direction of the 
county agent, (probably Benjamin 
Parks, who conducted the sale of 
lots), many citizens of the county 
visited the spot. 

The streets running north and 
south, beginning on the west side, 
were named as folio vvs: Poplar, 
Cherry, Spring, West, East, Wal- 
nut, Blue, and Buck. Those 
running east and west, beginning on 
the south side, were named as fol- 
lows: Water, South, North, and 
Washington. (The names of some 
of these streets have been changed 
in some instances since, but some re- 
main as originally located and 

The Early Townsmen. 

Among the earliest residents of the 
town of Bloomington were, Enos 
Blair, Jonathan Rogers, David Rog- 
ers, Thomas Graham, Robert Gra- 
ham, William Lowe, John Scott, Ar- 
thur Harris, W. P. Anderson, David 
Sears, Christian Eppinger, James 
Borland. James Dunning, James New- 

man, Thomas Smith, B. Miller, W. D. 
McCullough, J. B. Lowe, William 
Carroll, John Owens, Samuel Scott, 
Sr.; Nathan Julian, Isham Sumpter, 
Hezekiah Woodford, E. R. Maxwell, 
Benjamin Freeland, George Richey, 
David Matlock, James Denny, John 
Buskirk, Zachariah Williams, T. B. 
Clai-k, William Hardin, Nelson M 
Ebenezer McDonald, John W. Lee, 
Aquilla Rogers, John Foster, Thomas 
Heady, James Dickens, Stephen S. 
Bigger, Susannah Lee, Jonathan 
Nichols, Martha Brown, W. B. Bro\vn, 
Joshua O. Howe, James Brown, 
William Hoggatt, James Parsons, 
William Newton, James Gibbs, Pem- 
berton Dickens, Jesse Wright, David 
Kello, Wesley Whitson, Haws Arm- 
strong, William CoUey (colored, 
David Holland, George Rodenbaugh, 
Jusiah Buskirk, Roderick^ Rawlma^. 
Dudley C. Smith (first school teacher) 
David Clements, the Rev. Aaron Wal- 
lace (colored), George Groves, Wash- 
ington Moore, Jesse Hughes, Isaac 
Lebo, Moses Williams, Chesley Bailey, 
John Whisenand, and otliers. 

It is possible that a few of the 
above mentioned old settlers did not 
reside immediately in the town, and 
a few are known to have remained 
for not more than a year or two in 

Pawnbrokers existed in very anci- 
ent times, and sometimes must have 
been greedy in forcing collection, so 
Moses forbade millstones being taken 
in pawn, because when they were out 
of service food supplies were there- 
by interrupted. 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


numerous Description of Our Trip— Just How We Felt When Flying 3,000 Feet 
Above City— Take Nose Dive of 2,000 Feet— Dog Goes Along— Old Earth 
Felt Better Than Ever Before. 

We decided to take a ride in an 
aeroplane, as a tonic for over-work. 

Many, many times, I have "gone up 
in the air about nothing," but never 
before have I gotten "flighty" over 
the City of Bloomington and Indiana 

The sensations and emontions one 
feels just before he scrambles into 
the cock-pit and is securely fastened 
by straps into the seat may be com- 
pared to that feeling of "having been 
called for and couldn't go; and after 
you got there, wasn't wantea." 

The pai-t of being strapped was not 
a new sensation, as we have been ac- 
customed to this for a long while. 

As we glanced at the faces of dear 
fritnds who were standing around, we 
noted that expression of human sym- 
pathy such as people wear when choos- 
mg the best undertaker for a laniily 
celebration; or worn at the gathering 
of heirs in an attorney's office to 
settle up an estate, or hear the reading 
of a will and testament. 

Takes Dog Along. 
But, without our pal of rough days 
confidently perched on our knees (my 
dog always is present when he thinks 
something unusual is about to come 
off — even fleas), we felt that we might 
as well die in the "height" of glory, 

as to be run over by some reckless 
pusher of a baby-buggy, or even a 
Ford — which could not hurt us any 
more than being blown up by dyna- 
mite; or lingering too long when 
friend wife is arguing with a rolling 

The man asked how our insurance 
was fixed up, and gave us a pair oi 
goggles which one could not see 
through, told us to put our feet in 
the center, and take out our false 
teeth; he took our hard-earned money, 
and the crowd of spectators said good- 

Fooled Expectations. 

But we fooled them all. 

We came back to earth, after one 
of the finest moments of keen enjoy- 
ment we had ever experienced; unless 
it was when we stayed out late one 
night, and sneaked in, fell over a 
chair; then found that our wife had 
been called to a sick neighbor's and 
would not be home that night. 

While we were about 3,000 feet in 
the air, just over the University, the 
aviator, or pilot as we now like to 
think of him, decided to bring us 
closer to our studies; so, suddenly he 
did the nose dive for about 2,000 feet. 

At first, we thought he was only 
playing, but after he had kept right 

on going down for what seemed about 
100 years, we thought mayhaps, the 
man had forgot how to do the trick — 
when we thought the earth was just 
about to jump up and slam us in the 
face, the pilot changed his mind, and 
we came to a level keel, much as a 
woman does when hanging up a wash- 

Saw Fish On Court House. 
I had often wondered how the fish 
on the court house looked from above 
— now, I know for sure, and can ex- 
plain many things from a higher point 
of learning than before I became in- 
terested in this "uplifting" subject, 
which has made many things more 
"plane" to be seen. 

As we became more confident, the 
airplane passed over our place of 
abode, and we recognized the old place 
and mentally gasped. "Here's still 
looking at you," tor we were not at 
all certain that the man ever intended 
to alight on the earth again. 

We passed a number of big birds — 
probably buzzards, and speculated up- 
on what they were thinking — for, if 
it was not for their diet, we might 
believe they were pretty "high-minaed 

My dog began to scratch just as 
the plane did one of those "bank 
turns," and I had to observe "the 
wicked 'flea' when no man pursueth." 
After a graceful landing, we were 
assisted to dismount by kind and lov- 
ing hands, much as one is first lifted 
from a sick bed. 

And, to tell the truth; the earth felt 
just a little better under our feet than 
it had ever felt before. 

Scenes in Bloomington's Freight Yards. 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


Country People and City Folk, along with College Students, flock to Monroe County and 
Bloomington's Public Square to "see" anything unusual, such as a circus parade, "home-com- 
ing," or similar event. 


Reared in Monroe County — Nearly 84 Years in Watching Back-Woods Town 
Grow Into Present City— Recalls Civil War and Tells of Proud Military 
Record of Men-Folk — Impressed by Progress of Local Churches. 

Mary Elizabeth Paley was ushered 
into this world on January 15, 1838, 
in a house situated just two miles 
west of Bloomington, in Monroe 
County, Indiana, and was reared in 
the healthful atmosphere of the region, 
blossoming forth into a youth of maid- 
enhood which has lingered in her 
sunny character through her eighty- 
three year of life, and shows today 
in a woman of rather mature years, 
but still in the prime of life. 

Mary E. Paley was the maiden 
name of Bloomington's much-loved 
and wholly pleasing "Aunt Molley" 
Stewart, who will be 84 years of age 
(not old, mind you) on January 15, 
1922, although we would readily 
guess her to be but fifty, with her 
winsome smile and pleasing manner. 

"I was married to John H. Carth- 
cart in 1859," said Aunt Molley, in an 
interview, "who went through the 
war of 18G1-1864 as a volunteer in the 
Union army, and came out with the 
rank of sergeant, making me very 
proud of my husband. Mr. Carthcart 
left me a widow on September 28, 
1878, and some time later I married 
my late husband's captain of war 
days, Captain Robert R. Stewart, of 
Mitchell, Ind. 

Mr. Stewart found that I loved 

Blomington so dearly I could never 
be satisfied to live elsewhere, so he 
made me a home in this city to the 
time of his death. 

"I am rather proud of the record of 
my men-folk, as besides the two hus- 
bands who fought in the rebellion, my 
uncle, John Eller, who was at one 
time sheriff of Monroe county, lost 
his life in the service of his country 
during the Mexican war. Then, my 
nephew went to the aid of his coun- 
try's cause in the late world war, and 
I am quite pleased with him for it. 
Last year, and this year, while at- 
tending the National G.A.R. Encamp- 
ment in Indianapolis, I had the hon- 
or of being the only woman present 
at the Woman's Relief Corps sessions 
who had been married to a soldier be- 
fore the war of the I'ebellion." 

When asked what impressed her 
most, as of greatest importance in the 
surrounding community during her 
eventful and active life, Mrs. Stewart 
smiled, and remarked that everything 
that was good which happened had 
impressed her as of importance 
Then, after contemplation, she con- 

"The wonderful growth of Bloom- 
ington's churches has impressed me 

more than any one thing along with 
the advancement, of the city from a 
small, muddy county seat town. V/hy, 
I remember the old Methodist church 
had no bell, but a great big horn was 
blowed to announce the meetings to 
the people. 

"Along with this religious growth, 
the W.C.T.U. must be given some 
credit for the wonderful fight that the 
good women of this community nas 
made against intemperance and im- 
moral things. 

"The most creditable mark of enter- 
prise, I believe that was ever made in 
the community, was that of Henry 
Gentry, who started in as a little boy, 
without any capital whatever, only 
his natural grit and ambition, and 
amassed a substantial fortune, which 
he has used in helping those about 
him to prosperity. 

"Henry started out as a bare-footed 
lad, to train five common cur dogs 
which he had "picked up," and he was 
so clever in handling his trained dogs 
that people wanted to see them per- 
form. From this start, little by little, 
the boy built up the world-famous 
Gentry Dog and Pony Shows, which 
were sold only a few years ago for a 
fabulous sum of money. He also gave 
Blcomington its first modern hotel, 
and one of the largest chemical con- 
cerns in the country — He always 

"But the thing which stands out in 
the life of Henry Gentry, even more 
than his great financial success, has 
been his philanthropic and charitable 
deeds for not alone his owni people, 
but the whole community — even to 
helping business men who had refused 
him aid when he was struggling so 
hard with early ventures." 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

On Moonlight Nights 

On moonlit nights: The time to stroll, 
And chat of sweetest nothingness — 
Young lovers, to us seem so droll, 
As in emotion's strong control 
They laugh and coo— their love confess. 

Ah, we — though wed — still love the role 
All lovers play — to reach their goal — 
Or, seal the pact with fond caress, 
On moonlit nights. 

Though we no longer climb the nole 
For we must know: we've crossed the shoal 
Between youth and age — Sacredness 
I felt when she gave her fond caress 
Still lingers, as I with time cajole, 
On moonlit nights. 


The steady and vigoi-ous rise in the 
prices of Liberty Bonds up to Decem- 
ber of 1921, is a development that may 
well bring gladness to the hearts of 
the American people, and for reasons 
entirely aside from the mere apprecia- 
tion in the market value of their in- 
vestnftnts. For the rise in bond prices 
thus reflecting the drop in the price 
of money is the most convincing evi- 
dence of the trend towards normalcy. 

One hears a good deal of cynical 
talk, however, about the advancing 
bond prices. "Now that the small pa- 
triotic investor who paid par for the 
bonds during the war has been shaken 
out the 'big fellows' are putting the 
prices up," is common comment by 
these cynics. This is the merest 
drivel, not only not having any basis 
in fact but in general is absolutely 
contrary to the fact. 

The bonds were bought by some 
20,000,000 investors, which virtually 
meant the enitre population able to 
buy. They were issued by the billions 
because the government (which means 
the people) had to have funds to carry 
on the war. Every banker in the 
country knew at the time that there 
was no investment demand that could 
absorb these billions no matter what 
interest rate was offered. Indeed, if 
the interest rate had been placed much 
higher it would have caused all other 
securities to tumble because the in- 
vestors would sell their corporation se- 
curities in order to buy the government 
issues. The result would have been a 
terrible financial panic. 

So the bonds were bought for pa- 
triotic reasons mainly, the investment 
consideration being secondary. Now 
with 20,000,000 holders, hundreds of 
thousands of whom were sure to die 
each year, a great many of the bonds 
had to be thrown on the market and 
naturally the prices dropped. Even 
after the war ended the prices slipped 
down further. But instead of the 
small investors being the victims the 
fact is many of the biggest corpora- 

tions in the country took losses. Be- 
ing unable to borrow more at ztie 
banks these corporations during the 
financial strain of 1920 had to sell 
their Liberty Bonds at practically the 
lowest record prices. On the other 
hand, bankers report that the buying 
at the low prices was mainly by small 
investors who "averaged" in this way 
on their original purchases from the 

Instead of being "skinned" the small 
investor has quite generally profited 
by the fluctuation in prices, although, 
of course, there are innumerable cases 
where people of small or moderate 
means had to sell at less than they 
originally paid. Big and large, how- 
ever, the loss incurred in this way was 
a mere drop in the bucket to the losses 
that our young men suffered who left 
good jobs for a year or two to join 
the army at a dollar a day. 

As compared to the financial sacri- 
fices made by the people of other coun- 
tries ours has been almost nothing; 
for not only have the bonds of otner 
nations declined more than ours, but 
even the very money of the people has 
depreciated and in some instances has 
become virtually worthless. 


Census figures of Indiana's popu- 
lation of each sex twenty-one years 
of age and more, according to color or 
race and citizenship and of native 
white men and women according to 
parentage, show 1,779,820 citizens of 
voting age, 905,203 males and 870,- 
617 females. Citizens number 1,702,- 
(552, of which 860,834 are males and 
841,818 are females. 

The citizen population comprised 
all native persons and all natui^alized 
foreign-born persons. Male voters in- 
cluded 825,916 riative-born and 
34,918 foreign-born. Women voters 
were made up of 813,093 native-born 
and 28,725 foreign-born. 

There are twelve Buddhist temples. 

with thirty-four priests and 5,639 
members, in the United States. 

Of the $32,000,000 expended for a Ml 
first-class battleship, $21,000,000 is ^\ 
for machinery. 

An average American town uses 
for all purposes from fifty to 150 
gallons of water a day for each in- 

There are 49,000 drug stores in the 
United States. 

The District of Columbia was estab- 
lished as the seat of the government 
of the United States by acts of Con- 
gress in 1790 and 1791. 

Census bureau analysis of reports 
reveals that the average American 
family consist of 4.3 persons. Forty 
years ago the average was five per- 

Revised census figures place the 
population of the country; as of Jan. 
1, 1920, at 105,710,620, comprising 
94,820,915 whites, 10,463.131 negroes, 
244,437 Indians, 110,010 Japanese and 
CI, 639 Chinese. 

More then 2,000,000 acres in this 
country were planted with peanuts 
last year. 

There are about as many rats as 
there are poeple in the United States. 

On an average, twelve schoolhouses 
and two college buildings are oumed 
in America every week. 

Only three women have been pro- 
trayed on the United States postage 
stamps — Martha Washington, Queen 
Isabella of Spain, and Phocahontas, 
who saved the life of Captian John 

Bobbed hair, concealed ears, short 
skirts and all the other fads and 
foibles associated with modem wom- 
en's styles are as old as the pyramids, 
according to the mute story told by 
the mummies of both Egypt and Peru. 

The procedure in arresting an in- 
sane person in this state is for some 
person who considers the individual 
dangerious to the community to com- 
plain to a justice of the peace who is- 
sues a warrant for the arrest of the 
alleged insane person. The first 
judgment as to the sanity of the de- 
fendant is rendered by a jury of six 
persons in the J. P. court. "The alleged 
insane person must be present at 
the trial of his sanity. If the alleged 
insane person is adjudged to be not 
dangerous he is discharged. In the 
event the alleged insane person is 
found to be not dangerous the costs 
of the trial are assessed against the 
complaining party. In the event that 
the alleged insane person is adjudged 
insane and dangerous the issue is 
tried again at the next session of the 
county Circuit Court before a jury 
of twelve. If the insane person has 
an estate a guardian appointed by 
the court takes charge of his pro- 

The word "lady" traced back to the 
Anglo-Saxon- means "bread-kneader." 
The Sorosis club, organized with 
twelve members in Mai-ch, 1868, by 
Mrs. Jane Cunningham Croly in New 
York, was the first woman's club in 

The first government Indian school 
in the United States was opened at 
Hampton, Va., in 1875. It had pre- 
viously been a negro school. 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 



Early History of Bloomington's Churches Indicate Spiritual Ideas Were Con- 
sidered of Much Importance by First Townsmen — Presbyterians Come First, 
Then Methodists and Baptists. 

Along with other phases of life 
which the pioneer settlers of Monroe 
county and Bloomington had to con- 
sider in those first years, when very 
existence meant a battle with all kinds 
of discouragements, we find m .ch 
credit is due to the early organization 
of religious folk for the success of our 
present city of culture. Bloomington 
may well be proud of her citizenship, 
in the wonderful showing made by the 
sincere effort of her early eitiz'-»is to 
give respectful devotion to God dur- 
ing the pioneer struggles through 
which they labored. 

The early history of the city's 
churches shows many interesting de- 
tails, which may be considered a credit 
to the life and grovsrth of any com- 

Presbyterians Earliest. 

The Presbyterian church of Bloom- 
ington was organized September 26, 
1819, by the Rev. Isaac Reed. The 
first members were: Henry Kirkman, 
Mary Kerkum, David H. Maxwell, 
Mary D. Maxwell, John Ketcham, 
Elizabeth Ketcham, Elizabeth Ander- 
son, Elizabeth Lucas and Patsey 

The church was organized in the 
log court house, £id the first three 
baptized were the children of Dr. 
Maxwell — Martha Ann, James Darwin 
and Samuel Franklin. 

In 1822 the church had its first 
regular minister, the Rev. David C. 
Proctor taking charge. He preached 
three-fourths of his time in Indian- 
apolis and the remainder in Blooming- 

The Rev. B. R. Hall, prindpal of 
the State Seminary (now Indiana 
University), succeeded the Rev. Mr. 
Proctor as minister in 1825. 

Andrew Wylie, D.D., supplied the 
church from 1830 to 1834. He was 
president of Indiana College into which 
the State Seminary had been trans- 
formed in 1828. 

The Rev. Ranson Hawley served 

from 1834 to 1841; the Rev. W. W. 
Martin, from 1843 to 1845; the Rev. 
Alfred Ryors, from 1845 to 1847; the 
Rev. Levi Hughes, from 1847 to 1851; 
the Rev. Thomas Alexander, from 
1851 to 1853; the Rev. F. H. Laird, 
from 1855 to 1856; the Rev. Lowman 
Hall, from 1856 to 1857' the Rev. T. 
M. Hopkins, from 1858 to 1869; the 
Rev. A. Y. Moore served in 1869. 

The first church building was erect- 
ed in 1826, which served until a new 
building was constructed in 1859-63. 
Methodists Organize. 

The Methodists organized their class 
at Bloomington in 1820, and built a 
church about six years later. Among 
the early members were: Joshua O. 
Howe and wife, D aniel Ra^i^lins and 
wife, Benjamin Freeland and wife, 
Samuel Hardsey and wife, Ebenezer 
Shepard and wife, Mrs. Wright, Jona- 
than Legg and wife, Naomi Otwell 
and family, .las. H. King and wife, 
Abraham Pauley and others. 

A church building was erected of 
brick, the Wrights doing the brick 
work. Elias Abel wheeled mortar. 
The sturcture cost about $600. In 
the forties it was sold to the Baptists, 
and in the sixties was sold again to 
the Catholics. 

Big Horn Is Used. 

In 1846 the Methodists erected a 
new church. The Rev. Mr. Owen was 
pastor at this time. This structure 
served until about 1873 when a more 
imposing edifice was built, which cost 
about $12,000. There was no bell on 
the church of 1846 and the door- 
keeper used a gi-eat tin horn to call 
the people to worship. 

Other members of the church in the 
earlv years were the families of John 
S. Watts, Beniamin Neeld, J. D. Rob- 
ertson, C. G. Ballard, J. S. Jones, W. 
E. Waugh, Zimri Worlev, John Henrv, 
G. W. Moore, J. W. Moore, J. W. 
Davis, Weslev Robertson, and others. 

The Christians, or "Campbellites," 

organized a class in, or not far from, 
1820 and built a church in the late 
twenties. The families of Haws Arm- 
strong, David Batterton, William 
Armstrong, Eli Lee, George Isoming- 
er, Johnson McCullough, Dudley C. 
Smith, D. Eckles, J. W. Hardin, John 
P. Rader, William A. Clark, Thomas 
N. William, D. F. Tilferd and many 
others were members. 

The Baptists started a small class 
at a little later period, the leading 
members being the Fosters, Stones, 
Vanoys and others. They also built 
a brick church, but were not as strong 
as the other three denominations. 

In June, 1852, the Second Presby- 
terian church was organized with a 
membership of eleven, eight of whom 
had been connected with the member- 
ship of the other church. 

The Rev. Mr. Bishop became the 
stated supply of the church, and con- 
tinued until" 1867. The Rev. Elisha 
Ballentine, after 1854, supplied the 
pulpit of this church during the ab- 
sence of the Rev. Mr. Bishop, and 
served from 1867 to 1869 without as- 

In April, 1870, the First and Sec- 
ond Presbyterian churches were united 
under the pastorate of the Rev. A. Y. 
Moore, and called themselves the Wal- 
nut Street Presb>'t,erian church. 
United Presbyterians. 

The United Presbyterian Church of 
Bloomington is composed of three 
branches — the Associated Presby- 
terian (Seceder), the Associated Re- 
formed Presbyterian (Union), and the 
Reformed Presbyterian (N. L. Cove- 
nanter), which were separately organ- 
ized in 1833, 1834 and 1838, respec- 

The three branches remained apart 
until 1864, when the Associated Re- 
formed, under the Rev. William Tur- 
ner, and the Associate, under the Rev. 
John Bryan, came together and 
formed the United Presbyterian con- 
gregation. In 1869, the Reformed 
congregation, under the Rev. T. A. 
Wvlie, came into the union. 

Early accounts of the senarate 
branches are meager, indeed; but it 
is known that most of the members 
were from North Carolina and the 
South, having left there, owing to 
their abhorrence to slavery. They 
were for the most part farmers, and 
were scattered outside of the county 

At the tfme of the union the mem- 
bership was about 200. The church, 

Bloomington First Christian Church, as it appears in 1922. 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

Upper — First Methodist Episcopal Church, and First Presbyterian Church. 
Episcopal Church, and the First Baptist Church- (1921). 

Lower — Trinity 

in the north part of Bloomington, 
was built early in the seventies. The 
Rev. W. P. McNarv became pastor in 

Other Classes Organized. 
Up to about 1880 other religious 
classes had been organized. The 
Catholics had a small organization in 
Bloomington, and built a handsome 
brick church west of the railroad, on 
Sixth street. 

The colored people built two small 
brick churches in the city. Weston A. 
Goodspead, in his history of Bloom- 
ington and Monroe county, published 
in 1884, makes the following notation: 

"Bloomington may be compared to 
Oberlin, Ohio, in the number of its 
colored population, and in many other 
respects — such as churches and 
schools. The city contains over 100 
colored people, many of whom are well 
educated and well mannered." 



Having preached more than 5,300 
sermons, ser\'ing as Moderator in his 
Association in the Baptist church, vol- 
untering for sei-vice during the Mexi- 
can war, and again enlisting in the 
military service of the United States 

in 1862 and taking part in the fa- 
mous battle of Jackson, Miss., second 
Missionary Ridge, Tenn., Resaca, Dal- 
ton. Little Kenesaw Mountain, Deca- 
tur, Ga., Atlanta, second Atlanta, Gris- 
woldsville, Ga., Savannah, Ga., and 
Bentonville, N. C, after having been 
appointed chaplain of Company B, 
97th Regiment Indiana Infantry, is 
only a part of the laudable record of 
the Rev. George W. Terry, one of 
Monroe's early citizens. 

The Rev. Geoi-ge W. Terry, who was 
widely known as a citizen of pure and 
patriotic Christianly character in Bean 

Blossom township, was bom in Rich- 
mond, Va., December 6, 1S25, fourth 
of eight children born to Thomas and 
Elizabeth Terry, natives of Virginia 
and of Fi'ench-Saxon and Irish-French 
Saxon descent. George W., was 
reared on a farm in Greenbrier coun- 
ty, Virginia, until fifteen years of 
age, when his parents took him to 
Muhlenburg county, Kentucky, where 
they resided until after he father's 

Worked as Silversmith. 
The boy attended school when not 
engaged on his father's farm, and in 
1847 was married to Nancy A. Shel- 
ton, daughter of John and Minerva 
(Weir) Shelton, of that county. By 
this union nine children were born, 
Ruth Ann (Mosier), Melissa Jane 
(Jackson), William A., George T., 

John C, Charles, Ida May, Edward 
F. and Robert C. Terry. 

After his marriage, George W. Ter- 
ry followed the trade of silversmith 
until 1862, in New Albany, Ind., from 
1857 to 1859, then in Gosport (then 
in Owen county) Ind., where he en- 
listed in service in 1S62, and his wife 
purchased a farm near StinesWlle and 
removed the family to this farm. He 
studietl at night during these years 
while following his trade, in order to 
prepare for the Baptist ministery. 

The grandfather of this man was 
in the War of the Revolution, and at 
the siege of Yorktown received a 
wound which later resulted in his 
death. His father, Thomas Terry, 
was a soldier of the war of 1812, and 
participated in the battle of Craney 
Island, Va. With such a parentage 
patriotism was a sacred element in 
the life of George W. Terry, and dur- 
ing the Mexican war he volunteered 
his services to his country, but peace 
was declared before he got on the 
field of action. 

Followed Regiment on Crutches. 

In September, 1862, Mr. Terry en- 
listed in Company B, 97th Indiana In- 
fantry, and. was soon appointed chap- 
lain. He was with the regiment in 
all its engagements during this 
bloody war, except when in the hos- 
pital, and took active part in the fol- 
lowing battles: Jackson, Miss., sec- 
ond Missionary Ridge, Tenn., Resaca, 
Dalton, Little Kenesaw Mountain, Big 
Kenesaw Mountain, Decatur, Ga., At- 
lanta, second Atlanta, Griswoldville, 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


Ga., Savannah, Ga., and Bentonville, 
N. C. 

From exposure, Mr. Terry became 
subject to rheumatism's terrible rav- 
ages, and was confined in a hospital 
at Memphis, and two weeks in the field 
hospital at Marietta. But he pre- 
ferred to be with his comrades, and 
followed his regiment on crutches, or 
with the aid of a cane, from January, 
1SG3, to the close of the war, in 1865. 
He obtained a furlough in 1864 and 
returned home for a visit, where he 
recovered his health enough that he 
was able to discard the crutches and 
use a cane. He then returned to his 
regiment to which he was deeply at- 

He took part in the grand review 
held in Washington, D. C, on June 15, 

1865, was discharged from service, 
and returned to his family, who were 
then living on the farm near Stines- 
ville. In 1866 he attended a theolo- 
gical institute at Chicago for two 
months, one month at Clayton, Hen- 
dricks county, and one month at Terre 
Haute, Ind., in further preparation 
for the ministery. He also studied in 
private with several theological pro- 
fessors. After leaving the army the 
Rev. George W. Terry devoted his 
whole time and life to his ministerial 
duties in the Baptist communion. He 
served as Moderator for fourteen 
years in his association, and preached 
more than 5,300 sermons in twenty 
years. He was a Mason, and a Demo- 
crat. A large number of descendants 
live in Monroe county now. 


Blue Springs Community Lived Only Short Time, But Seeds Were Sown Which 
Have Grown in Advancement of Better Education and Morals of Later 

Van Buren township Monroe county, 
Indiana, has probably had as interest- 
ing career and active religious life as 
any community within the state's 
bounds during its early history. 

Since the earlist settlement of the 
township, a large portion of the citiz- 

ens have been connected with various 
religious enterprises. 

About 1830 a class of Christ Church 
was organized, and for a time met in 
the house of Joseph Berry, who was 
one of the leading members. 

This class was made up from resi- 

dents of Van Buren and Indian Creek 
towiiships, and Robert Hamilton, 
Joseph Berry, John Porch, John Good- 
night, Dudley C. Smith, John Givens, 
John Bunger and their families were 
active workers in the organization. A 
log chuich was erected about 1834 and 
served for many years. 

In the early thirties, the Metho- 
dist established a class in the south- 
western part of Van Buren township, 
and the leading members were, Lewis 
Hartman, David Carpenter, Dennison 
Whaley, E. W. Tarkington, Maiden 
Baker, Jacob Baker, William Higgins, 
Lewis L. Allen, Jesse Targinton, Sam- 
uel Day, George G. Walker and fami- 

This class built a church near San- 
fords at an early date, and has en- 
dured through many years. In 1850 
Lewis Dale was the pastor. 

United Baptist Organize. 

Early in the forties, the vicinity 
of Sanford saw another religious de- 
nomination represented in the organi- 
zation of a class of United Baptists, 
among the earliest members being t' e 
families of John Griffith, Jesse Goss, 
James Steele, Heni-y Flood, William 
Sparks, Abe May and W. H. Treadway 
— the last four families also belonged 
to the Baptist Church in Richland 
township, Monroe county. The old 
Baptist church in Richland township 
drew a strong membership from Van 
Buren township, while many citizens 
of the northeastern part of the town- 
ship joined churches in Bloomington. 

The Union Meeting-House, as it was 
called, which was situated on section 

First Baptist Church. 

First M. E. Church. 

United Presbyterian Church. 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

36, Van Buren township, had a large 
membership in four townships of Mon- 
roe county, Van Buren, Pen-y, Clear 
Creek and Indian Creek townships 
being well represented. 

Religious Sentiment United. 

An educational and religious com- 
munity was located at what is known 
as "Harmony," situated northeast of 
Stanford, in Van Buren township, and 
was the earliest union of religious 
sentiment in the county. Members of 
and orthodox Christian organization 
were eligible to membership. This 
was not a local enterprise but 
grew out of the nation-wide "Com- 
munity" theory which arose through- 
out the United Staes from 1820 to 

It seems that the purpose of this 
movement was for increasing the 
sources of better educational systems 
and morals than was afforded by the 
denoininational and educational organ- 
izations of the country at that early 
time. This idea was propagated 
through a tendency of the thinking 
people of the day to unite means and 
influence in the formation of what 
was called a "Community," for this 
advance purpose. 

Horance Greeley Interested. 

Many families, in all parts of the 
nation, would place their property in 
charge of a committee enpowered to 
manage the common interests and 
benefits. These people would farm to- 
gether, eat and work together in all 
things. They were governed by a 
constitution and by-laws which were 
binding upon all alike. 

Men as eminent as Horace Greeley, 
Charles Fourier, and the Owens, of 
Posey county, Indiana were connected 
with organizations of the kind, and 
used their very best efforts and en- 
deavors to render the system suc- 
cessful. Every means possible was 
used to make the system popular and 
universal throughout the United 

"Blue Springs Community." 

One institution of this kind bloomed 
forth in Monroe county, Indiana, right 
in Van Buren township, in 1826, and 
was called the "Blue Springs Com- 
munity." A man named Berry, who 
came from Vermont to Indiana, headed 
this colony. 

Those desiring to become affiliated 
with this movement as members of the 
organization, gathered at what soon 
became known as "Harmony" (where 
the village later called by that name 
is remembered today). The members 
placed their property in common, 
erected dwellings, laid out a public 
common or square, started one of two 
stores, opened an excellent school in 
a log school house, erected for the pur- 
pose, and soon were in a seemingly 
flourishing condition. The first life 
seemed to thrive more than could be 
expected in the backwoods, for there 
was much to discourage the growth of 
this charming enterprize in the early 

Be it remembered that Indiana, and 

Monroe county especially, was a very 

. new country in 1826, and to establish 

and maintain such an institution 

where the purity of intention and pur- 

pose and performance was made the 
sole condition of membership, might 
be considered as a big undertaking 
today, but more so then. 

Neighbors Laughed. 

The neighbors laughed and made 
much fun of the pretentions of the 
communists, and scornfully predicted 
the speedy or ultimate dissolution of 
the community. But the members, 
with noble intentions, went to work 
resolutely, determined to do all that 
was in their power to make a success 
of the attempt they had made for the 
tjetterment of conditions for their fel- 
low-man and the future generation. 

The first year, things went along 
smoothly, or until cold weather came 
on, when many families left for their 
former cabins. 

Some conflict had occurred, mis- 
understandings through human im- 
perfections crept in. And, when the 
spring of 1827 arrived, all attempts 
to continue the community were vol- 
untarily abandoned. 

The seeming failure of this noble ef- 
fort on the part of the communists 
has been a sincere regret with many of 

the purest-minded citizens of Monroe 

But, as we look through the ages 
since that historic page in the county's 
life, we of today can readily see that 
the effort upon the part of these peo- 
ple was not an utter failure. 

We can see how the seed of better 
morals, better education and better 
living conditions which they planted 
has had an influence in the magnifi- 
cent educational institutions now sit- 
uated in the county. 

All these things have only helped 
add to the renoun of Bloomington and 
her citizens for their merit as people 
of high intellectual attainment and 
good moral \irtures as a community in 
which to rear a family. 

Upon further investigation we find 
in an old record the following: 

Dudley C. Smith (first school tea- 
cher) father of Dudley F. Smith and 
grandfather of Ulysses Howe Smith 

Bursar of Indiana University) 
and Dr. Rodney Smith (cousins) 
married Elizabeth Berry, of English 
birth, whose brother founded the in- 
stitution called "Harmony" where 
everything was in common. 


Plot Deeded to Descendants of Dunn Family Forever — University Campus 
Now Surrounds It — Three Sisters Who Aided Washington and His Troops 
Buried in Campus Cemetery. 

Back in the early twenties, when 
the east side of Bloomington was all 
farm land, Samuel Dunn and his wife, 
Elizabeth Grundy Dunn, purchased 
160 acres of land which later became 
knowm as the old Dunn Farm. The 
farm extended from what is now E. 
Tenth street to E. Third street and 
from a line running north and south 
somewhere near the present Phi Delta 
Theta house to what is now Dunn 

Farm Passes to Heirs. 

The farm was willed to a son, Geo. 
C. Dunn, who fixed the limits of the 
Dunn family burial ground and deeded 
it to the descendants of Samuel and 
Elizabeth Dunn forever. 

As Bloomington spread toward the 
Dunn farm, his son, Moses, sold what 
lies between Dunn street and Indi- 
ana avenue for city lots. 

At this time the University was 
located where the high school building 
now stands. In 1883 one of the col- 
lege buildings bumed to the ground 
and Moses F. Dunn sold a part of his 
farm for the new site of Indiana Uni- 
versity. (An account of this fire and 
the transactions following are given 
in full in another article.) That is, 
he sold all except the graveyard where 
his family were buried. This he could 
not have done had he so desired, be- 
cause of the terms of the deed of 
George G. Dunn. For this reason ihe 
plot of gi'ound called "God's Acre" 

does not belong to the University and 
never will. 

Three Sisters Buried. 
In the stone wall surrounding the 
graveyard is built a three-faced stone 
upon the surface of which are cai-ved 
the names of three sisters, Ellenor 
Dunn, mother of the original owners 
of the land. Jennet Irvin and Agness 

These sisters were pioneers of the 
Shenendoah valley in Virginia and 
were born subjects of King George of 

During the Revolutionary war, they 
and their families gave important as- 
sistance to Washington and his army. 
They spun, wove and fashioned gar- 
ments for the soldiers, and when tlie 
army was stationed in their vicinity, 
they cooked food for them. 

As soon as one batch of food was 
cooked and on its way to the soldiers, 
the women prepared another batch. 
This was kept up for days at a time. 

Later the sisters moved with their 
families to Kentucky and from there 
to Indiana, settling in the small vil- 
lage of Bloomington. 

When the sisters died they were in- 
terred in "God's Acre," the little 
cemetery in the heart of what is now 
the University campus. 

Indiana University bears the dis- 
tinction shared by few schools in the 
counti'y, in ha%'ing on its campus a 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


first Presbyterian Church. 

Church of Christ. 
(As they appeared in 1921). 

S t. Charles Catholic Church. 

cemetery, in which are buried three 
heroines of the Revolutionary war. 

Only one persons was ever buried 
in the cemetery who was not a direct 
descendant of one of the three sisters. 
This was a sister of a man who mar- 
ried into the family and having no 
other living relative, was buried in 
"God's Acre." 

Many students do not even know 
that we have a little cemetery on our 

campus. This little plot of land, ac- 
cording to the cornerstone of the wall, 
was "set aside by George D. Dunn for 
perpetual use as a cemetery." 

About ten years ago, when Indiana 
was playing Northwestern at base- 
ball on Jordan Field, a little funeral 
procession drove up to the graveyard. 
Instantly the game was suspended un- 
til the procession had moved away. — 
Indiana Daily Student. 


In the fall of 1835 a call was issued 
by t!ie Associate Reformed Church of 
Bloomington, Indiana, to the Rev. 
William D. Turner, who had been do- 
ing much faithful service in various 
churches of Ohio and Indiana after 
having been licensed to preach the 
Gospel by the Associated Reformed 
Pres'iyterian Church at Xenia, 0. 

The Rev. Mr. Turner came to 
Bloonington, Indiana, and was or- 
dained and installed in the pastorate 
of the congregation of the Reformed 
Presbyterian Church on June 16, 
18.36, where a relationship was formed 
which lasted as a work of loving kind- 
ness and fellowship for an unbroken 
perif d of thirty-three years. Here he 
found the field for the great work of 
his life, and the congi'egation of his 
church is a fitting memorial and proof 
of the extent and solidity of his en- 

The Bloomington pastorate was 

the first and only charge this teacher 
of the Holy Bible ever held. He found 
the congregation a poor and strug- 
gling flock of Christians in that pion- 
eer period when he came to the field, 
but through his personal endeavors 
more than any other element, he saw 
the congregation grow to a strong 
and influential body of workers for 

With the Rev. Mr. Turner, as with 
the majority of the early-day min- 
isters of the Gospel in the old 
Hoosier commonwealth, he was com- 
pelled to supplement his income by 
some secular industry. He chose the 
farm, garden and nursery business 
as a means of financing for his ne- 
cessities, and became a master of this 
industry. He still made the minis- 
try his prime work, and never let 
other things interfere with his en- 
deavors in the Lord's work, or allowed 

a secondary enterprise to interfere 
with his religious work. 

Health Failed. 

The Rev. Mr. Turner's physical 
constitution was naturally robust, and 
the genera! health of his life had 
been good up to 1858, when he was 
attacked by severe ophthalmic dis- 
ease. This caused him great phy- 
sical suffering and disqualified him 
for his work for about three years. 
He found no relief from this disease 
through home treatment, and finally 
sought the services of a specialist in 
Cincinnati, where he found partial 
relief, but not complete recovery of 
his health. 

He continued to preach in the 
Bloomington church until 1869, when 
the infirmities of age had grown upon 
him to such an extent that he felt he 
could no longer minister to so large 
a congregation as his flock had grown 
to be, and his resignation was accept- 
ed by his congregation with much re- 
luctance. After this, however, he 
continued to aid in the church work 
whenever occasion demandetl his ser- 

Takes Up Bee Culture. 

The Rev. Mr. Turner, although re- 
lieved to some extent from his pas- 
torial duties by the acceptance of his 
resignation, continued to superintend 
his secular interests with his usual 
skill for fourteen years, adding bee 
raising to his former industrial acti- 

Of Irish parents, this pioneer cler- 
gyman of Bloomington and Monroe 
county was born in Pendleton Dis- 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

trict, S. C, August 25, 1806. The 
parents were of staunch old Presby- 
terian stock, and had emigi'ated to 
America at a very early day and set- 
tled on a farm in South Carolina. 
They had ciine through that period 
when their religion was subject to 
persecutions of all kinds, and had 
come through the trials faithful to 
the ideas they held as sacred as their 
lives. It was in such family en\'iron- 
ments that William Turner grew up 
in the beliefs of his parents, whose 
religion was alike true and strong. 
Under these happy and restraining 
influences the boy passed his early 

Soon, in the maturing youth, the 
fruits of his early training began to 
manifest itself, blossoming into a de- 
sire which sprang from the young 
m-^n'« nmbition to serve his Creator 
and Redeamer in teaching the Gospel 
to fellow-man. To fit himself for 
this work the boy eagerly embraced 
the advantages of the common schools 
and at the age of nineteen years he 
began a classical course of prepara- 
tion at an academy in Tennessee, 
where he studied for three years. 
After the academic study, young Tur- 
ner entered the Miami University, sit- 
uated at Oxford, Ohio, from which 
institution of learning he was gradu- 
ated in the class of 1831. He next 
took up studies in a theological sem- 
inary at Allegheny, Pa., and after 
completing the course in this school, 
was licensed to preach the Gospel by 
the First Associated Presbyterian 
Church, at Xenia, Ohio. 

Married in 1834. 

During his college days young Tur- 
ner had taught school during the va- 

cation periods in helping finance his 
education. In 1834, he married Miss 
Julia Ann Woodard, a native of War- 
ren county, Ohio, a daughter of Lewis 
and Eliza Woodard. This union was 
blessed by the birth of thirteen child- 
ren, and the following, with their 
mother survived the death of the 
father: Martha E., Harriet A., Laura 
L., Clara M., Ella A., and Anna A., 
six daughters. 

On the Sabbath day, August 5, 
1883, the Rev. William D. Turner was 
in his accustomed place in the church 
and taught a class in the Sabbath 
school" but, on the following day, 
August 6, 1883, while in the ofiice of 
his son-in-law, Dr. Weir, in Bloom- 
ing-ton, he died. 

By this good man's death Monroe 
county lost one of its greatest fac- 
tors of the moral influence the peo- 
ple had depended on through the 
many long years of his tireless en- 
deavor. He had been a Republican 
and was a zealous anti-slavery advo- 
cate, and his preaching was filled 
with a persuasive eloquence which 
caused him to be lauded wherever 

The widow and Miss Clara M. Tur- 
ner continued to reside on the home 
farm which the Rev. Mr. Turner had 
established near Bloomington until 
the death of the widow who had lived 
beyond the alloted three score and ten 
years at the time of her husband's 
depaiture of the earthly life. One 
other daughter was man-ied to the 
Honorable Franklin Landers, of In- 
dianapolis; one was the wife of Dr. 
Weir, of Bloomington, and another 
was the wife of the Rev. Mr. Foster, 
of Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Congregation in Tears as New Fairview Church 
Burns-Wonder Jul Initiative of People 

Bloomington Fire Follows Christmas 

Program — Loss Estimated 

at $50,000. 

With practically every member of 
the congregation on the scene and in 
tears, the Fairview Methodist Epis- 
copal church, situated on West 
Eighth street in Bloomington, was 
destroyed by fire at 9:30 p.m., Dec. 
25 (Christmas), 1921, with a loss esti- 
mated at $50,000. The structure, 
insured for only $15,000, was built 
seven years ago, after many sacri- 
fices by the members of the con- 

The fire started from an over- 
heated furnace and was discovered 
a few minutes after the congregation 
had left the building, the annual 
Christmas entertainment of the 
church having been held during the 

Soon Out of Control. 

The fire was out of control of the 
local department, almost from the 
start and in a few minutes the build- 
ing was a mass of flames. A high 
wind was blowing and houses in the 
neighborhood were saved only by 
hard work, one of these being the 
parsonage to the south of the church 

and occupied by the Rev. W. C. Mor- 
gan, the pastor, and his family. The 
church was situated on the top of a 
high hill and the fire, visible for 
many miles, attracted thousands of 
persons to the scene. 

Practically every member of the 
congregation lives within a few 

blocks of the destroyed structure, and 
it had not only been a church but had 
been a g^i'eat social center as well. 
The members for the most part repre- 
sent families of men employed in 
Showers Bros, factorv. Many of these 
being unable to make monev contri- 
butions when the church was built, 
gave their personal ser^nces, by work- 
ing on the structure at night. While 
the buildine was in flames men, wom- 
en and children of the congregation 
gathered around the pastor, in tears, 
and when the fire was over he raised 
his hands in prayer, asking that his 
people receive courage and strength 
to hold together as a congregation 
and build a new church. 

First Work in 1913. 

Work on the Fairview church was 
started in 1913, the structure taking 
the place of a small wooden building. 
Much of the stone and material repre- 
sented gifts. Only last June the con- 
gregation made the last payment on 
the debt and held a great celebration 
when the mortgage was p^id off and 
burned. The Rev. Mr. Morgan has 
been in Bloomington four years, com- 
ing here from New Albanv. 

One fireman was overcome by 
smoke during the fire. On account 
of the danger from live wires, the 
electric current was shut off from the 
northwest part of the city during the 

(Thirty-six hours after their church had 
been destroyed by fire, twenty-five members of 
the Fairview Methodist church confrreKation 
marched on to the site of the burned building 
and started with their own hands the erection 
of a tabernacle which was completed Wednesday 
night, of the same week, in time for the weekly 
prayer meeting. A meeting had been held on 
Monday afternoon at which it was decided not 
to accept the offer of other church buildings 
of Bloomington congregations for temporary 
use. but to erect a tabernacle at once. The 
lumber was ordered and delivered on the site 
at daybreak Tuesday morning. The working 
party was headed by the Rev. W. C. Morgan, 
the pastor, and the bosses on construction 
work were three deacons of the church. Wil- 
liam Downey. Parker Torrence and Charles 
Jones. The work was rushed day and night 
and a call for volunteers from other churches 
was issued. The congregation also voted to re- 
build the church and to spend 565,000 on a 
new building and community house. The won- 
derful courage and ability of the people of this 
Christian body in meeting adversity with de- 
termined effort not to be downed gives the 
right for using this account in the columns of 
this book ) . 

m-^ X 

^MT y^^^^^ 


W '^_^^^^^^^ 




^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^B B^^^u 



~~ ^' ~-^iiai 

Fairview M. E. Church, as it appeared before fire destroyed the 
beautiful edifice on Christmas night, December 25, 1921. 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 





Bloomington Resident Attends Class in University Where Her Grandson Is 
a Freshman — Tells of Life of the Men Who Labored for Humanity — 
Pays Tribute to W. B. Rogers. 

A fellow-student with one's own 
grandson is an honor rare, indeed; 
but this, after having married a grad- 
uate of Indiana University, on one's 
own graduation day, and having the 
gratification of seeing five of one's 
own children graduate from the same 
college, then have three sons-in-law 
who were Indiana graduates, is a, 
record of devotion to one's Alma 
Mater worthy of respect in all time 
to come. 

Sixty-nine years of age, possessed 
with the urge to write, which had been 
ever put back for duties that seemed 
more pressing in rearing her family; 
and with activities, always urgent in 
the Christian woi-k as wife of a min- 
ister of the Gospel, Mrs. Emma R. 
Clark, '73, one of the first women to 
graduate from Indiana University, 
and a resident of Bloomington, is again 
a "student" in the great educational 
institution, in an endeavor to become 
more finished for the accomplishment 
of her literai-y ambition. 

Attended Seminary. 

"In the spring of 1868," said Mrs. 
Clark, in an interview "my father 
moved his family from near Spencer, 
Ind., to Bloomington, in order that we 
children might have the advantages 
of higher education. I attended the 
old Seminary for two terms in the 
building which still stands just north 
of the post office. Then I entered 

"Were you among the first women 
to enter Indiana University after the 
school was made a coed institution?" 
was asked. 

"Yes. I was one of the first women 
that entered that institution as a stu- 
dent, pnd with Miss Dodds. and Miss 
Luzzader, completed the first dozen 
women graduates from Indiana Uni- 
versity, with the class that received 
degrees in 1873. I was married on 
the day of my graduation from the 

"Have vnu STsent all these years 
since, in Bloomington? Are you a 
native of Indiana, and were your par- 
ents Hoosiers by birth?" were the 
next questions pressed upon her. 

"No, Bloomington has not always 
been my home. Mv father, T. C. Jen- 
nings, with mv mother, were among 
the early settlers of Owen countv, 
Indiana, having moved to what is 
now Cataract when there were no 
houses in the settlement. Mv father 
and his men came first, and lived in 
covered wagons unt'l th^v had erected 
a log cabin, when my father removed 
his fa"iilv to the new home from 
Louisville, Kv., where they had lived 
until th=s time, 1842. 

"In 1863, we moved to a farm of 
640 acres my father had purch'ised 
near Spencer, Ind. My first school 
house was a little one-story frame 

building, which had been named 
"Hardscrabble" by the teacher, Miss 
Howe, who had such a hard time in 
making fires in the school. When 
my father moved the family to Bloom- 
ington, in 1868, in order that we chil- 
dren might have the advantage of a 
good education, there was one man in 
Bloomington, whose character still 
impresses me by its noble traits, his 
name was William Clark. 

"This man was one of the old 
blacksmiths of Bloomington. When 
we came he was choir leader of 
the Christian church. Along with 
being blacksmith, he was also wagon- 
maker — in those days the whole wagon 
was made by hand. His shop was sit- 
uated where the Salvation Armv Cite- 
dal is now. later he moved the shon 
to West Seventh street, where it still 
stands. In later years ne often over- 
hauled and repaired the wagons of 
Gentry Brothers shows after their 
summer travels. He would frankly 
tell his customers if he considered 
their wagon unworthy of repairing, 
and made many fripnds through his 
truthful dealings. He was a man of 
hin-h idpals. liberal, and zealous in 
welfare work of the church. One de- 
sire of his heart was to see prohibi- 
tion of the liquor traffic before he 

"WTiilo Mr. Clark. Sr.. was leader 
of the Christian chnvch choir for tViir- 
tv years, his wife, all of his living chil- 
dren, and four srandchildren were 
membei-s nf the choir. One of th^se 
gT-andchildvpn is now a song writer 
and poet of prominence at the nresent. 
t-'me, refloctiiitr t^^e musical traits of 
thp "Id choir leader. 

"Of the immediate familv of 'Bi'lv' 
Clarl' ns this man was fondlv called 
bv Blnomino-ton ppnnle, but two 
dauo-hers n""' b've, M''s. A. Tt. Van 
Vrirsen. of Winona Lake, Tnfl.. and 
M'-s. W. P. Rogers, of Cincinnati, 

When William Clark moved from 
BrncoTillp, Indiana to Bl'^nmin^'ton, 
in 18^6 he b'-nufht with him a baby 
son, onlv pip'bt wppt-s old. This boy 
grpw un in Bloomington. and wpn*- to 
school in the davs when tho first 
railroad was being const^uctpd 
th>-ouo-h Monj'Op county. As did many 
othpr bovs of the commn"'*'v. he 
wori-pd at times in the Holt^man 
woolen mills, where he narrowly 
pscaned .arcid°ntal loss of one of his 
hand';. He also workpd in his father's 
wafonshon, and la+pr spn^ed an an- 
prenticpshin for tho e^ViJnot-maVer 
t'-ndp in the s^^on of S^iowprs & TTnn- 
dr'ct'S Hater Showprs Bros.), until he 
was so"pn*'pon vears of aiye, when the 
(Jl-po/lf,,] Civil i>»RT broVp out. 

"This spn. Thomas J. Clark, when 
not vet pin-htppn vpars of aire, enlistpd 
in the lOth Indiana Cavalry, on De- 
cember 9, 1860, remaining in the ser- 

vice of his country until the close of 
the Civil war and was mustered out 
at Vicksburg, August 21, 1865. After 
returning to Bloomington, this young 
man entered Indiana University, from • 
which institution he graduated in 1872, 
taking the first honor of his class. 
He then began teaching in the high 
school at Vincennes, Ind., and was 
later made principal of the school. 
Here it was that the young man be- 
gan preaching the Gospel, in the First 
Christian church of that city. 

"On the date of July 3, 1873, the 
following year, this young man and 
I were married. By the way, that was 
the day of my graduation from Indiana 
University, and indeed it was a proud 
day for me as his bride. After re- 
turning with my husband to his charge 
in Vincennes in August of that year, 
we spent twenty-one happy years in 
that city where he served the church 
during that time, all of our five child- 
ren having been born in that city." 

"But when did you return to Bloom- 
ington?" was the next query made 
of our interesting fellow-student in 
"Short Story Writing." 

"My husband accepted a call to the 
Bloomington First Christian church 
in 1894, much to the regret of our 
loving friends in the Vincennes 
church, with whom we had been so 
closely associated in the Lord's woi'k 
through the twenty-one years of our 
residence there. The Rev. Mr. Clark, 
my husband, ministered to the people 
of Bloomington for fourteen years, 
seeing the church grow from a con- 
gregation of five or six hundred to 
thirteen hundred members. During 
this period we saw four of our child- 
ren enter Indiana University and 
graduate, our youngest daughter not 
ha^'^ng graduated until 1916. 

"We have done well by our Alma 
Mater, for not onlv our family were 
all graduates of Indiana Uni^'prs'ty, 
but our three sons-in-law. Thomas 
S. Gerhart, Wilbur Fisher and Robert 
E. Neff, are graduates of the dear 
old college; and now, one of our 
grandsons is a freshman in the Uni- 
vei'sitv, while I, his grandmother, am 
taking this class work as a means of 
devplopino- into a finished writer. 

"In 1908 my husband accepted a 
call to Albion, 111., where we served 
the church for nine years before re- 
turning, in 1917 to our old homp tovra, 
whpre we expected to spend the re- 
mainder of our earthlv days, mv hus- 
band having developed heart trouble 
which had resulted in our deciding that 
it was best for him to ret're from ac- 
tive work. But. after a short illness, 
he left us, January 23, 1918. a^er a 
life well spent and lived wholly for 
the betterment of the world and hu- 

Mrs. Clark was then asked if she 
remembered anything important in the 
life of W. P. Rogers, a Bloominp'ton 
man who made a great name after 
leaving this city. He was thp hus- 
band of a sister of the Rev. TTi^mas 
J. Clark, and son-in-law to William 

"Yes, I knew him well, and I believe 
Bloomington never had a more noble 
citizen. He came from Brown county, 
out of a home of true worth — where 
a nohle father and mother had loved 
and reared him. He came to Bloom- 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

ington seeking a higher education, for 
which he had longed. Before his 
graduation from Indiana University he 
became a teacher, and his students 
still speak lovingly of him. He grad- 
uated from the law school of the Uni- 
versity, and practiced his chosen pro- 
fession in Bloomington, later becom- 
ing dean of the law school of Indiana 

"I recall that when he was ready to 
begin practice as attorney-at-law in 
Bloomington, the young man had 
either .$1.50 or $3 in money, and spent 
half of this sum for an office table. 
He became noted as one of the best 
and cleanest lawyers in the city — a 
man who was kind and helpfu; to 
others, one who helped to make the 
community a better place in which to 
live. He was one of the early pro- 
moters in the development of the 
stone industry in Monroe county. The 
last project in which he was active 
was the organization of the National 
Stone company, which is still a pros- 
perous concern. 

"Later, Mr. Rogers became dean of 
the Cincinnati Law School, a position 
formerly held by ex-President Taft. 
While in Cincinnati, he became an 
active worker in the famous "Peace 
League" movement, just before the 
world war. After giving up the dean- 
ship of the Cincmnati school, Mr. 
Rogers became interested in oil pro- 
jects, while practicing law in that 
city. In these oil ventures he was 
successful, amassing a fortune rated 
over $1,000,000. 

"Much stress is laid on men's suc- 
cess in making money, but this seems 
to be but a small tning in the life 
of W. P. Rogers, compared with his 

nobility of character and the good 
he has done in the world. He died 
in the Presbyterian hospital of Chi- 
cago, October 9, 1921, after months 
of suffering, from which city his body 
was taken to Cincinnati for burial. 

"The success of W. P. Roger's true 
Christian life may well be an inspir- 
ation to any young man." 

A poem, by Thomas C. Clark, Indi- 
ana University, '99, son of the late 
Rev. Thomas J. Clark, '72, and Mrs. 
Emma R. Clark, '73 (surviving widow 
whose interview appears above), was 
read at a meeting in the City Temple 
of London, England, on November 1, 
1918, as "A Message from America to 
the Allied Nations of Europe." The 
poem is as follows: 

"We are America's men, 

Stronp. forceful, and free. 

We are America's men. 
Children of liberty: 

Ready to march at the trumpet's call. 

Ready to fipht. ready to fall — 

And ready to herald, 'Peace for all !' 
We are America's men. 

"We are America's men. 

Brave, dauntless and true. 

We are Am?rica's men. 

Ready to dare and do : 

Ready to wield the sword with misht. 

Ready the tyrant's brow to smite — 

And ready to sheathe the sword for Ripht ! 
We are America's men. 

"We are America's men. 

Loathing the despot's rod. 
We are America's men. 

Under the rule of God: 
Ready to battle plants grim, 
Ready to fisht till day grows dim. 
But ready to sheathe the sword for Him ! 
We are America's men. 

(Mr. Clark is on the staff of the Christian 
Century, of Chicago.) 


The largest man in Monroe county, 
and probably in the whole State of 
Indiana, was David Van Buskirk, and 
also the tallest man, as he stood six 
feet ten inches in his stocking feet 
and weighed 390 pounds. He was 
one of the first to enlist in Com- 
pany F, 27th Indiana Infantry, in July 
1861, under Captain Peter Clapp and 

Colonel Silas Colgove, who organ- 
ized the company in Monroe county 
for the war of Rebellion. 

He was engaged in the battle of 
Winchester, where he was taken pris- 
oner, beingr confined in Confederate 
prisons for about three months, and 
finally sent to Annapolis, Md., and 
exchanged. Then he saw action in 

the battles of Chancellorsville and 
Gettysburg, besides numerous skir- 
mishes. Having gone into service 
with the rating of Second Lieutenant, 
he was made First Lieutenant upon 
his return from the southern war 
prison, his captain having been killed 
while he was being held prisoner; 
then, after the battle of Antietan, 
David Van Buskirk was made captain. 

In the fall of 1862 his command 
was transfen-ed to General Thomas's 
division, and he continued in active 
service until April 26, 1864, when he 
was forced to give up his commission 
on account of physical disability for 
further military duty, and returned 
to the farm in Bean Blossom town- 
ship, where he again took up farm- 

Elected County Treasurer. 

Mr. Buskirk (it seems that the 
family dropped the prefix Van in 
some manner during the latter part 
of the nineties) was elected treasurer 
of Monroe county in 1866-68, on the 
Republican ticket, and in 1876 made 
a hot race for election as state treas- 
urer of Indiana, but was defeated in 
this campaign, which was the last 
time he ran for any public office. 

David Van Buskirk, was born No- 
vember 23, 1826, on the farm in Bean 
Blossom township, Monroe county, 
which is known as the Buskirk home- 
stead. He was the oldest of ten child- 
ren born to James and Mariah (Camp- 
bell) Van Buskirk, natives of Ohio 
and Tennessee, and of German and 
Scotch-Irish descent, respectively, 
David was reared on this farm, and 
received a fair education for that 
early day. 

On March 16, 1849, David Van Bus- 
kirk married Lucy Ann Buskirk, a 
daughter of Isaac and Patience (Stil- 
well) Buskirk, of German lineage. By 
this marriage, six children were bom, 
D. C, J. I., Cinthy (Ridge), John, 
Thomas and Gety Van Buskirk, On 
March 16, 1866 the first wife passed 
from the earthly habitation to the 
great beyond. 

David Van Buskirk next married 
Mrs. Martha Able, a widow, of Mon- 
roe county, daughter of Madison and 
Sarah (Wilborn) Stephenson. To this 
union two children were born, Mi- 
chel and Mary Ann Van Buskirk. 
Again Mr. Van Buskirk was left a 
widower, his second wife having died 
February 22, 1873. 

Mary Able, sister-in-law to the se- 
cond wife was taken by Mr, Van 
Buskirk in marriage on October 26, 
1874, as his third wife, to share with 
him the fruits of life in his last years. 
Gave Children Education. 

Having never lived at any other 
place than the fami upon which he 
was bom and reared, except when he 
was in service, Mr. Van Buskirk 
proved to be one of the most prosper- 
ous and progressive citizens of the 
pioneer days, and took great pride in 
giving each of his children a college 
education as well as substantial finan- 
cial support in starting life. He never 
completely recovered the rugged 
health he had enjoyed before entering 

Historic Treasures, Comviled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


the Civil war, although he was a very 
large man. 

The grandfather of David, named 
Isaac Van Buskirk, was a soldier of 
the Revolution, and an uncle. John 
Van Buskirk, was wounded in the 
battle of Tipecanoe, during the war 
of 1812, and his son, Isaac, was killed 
in the battle of Chancellorsville, hav- 
ing been a lieutenant in the United 
States army during the Mexican war, 
and in the Rebellion. 

All these soldiers and their wives 
are resting in the old family grave- 
yard, situated on a hill east of the 
old house on the David Van Bus- 
kirk farm, and from this spot one 
may gain a view of the entire sur- 
rounding country. In late years some 
have designated this old burying 
ground which is northeast of Stine- 
ville. in Bean Blossom township as 
the "Arlingon Cemetery." 

Manv descendants of these people 
are citizens of Monroe county, and 
traces of the Van Buskirk and Camp- 
bell blood run. in the veins of the 
most cultured and worthy families 
of the state at the present time. 





Built Log House at Seventh and Walnut Streets in Bloomington— Moved Family 
Bv Ox-Team to New State of Indiana and County Seat of Monroe County 
—Business Celebrates Centenniel Anniversary. 

Blue laws were more abundant in 
Connecticut and other New England 
colonies than anj^^vhere else. Here are 
a few of the more notable ones: 

Married persons must live together 
or be imprisoned. No man shall court 
a maid in person or by letter v/ithout 
first obtaining consent of her parents. 
Five pounds penalty for the first 
offense, ten pounds for the second and 
for the third imprisonment during the 
pleasure of the court. 

Whoever sets a fire in the woods and 
it burns a house shall suffer death. 
Persons suspected of this crime shall 
be imprisoned without benefit of bail. 
The judge shall determine controver- 
sies without a jury. 

No one shall cross a river, but with 
an authorized ferryman. 

No woman shall kiss her child on 
the Sabbath or fasting day. 

To pick an ear of com growing in a 
neighbor's garden shall be deemed a 

Every reliable person who refused 
to pay his proportion to the support of 
the minister of the town or parish shall 
be fined £2 sterling and every parish 
quarter £4 until he or she pay the rate 
to the minister. 

Whoever brings cards or dice into 
this dominion shall pay a fine of £5 

No one! shall make minced pies, 
dance, play cards or play on any in- 
strument of music except the drum, 
trumpet and jews' harp. 

Every male shall have his hair cut 
round according to a cap. 

If any child above sixteen years old 
shall curse or smite his, her or their 
parents such child or children shall be 
put to death, unless it be proved that 
the parents have been unchristian! y 
negligent in the education of such 

If any person be a witch he or she 
shall be put to death. 

September 14, 1921, marked the 
100th anniversary of the estabhsh- 
ment in Bloomington of the firm ot 
Seward & Co. The business has been 
in the same family continuously for 
one hundred years and is now con- 
ducted by Fred and Austin Seward 
who are" of the fourth generation 
from the founder, Austin Seward, 
with Paul Seward of the third gener- 
ation as foundry foreman. 

The grandfather of these young 
men wa"s born in Middlesex County, 
Virginia, Nov. 22, 1797, and, when 
twelve years of age, moved with his 
parents" to Richmond, Kentucky. In 
the spring of 1821, he visited Bloom- 
ington, then a struggling frontier 
village, with a view to locating here- 
He was so well pleased that he re- 
turned for his family and arrived 
by ox-team September 14, 1821, and 
at once erected a three-room log cabin 
for his family on what is now the 
southwest corner of Seventh and Wal- 
nut streets. Just across the street 
from his home he purchased the fron- 
tage running from the alley north 
to Seventh street and on this land 
erected his first long shop and started 

Expert Tool Maker. 
Austin Seward was an expert edge- 
tool maker as well as an "allround" 
mechanic in metals. Cutlery, guns, 
kitchenware, stoves and in fact, prac- 
tically everything in the line of steel, 
iron and tinware was turned out in 
the little shop. He was famed for 
the wonderful rifles he made and set- 
tlers would come for fifty miles to 

Austin Seward. 

purchase these guns. Big game was 
then plentiful in this region and was 
the principal meat supply of those 
early pioneers. There are still quite 
a few of the old rifles in use in the 
county. They were said to be noted 
for their accuracy and each gun was 
tested personally by the maker. 

His shop grew with the business 
and later covered a considerable part 
of the site he had selected. Part of 
the original brick building still stands 
on the old place and marks one of the 
oldest structures in Bloomington, as 
well as one of the oldest buildings in 
the state, having been used for manu- 
facturing purposes. A foundry was 
soon added and here the castings were 
made for practically every article in 
iron or brass used in this section of 
Indiana. The pig iron was hauled by 
ox-team from New Albany, where it 
was unloaded from flat boats coming 
down the Ohio river from Pittsburg. 
Charcoal was first used to melt the 
iron and later coke, which was also 
brought overland from the Ohio. The 
building of the L. N. & C. ''now the 
Monon R. R.) made the transnurta- 
tion of these commodities much more 

Was Leading Citizen. 
Austin Seward was soon recognized 
as one of the leading citizens of the 
who came in contact with him. It was 
new town and was beloved by all 
said of him that no man ever turned 
away from his shop because of lack 
of money to pay for his needs and 
doubtles thousands of dollars worth 
of charge accounts on his books were 
never pressed for payment. He was 
an elder in the Presbyterian church 
and one of its constant attendants 
and supporters. He took an active 
part in all civic matters but was never 
a seeker after office. In an early 
book of Bloomington and Indiana Uni- 
versity, written in 18.55 by Prof. Hall, 
("The New Purchase"), he was given 
the name of "Vulcanus Allheart," and 
a chapter was devoted to his reputa- 
tion for work in iron and steel, which 
was widely known in this district. 

Durine the progress of the Civil 
war. while two of his sons were in 
the Union Ai-mv, he devoted a great 
part of the facilities of his foundi-y in 
turning out bomb-shells and cannon 
for the army. Thoussinds of dollars 
worth of war material was sent out 
from his shop to the forces operating 
in Tennessee and other southern 
states, for which he never asked or 
received a dollar from the govern- 
ment' . 

All of his sons, of whom there were 
seven, worked in the shop and many 
of these as well as Austin Seward, the 
founder, will be remembered by the 
older residents of Monroe county. His 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

sons were, John, James, Bryson, Wil- 
liamson (usually referred to as W. B.). 
Irvin, Robert and Albert. His only 
daughter was Almira, who was mar- 
ried to Finley McCullough in 1848. 
Austin Seward is buried in the old 
Dunn cemetery — "God's Acre"— m 
Jordan Field on the University 

None of his children are now living, 
but their descendants numbering 
more than a hundred, are now living 
— mostly in Bloomington and vicinity. 

In the 80's a large part of the busi- 
ness of Seward & Co. was the manu- 
facture of chilled plows, but this was 
discontinued as unprofitable after a 
few years. The present plant of the 
firm 'is located on West Eighth street 
and the Monon tracks, where it was 
moved some fifteen years ago, when 
the former owners decided to sell the 
old site on Walnut street for business 
purposes. Here may be seen many of 
the old patterns of articles made in 
the old shop, also some of the tools. 



Sixty-two counties in Indiana have 
comple"ted histories of the part tb.e 
citizens of the counties played in the 
world war, according to the .Tnnual 
report of John W. Oliver, director of 
the Indiana historical commission, 
covering the activities of the com- 
mission" in the last year. "It is the 
plan of the commission to ha\'e every 
county in the state compile its his- 
tory before the close of another 
year," the report says. 

That "it is doubtful whether an- 
other state in the Union can claim so 
many honors as can Indiana for the 
part" her people played in the '^reat 
world war," also is set in that 
part of the report coverina: the com- 
mission's activities in the collection 
and compilation of the oRicial war 
history of Indiana. 

"It was an Indiana boy, Jar.ies 
Bethel Gresham, of Evan.^ville, that 
was first of the American forces to 
give his life on foreign soil after the 
United States started its drive against 
the enemy," the report 5ho\v.3. "It 
was an Indiana boy. Sergeant Alex- 
ander Arch, of South Bend, who fired 
the first shot from the American 
forces into the German trenches. 
The Greatest Hero. 
"The greatest hero of the world 
war was an Indiana boy. Sergeant 
Samuel Woodfill, of Bellevue, Jeffer- 
son county. 

"It was a Hoosier soldier, Major- 
General Omar Bundy, of Newcastle, 
who as commander of the 3th Ameri- 
can army corps stopped the German 
drive at Belleau wood in the Chateau 
Thierrv sector in June, 1918. In 
General Bundy, "the hero of Belleau 
wood," Indiana has its greatest fight- 
ing soldier since the days of General 
Lew Wallace. 

"Three thousand three hundred and 
fifty-four sons and fifteen daughters 
from Indiana paid the supreme sacri- 
fice in the world war. 

"It was to Indiana that official 
credit was given by the adjutant 
general of the United States army for 

having supplied in proportion to its 
population more volunteers to the 
United States army — 24,148 — than 
any other state in the Union. 
Cited for Bravery. 

"Three hundred and forty-six Hoo- 
siers were cited for bravery in action 
— for the performance of extraordi- 
nary heroism while in line of duty. 
One hundred and twenty-three Hoo- 
siers received the Distinguished Serv- 
ice crosses; 213 received Croix de 
Guerre citations while ten others re- 
ceived decorations from other foreign 
governments. An examination of liie 
346 citations granted shows that not 
a few received as many as three 
medals for bravery. 

"Indiana men and women loaned 
the government $498,000,000, ap- 
proximately $500,000,000; ($451, 
000,000 for the purchase of Libertv 
bonds, and 547,000,000 for the pur- 
chase of War Savings and Tlirift 
stamps), as their share in financing 
the war. 

"And it was a Hoosier lad. Earl 
Capper, of Decatur county, who, when 
the war was over and when the terms 
of the peace treaty drawTi up be- 
tween the allies and the German na- 
tion was ready for signing, sent forth 
the message on the morning of June 
23, 1919, to all the world announcing 
that Germany had signed. Young 
Capper, together with two other 
Hoosier soldiers, Claude M. Herr, of 
Castleton, and Paul R. Stephenson, 
of Indianapolis, were attached to the 
29th service company, signal corps, 
in the office of the Commercial 
Cable Company, Le Havre, France. 

When the plenipotentiaries announced 
that the articles of the treaty of 
peace had been signed, the honor of 
ticking out the message on the tape 
which was carried by the cable and 
telegraph to all points of the world fell 
to the three Hoosier lads who were 
stationed in the cable office. It was 
they who sent forth these glad tid- 
ings to the war-weary people in the 
four parts of the globe. 

Of the seventy-eight congressional 
medals of honor awarded by the 
United States government for distin- 
guished service in the world war, 
there are fifty-five survivors who 
possess the coveted medals, the high- 
est award of bravery. 

Thirty-Two Counties. 

That the movement for the organi- 
zation of county historical societies 
has taken on renewed interest in the 
last year also is set out in Jiie report, 
by Mr. Oliver. Societies have been 
organized in thirty-two counties of 
the state. The Southwestern Indiana 
Historical Society, representing eight 
"pocket counties" also was organized 
in the last year. 

"It is the plan of the historical 
commission to continue the work of 
organizing local county historical so- 
cieties in the state and it is the Lope 
that ultimately every county in In- 
diana will have a local historical so- 
ciety organized and on the job col- 
lecting and compiling its couniy his- 
tory," the report states. 

Dr. Frank B. Wynn is president of 
the commission, Samuel M. Foster is 
vice-president and Harlow I.indley, 
of Richmond, is secretary. 


Special Niche Carved Out for Him in Terrace of Great Amphitheater, But 
Notable Company Lies About Him in the Near Distance. — America's 
Llnknown Soldier Fittingly Honored November 11, 1921. 

High on a wooded ridge beside the 
Potomac America's nameless hero will 
sleep bivouacked with the brave of 
many wars. 

Everywhere about his simple tomb, 
over the swelling slopes or in the 
shaded canyons of Arlington national 
cemetery in the District of Columbia, 
stand monuments and headstones on 
which are engraved names that also 
are written imperishably in the pages 
of glory that make the nation's his- 
tory. "There too, are stones, amid the 
long rows, to mark other unknown 
dead of other wars, and the bulk of 
the monument above the single grave 
where rest the unknown of the war 
between the states, gathered from 
many battlefields. 

But for the newcomer from France 
among this fellowship of valor a spe- 
cial place of honor has been made. 
He will sleep in a narrow crypt, hewn 
out of the live stone that forms the 
terrace of the memorial amphitheater 
erected to consecrate the memory of 
men everywhere who died for the 
flag. Above his coffin a massive 

block of stone, carved with the brief 
legend of a nation's tribute to all 
those others who sleep unknown in 
France, will be placed. On it also 
will go the long list of honors the 
nation and the great powers of the 
world have lavished on the soldiers 
who gave their identity as well as 
their lives on French battlefields. 

Above the great stone towers the 
marble pillared facade of the ampni- 
theatcr, crowning the ridge and look- 
ing down over a sweeping vista of 
quiet hills and peaceful countryside 
to the wide waters of the river. Be- 
yond stands Washington city in the 
haze of tlistance. Over it, dimly vis- 
ible, looms the great figure of Free- 
dom on the dome of the Capitol; far- 
ther down Washington monument 
thrusts a slender gray finger to chal- 
lenge attention of the very sky to the 
deeds of peace and war it commemor- 
ates; closer still looms the square 
white bulk of Lincoln memorial at the 
river brim, sealing a people's tribute 
to a martyred leader. 

Fold on fold, the calm hills drop 
away from the terrace, where the 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


sleeper from France lies honored but 
unknown. At his feet a sculptured 
marble balustrade sweeps out on eith- 
er side, marking the wide, graceful 
curve of the footway that drops down 
to the grass grown slopes where, day 
by day, many a gallant comrade from 
France is finding his last resting 
place. Down there the new head- 
stones gleam in countless variety. 
There is hardly an hour of any day 
when sorrowing relatives are not 
moving slowly among the new graves, 
giving loving care to flowers on the 
low mounds. On the headstones are 
cut the names, the dates of birth and 
death of the dead, and names of 
French villages where they made 
their great sacrafice. Man by man, 
their record is written for all to know 
and honor. 

He Died in France. 

But for the nameless one, asleep on 
the terrace above, there are no rela- 
tives. He lies alone in the mystery 
of death. Laden with honors beyond 
any of his fellows below, there is 
none to tell the way of his life and 
his death, of whence he came or of 
what he was, save that he died in 
France, at the nation's call. The 
American people are his next to kin. 
He alone may sleep there within the 
great monument to all the nation's 
honored dead. 

Everywhere aboiit the amphitheater 
are monuments cut with names that 
touch memory to life, that bring ech- 
oes of the thunder of guns from old 
far-off battle scenes. There lies Sheri- 
dan; there lies Porter and Crook and 
Doubleday and yonder lies Dewey. 
Over the peaceful slope, row on row, 
march the headstones of hundreds of 
humble servers in the ranks like the 
sleeper up there on the terrace, or 
again, dimly seen through the trees 
goes another long column of soldier 
headstones, graying with time. But 
officers and men, generals, admirals, 
privates or the last bluejacket to join 
the ship before the battle, they are all 
sleeping here in honored graves. Gath- 
ered they are from Mexico, from all 
the far plains where emigiant trains 
fought their way westward, from 
storied fields of the civil war, from 
Cuba and the Philippines, from Haiti 
and from France. 

Just beyond the amphitheater rises 
the slender mast of the old Maine, 
brought from Havana to mark the 
resting place of her dead soldiers 
and sailors and marines. It is their 
last muster and for them all has been 
raised the great marble pile wherein 
the unknown sleeper from France 
keeps his vigil. 

The pure white outline of the struc- 
ture, as yet unstained by time and the 
shifting winds that sweep unchecked 
through its stately colonnade, or its 
vast roofless gathering place, rises 
amid a setting that nature paints with 
new beauty as the seasons come and 
go. It stands atop the ridge, footed 
among the evergreens and the native 
Virginia woods that set it off in 
changing shades in summer; deck it 
with the myriad tints of autumn as 
the year wanes and wrap it about 
with the delicate tracery of snow 
laden, leafless branches in winter. 
To form the colonnade, a double row 

of great marble pillars march around 
the circle wherein the marble benches 
are set. Facing the benches and with 
its back to the terrace where stands 
the tomb, is the sculptured hollow of 
the apse where the solemn rites for 
burial takes place. The structure has 
the lines of an ancient Greek temple, 
a fitting resting place for the honored 
unknown soldier who is its only 

And Over the Ridge. 
Over the ridge beyond the amphi- 
theater are seen the grass-grown ram- 
parts of old Ft. Myer with the dead 
clustering about them. Farther along, 
the pillared portico of the old Lee 
mansion thrusts out through the 
crowding woods to look dovioi over the 
vista of hills and river to Washington. 
And just over the road stands the 
army post of Ft. Myer, its garrison 
flag a fluttering glimpse of color 
over the quiet scene, the roar of its 
sunrise and sunset guns waking the 
echoes among the graves of the dead; 
the faint, far call of its bugle singing 
also for these sleeping warriors, rest- 
ing in their last encampment. — The 
Indianapolis News. 


Whereas, a joint resolution of Con- 
gress approved Nov. 4, 1921, "to de- 
clare Nov. 11, 1921, a legal public 
holiday," provides as follows: 

"Whereas, Armistice day, Nov. 11, 
192], has been designated as the ap- 
propriate time for the ceremonies 
incident to the burial of the unknoviTi 
and unidentified American soldier in 
Arlington national cemetery; and 

"Whereas, this unknown soldier 
represents the manhood of America 
who gave their lives to defend its 
integrity, honor and tranquility 
against any enemy; and 

"Whereas, the nations of the earth 
are on that date joining with the 
United States in paying respect and 
homage to their unknown soldier; 
therefore be it, 

"Resolved, by the Senate and the 
House of Representatives of the Uni- 
ted States of America in Congress as- 
sembled, that the President is hereby 
authorized to issue a proclamation de- 
claring Nov. 11, 1921, a holidy, as a 
mark of respect to the memory of 
those who gave their lives in the late 
world war, as typified by the unknown 
and unidentified American soldier 
who is to be buried in Arlington na- 
tional cemetery on that day; and the 
President is respectfully requested to 
recommend to the governors of the 
various states that nroclamations be 
issued by them calling upon their 
people to pause in their pursuits as 
a mark of respect on this solemn oc- 

Now, therefore, I, Warren G. Hard- 
ing, President of the United States 
of America, in pursuance of the said 
joint resolution of Coneress, do here- 
by declare Nov. 11, 1921. a holiday, 
as a mark of respect to the memory 
of those who gave their lives in the 
late world war, as typified by the 
unknown American soldier who is to 
be buried in Arlington national ceme- 
ery on that day; and do hereby recom- 
mend to the Governors of the several 

states that proclamations be issued 
by them calling upon the people of 
their respective states to pause in 
their usual pursuits as a mark of 
respect on this solemn occasion. 

And, in order that the solemnity of 
the occasion may be further empha- 
sized, I do hereby furthermuore re- 
commend that all public and church 
bells throughout the United States be 
tolled at intervals beween 11:45 
o'clock a. m. and 12 o'clock, noon, of 
the said day, and that from 12 o'clock, 
noon, to two minutes past that hour, 
Washington time, all devout and pa- 
triotic citizens of the United States 
indulge in a period of silent thanks 
to God for these valuable, valorous 
lives and of supplication for His di- 
vine mercy and for His blessings upon 
our beloved country. 

In witness whereof, I have here- 
unto set my hand and caused the seal 
of the United States to be affixed. 

Done at the city of Washington, 
this fifth day of November, in the 
year of our Lord, one thousand nine 
hundred and twenty-one, and of the 
independence of the United States the 
one hundred and forty-sixth. 

By the President, 

Secretary of State. 


■ At the request of William Lowe 
Bryan, president of Indiana Univer- 
sity, Marshal Foch, when in Indiana- 
polis wi-ote on parchment a copy of 
the famous telegram sent by him to 
general headquarters during the first 
battle of the Marne, in September, 
1914. The original was written at the 
deciding moment of the battle, when 
the Germans were near Paris. The 
message, translated, was: 

"My left is giving way, my right 
is falling back; consequently I am or- 
dering a general offensive, a decisive 
attack by the center. FOCH." 

The autographed copy of the mes- 
sage will be framed and preserved at 
the university. 



The new dollar now in process of 
coinage and expected to be available 
for circulation about Dec. 30, 1921, 
will not bear a broken sword, Ray- 
mond T. Baker, direcor of the mint, 
announced recently. 

Two designs for the dollars, which 
mark the first chan<^e la tne Ameri- 
can silver dollar in twenty-five years, 
were submited, Mr. Baker said. One 
design showed an American Eagle 
clutching a broken sword, but tne 
other omitted the broken sword. The 
latter has finally been accepted and 
approved, the director said. 

The new dollars will portray gener- 
ally the advent of peace and be sym- 
bolic of the new era on which the na- 
tion through the armament confernce 
is entering, treasury officials said. 

The first Labor day parade was 
held in New York city September 5, 


Historic Treasures, Compiled hy Forest M. "Pop" Hall 



Rain Falls on Uncovered Heads as Bells Toll — Pay Tribute to Unknown and 
With Fitting Program on Anniversary of Armistice Day, November 11, 

Rain fell on uncovered heads as 
Bloomington observed Armistice Day, 
November 11, 1921. 

A cold downpour which started at 
nine o'clock in the morning fell al- 
most continuously throughout elabo- 
rate ceremonies in which hundreds of 
people of the town and University 
honored the living and dead of the 
great world war. 

Fitting Ceremony. 
At eleven o'clock the courthouse bell 
started tolling in honor of the Un- 
known Soldier in Washington who re- 
presented the spirit of the hundreds 
of lives sacraficed by the United 
States in the great world war. 

World war veterans of Monroe 
county and of the University united 
with students of Indiana University, 
members of the R. O. T. C. unit and 
braved a cold, drizzling rain on Jor- 
dan field and stood at attenion dur- 
ing the program of ceremonies which 
commemorated the third anniversary 
of the signing of the armistice, No- 
vember 11, 1918. 

The presentation by Elmore Stur- 
gis, an I. U. graduate, of a bronze 
memorial tablet on which was in- 
scribed the names of those Indiana 
University men who gave up their 
lives in the world war; the parade 
of the R. O. T. C. unit, in honor of 
the unknown hero whose body lay in 
state at Washington; the firing of 
taps in honor of the fallen, all the 
ceremonies took on a reverent and pa- 
triotic character reminiscent of the 
old days when the United States was 
engaged in the war. 

Veterans Lead. 
A long, thin line of ex-service men, 
some of them limping from wounds 
received in the great conflict, was the 
first group to march past the stands. 
Thev were followed by the band and 
the R .0. T. C, of which four members 
were detailed to carry the memorial 

Lieut. -Col. Paul V. McNutt, master 
of ceremonies, introduced Sturgis, 
who presented the tablet to the Uni- 
versity in behalf of his class, and 
President William Lowe Bryan accep- 
ted the gift on behalf of the Univer- 
sity. President Bryan, in his accep- 
tance, voiced a plea that the tablet 
might not be forced to remain long in 
that "ramshackle building," Assembly 
Hall, but might, though the genero- 
sity of students and alumni, be 
housed in a fitting edifice, that is to 
be erected through the Million Dollar 
Memorial Fund campaign. 

Compliments I. V. Cadets. 
The Rev. C. W. Harris, student 
pastor, of the Presbyterian church, of- 
fered prayer, and Major Albert T. 
Rich, of the Indiana National Guard, 
delivered the principal address of the 
morning. He praised the loyalty and 

the patriotic spirit of Indiana men in 
the world war, and complimented the 
R. O. T. C. unit upon the excellent 
showing made this year. 

Then the band broke forth ^^^th 
"The Star Spangled Banner" as the 
national colors were hoisted from 
half mast. Crowds gathered in the 
local churches during the noon hour 
for a few moments of worship. 
"Buddies " Entertained. 
The War Mothers of Bloomington 
served a real dinner to all ex-service 
men of Bloomington, Indiana Univer- 
sity and Monroe county, in the G.A.R. 
room of the court house. The men 
enjoyed the dinner very much, and 
had a fine get-together meeting, and 
as "buddies" renewed old acquain- 

About 150 World War Veterans of 
Bloomington and Indiana University 
were entertained at a smoker and re- 
ception given for all service men by 
the Cootie club, an organization of 
University men who have seen action 
in major engagements overseas, 
Thursday afternoon at the Sigma Chi 
house. A general "rest camp" time 
was had among the "buddies," in 
which good smokes and a liberal sup- 
ply of apple cider helped each to re- 
call days of yore, when the memories 
brought forth by the occasion were 
stern realities. 

Major O'Brien Talks. 
Major R. E. O'Brien of Indiana Uni- 
versity's efficient R.O.T.C, which has 
won "distinguished college" for the 
school in competition with all the col- 
leges of America for the two past 
years, under his guidance, gave a very 
fitting talk, in which he commended 
veterans of the military service in 
their co-operation in encouraging the 
R. O. T. C. 

"Buck" O'Harrow of the University 
Phai-macy, a Bloomington boy, who 
was also a member of the Cooties, as 
an overseas man, gave the boys a 
good, "heart-to-heart" talk, and 
cussed the Major in a manner which 
demonstrated his ability as a "good" 

Major O'Brien called "Pop" Hall 
from behind his "bush" for a little 
humor of his characteristic line, which 
"Pop" wound up by reading a poem 
he had composed for the occasion. 

Major Albert T. Rich of the United 
States Regular army, who has been 
detailed to assist Adjutant-General 
Harry B. Smith of Indiana in the 
great National Guard organization, in 
which the State of Indiana at the 
present time outclasses all other 
states of the Union, gave the vets, 
from buck private, to ranking officer, 
a feeling of fellowship, as he recoun- 
ted incidents in the "line of duty" 
which recalled the muddy trenches 
and frontline action to those present. 
The quartet was recalled many 

times by enthusiastic encores for their 

excellent rendition of popular and 
classical vocal music, which the boys 
gi-eatly appreciated. 

Armistice Day, 1865. 

Grandfathers, fathers, uncles and 
great uncles of the A. E. F. remind 
those youngsters that there is another 
date beside November 11 that is 
bright on the calendars of war. It's 
Sunday, April 9, 18fi5, the anniversary 
of the surrender of Gen. Robert E. 
Lee, commander of the Confederate 

What was that "armistice day," or 
rather that unconditional surrender 
day, fifty-six years ago like? What 
happened there at Appomatox Court 
House, Va., when the Gray gave in to 
the Blue? The kaki would like to 
know. Let John M. Surface, one time 
eighteen-year old private in the Sev- 
enth Indiana volunteer infantry, and 
entitled to a wound chevi-on for a 
bullet hole through the right shoulder, 
received in the Battle of the Wilder- 
ness, tell about it. 

"It was Sunday, April 9 ,1865, and 
a fine day," Mr. Surface said. "Just 
one week before we'd captured Rich- 
mond, the capital of the Confederacy. 
From there, we'd fought a re^iguard 
action with the retreating Confeder- 
ates seventy miles west to Appomatox 
Court House. We were in a sparsely 
settled, rolling country, tobacco plant 
and not much else sprouting in its 
red-black soil. We camped near the 
little town and stacked arms. It was 
an out-of-the-wav place, but greiit 
things happen at little places " 

"Sure, Senlis was that kind of a 
joint," agreed the youngster from the 
A. E. F. 

"We were encamped along an old 
washed out road, all of the regiment 
that hadn't been left at the Wilder- 
ness and other places," the older vet- 
eran continued. "Across a ra%nne 
through the timber, we could see the 
old McLean house. We had seen gen- 
erals and their staffs entering it and 
coming out all day and we believed 
we'd seen flags of truce." 

"Bet the camp was chuck full of 
rumors," the A. E. F. ventured. 

"It was," admitted the former pri- 
vate of the Seventh Indiana. "But 
finally we saw a group of horsemen 
trotting up. I recognized the old for- 
age cap and the hook nose of Gen. 
George Meade, commander of the 
Army of the Potomac. We hollered 
'Hey, general, have thev surren- 
dered?' " 

"What! All you buck privates hol- 
lered, 'Hey General?' " 

"Certainly, we were old campaign- 
ers together," replied the old-time 
Yank. "The general hollered back, 
'The whole army of Northern Virginia 
has surrendered. You get to go home, 
boys!' " 

"Then we started to celebrate. 
There were from sixty thousand to 
one hundred thousand Union soldier 
around about. Every flag in the 
army was unsheathed. We wrapped 
our officers in the colors, put them on 
stumps and made them make speeches. 
All the din and noise was terrific." 

"We were quiet after 11 o'clock," 

Historic Treasures, Compiled bij Forest Af. "Pop" Hall 


offered the A. E. F., *'but some of us 
got into Paris later." 

"But most all were wild to go 
home," the old Yank said, while the 
young one nodded vigorously and sym- 
pathetically, "That was April. After 
the grand review in Washington I 
was discharged in July." 

"Some speed," commented the A. 
E. F., enviously. "Say, that's the 
way to end a war." — Kansas City Star. 

H. G. Wells, in his introduction to "OuMines 
of World Histoi-y, says: 

"War becomes a universal disaster, blind 
and monstrously destructive: it bombs the 
baby in its cradle and sinks the food ships 
that cater for the non-combatant and the 
neutral. There can be no peace now, we 
realize, but a common peace in all the world : 
no prosperity but a general prosperity. But 
there can be no common peace and prosrierity 
without common historical ideas. WJ:hout 
such ideas to hold them together in bar mon- 
ious co-operp.tion. with notbinc: but na rrow. 
selfish and conflicting nationalist trad-tions, 
races and iieoples are bound to drift towards 
conflict and destruction." 


When our war thoughts are dead, and all is true, 
In this greatest world of all Creation ; 

Then can man-kind a life of love pursue— 
Wg believe, and few but know, our nation 
Is but leading a world inclination 

Toward a course which will surely give 
To humanity a Peace Foundation — 

Then, thank God, and pray that peace may live! 

When man-kind learns to love, all will rue 
Savage war. and no combination 

For power can be made by the few — 
Then will man lose that fascination 
For selfish deeds : else true salvation 

Must ever flee, as any fugitive, 
Driven by war's cruel damnation — 

Then, thank God. and pray that peace may live! 

In Europe, Asia, and lands more new. 

Dire devastation and starvation 
Tell hard tales of what war will do— 

And we, each one. must start terminati-m 

Of war, and live our appreciation 
For God's grace, ever sensitive. 

By deeds of true humiliation — 
Then, thank God. and pray that peace may live! 

We must, with firm determination. 
Know that Truth, in love's demonstration. 
Gives all peace with life most positive — 
Then, thank God, and pray that peace may live! 


They gave their tomorrows 
To lessen the sorrows 

Of our today I 
Then, we must pass it along 
With gratitude in our song. 

Lest all decay ! 

In all ages since the world was in 
its infancy, mankind has honored and 
loved the memorials of those who 
fought for the rights of the weak 
— but, can we, as mortals every appre- 
ciate the sacrifice of those men who 
made the supreme sacrifice, gave their 
lives in the great world war for demo- 
cracy. Greater honor can never be in 
heaven or earth, than to give one's 
life for what we believe to be right. 

As did the soldiers of both North 
and South sacrifice their all for the 
cause they believed was right, so 
with added strength of purpose did 
Monroe county's sons give their 
youthful strength, sacrificing all per- 
sonal ambitions, home and love, upon 
the altar of war in an effort to free 
the world of autocracy for coming 

Let us offer a prayer of gratitude 
to our God of All, as we pay our 
humble respect to the memory of the 
men from Monroe county who gavo 
their lives in the great world war, 
which ceased with the signing of the 
armistice, November 11, 1918, and 
ended in the greatest victory for de- 
mocracy the world has ever known. 

Those men who were either killed 
in the great battle of Europe, or lost 
their lives through dreadful disease 
contracted in service — the heroes who 
departed from this community to re- 
turn no more in life, are as follows: 

Joseph K. Barclay — (deceased) — 
relative, Mrs. Elenor Bowles Bar- 
clay, 1418 N. College avenue, Uloom 
ington, Ind. 

Carl E. Anderson — (deceased) — 
father, Edward L. Anderson, R. R. 3, 
Bedford, Ind. 

Charles Brough — (deceased) — fath- 
er, R. A. Brough, Ellettsville, Ind. 

Sam Chambers — (deceased) — moth- 

er, Elizabeth Jerls, Sanders, Ind. 

Elmer Earl Cooper — (deceased) — 
father, Gifford A. Cooper, Hunting- 
burg, Ind. 

Charles O. Croy — (deceased) — 
brother, Elmer Croy, 1105 W. Eighth 
street, Bloomington, Ind. 

Bert H. Freese — (deceased) — fath- 
er, Walter P. Freese, R. R. No. 1, 
Harrodsburg, Ind. 

Glynn C. Haller — (deceased) — wid- 
ow, Mrs. Ada Haller, 3420 Fir street, 
Indiana Harbor, Ind. 

Horace Homer Hay — (deceased) — 
mother, Mrs. Florence M. Hay, 717 W. 
First street, Bloomington, Ind. 

Thomas B. Hays — (deceased — fath- 
er, Thomas F. Hays, Sanders, Ind. 

John O. Heitger — (deceased — 
father, Peter Heitger, 41.5 S. Dunn 
street, Bloomington, Ind. 

James R. Hobbs — (deceased) — 
uncle, Louis Turner, Marion, N. C. 

Wilburn Hunter — (deceased) — fa- 
ther, John E. Hunter, R. R. No. 6, 
Bloomington, Ind. 

Hoyt S. Massey — (deceased) — wid- 
ow, Mrs. Freeda Massey, 315 E. Oak 
street, Mitchell, Ind. 

Earl H. Mitchell— (deceased)— fath- 
er, James Mitchell, Harrodsburg, Ind. 

Lee John Myers — (deceased) — 
father, Frank S. Myers, R. R. No. 6, 
Bloomington, Ind. 

Ernest James Osborne — (deceased) 
— father, John F. Osboi'ne, Blooming- 
ton, Ind. 

Edwin O. Parker — (deceased) — 
father, Robert Parker, Harrodsburg, 

Olin M. Smith — (deceased) — rela- 
tive, Tilman K. Smith, Davenport, la. 

Earl H. Prince — (deceased) — fath- 
er, William Prince, R. R. No. 4, Bloom- 
ington, Ind. 

Robert Reeves— (deceased) — fath- 
er, Sylvester Reeves, R. R. No. 1, 
Bloomington, Ind. 

Earl H. Rogers — (deceased) — fath- 

er, Harry F. Rogers, 346 S. Rogers 
street, Bloomington, Ind. 

Thomas A. Shields — (deceased) - 
mother, Mary E. Shields, Blooming- 
ton, Ind. 

Richard B. Simmons — (deceased) — 
father, H. T. Simmons, "i/^ N. Col- 
lege avenue, Bloomington, Ind. 

Albert D. Smith— (deceased)— fath- 
er, Daniel Smith, R. R. No. 3, Mon- 
roe, Ind. 

Ora C. Smith — (deceased)- -f.ither, 
Henry Smith, 623 Si Roprers street, 
Bloomington, Ind. 

Millard Spoor — (decease.! i — father, 
John S. Spoor, Brooklyn, Ind. 

Laurens B. Strain — (deceased) — 
father. Homer E. Strain, 527 N. Wash- 
ington street, Bloomington, Ind. 

Richard O. Wagner^(deceased^ — 
mother, Mrs. John E. Wag-ner, West 
Point, Miss. 

Ben A. West — (deceased) — mother, 
Mrs. Laura West, Cass, Ind. 

Henry B. Woolery — (deceased) — 
father, Henry A. Woolery, 315 E. 
Seventh street, Bloomington, Ind. 

(The above list was picked from a com- 
plete list of all men who were in the United 
States military ser\ice during the world war 
who resided in Monroe county. Indiana when 
they entered service, as shown by records in 
the office of Adjutant-General Harry B. Smith, 
in the Indiana State Capitol on November 20, 
1921. A complete list of all Monroe county 
men and their pre-war addresses is given in 
another article, showing all men who went 
into military service in the world war.) 

Indiana University. 

The following men, who went into 
service from Indiana University and 
gave their lives in the World war 
were honored by the class of 1919, 
who presented the school with a 
bronze tablet to their memory: 

Melvin Bland Kelleher, Frankfort. 

Major Paul Barnett Coble, Bloom- 

Harrison Wiley, St. Paul. 

Joseph Knox Barclay, Bloomington, 

Flora Smith. 

Melson Smith, Bloomington. 

Paul T. Funkhouser, Evansville. 

Oman Joseph Six, Gwynneville. 

Frank A. Knotts, Gary. 

Byi-on Thornburg, Marion. 

Ben Aleston West, Cass. 

Ross Edgar Carnes, French Lick. 

Elmer Earl Cooper, Huntington. 

David Kenneth Frush, Logansport. 

Burton Wolery, Bloomington. 

Horace M. Pickerill, Muncie. 

Karl Edward Anderson, Bedford. 

R. Harris McGuiie, Indianapolis. 

Clayton A. Endicott. 

Wesley Dueros Edwards, Paoli. 

Allan G. Myers, Alton. 

Russell C. May, Alexandria. 

Lawrence H. Bertsch, Cambridge 

■Thomas Hays, Smithville. 

Charles Henderson Karns, Bruce- 

Clifton Earl McFadden, Ridgeville. 

Van Crooke Phillips. 

Payne Salm, Rockport. 

Millard Spoor, Brooklyn. 

William Russell Van Valer, Jones- 

Wilber H, Peugh, Salem. 

Carl T. Smith, Gary. 

Myron J. Seright, Tipton. 

Noble Black-well, Mitchell. 

James Russell Caughlin, Corydon. 

(List Continued on Page 46) 



Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

(List Continued From Page 45) 
Wilbum Hunter, Bloomington. 
Louis Ploenges, Indianapolis. 
Ashton M. Baldwin, Mafion. 
Joseph Bruce Chambers, Blooming- 

Harry P. Gray, Pennville. 
Earl Gibson Colter, Columbus. 
John Vernon Burns, Indianapolis. 
Claude B. Whitney, Muncie. 
Benjamin H. Hollingsworth, Lynn. 
Homer G. Fisher, LaFontame. 
Orland Leslie Doster, Converse. 

Herman McCleland. 

Victor H. Nysewander, Jonesville. 

Bertram William Pickhardt, Hunt- 

Andrew V. Seipel, Seattle, Wash- 

Lloyd Samuel Sugg, Mount Vernon. 

Roy Warfield, Star City. 

Seventy million men were mobil- 
ized, 30,000,000 men were wounded, 
and 10,000,000 men were killed in the 
terrible conflicts of the late world war. 




Names of Men Who Fought and Died for the Preservation of the Union Holds 
High Place in Honor of Nation — Names of Local Heroes Who Gave Their 
Lives in Service From 1861-1865. 

"No more shall the war cry sever. 
Or the winding river be red : 
They banish our anger for ever 

When they laurel the graves of our dead ! 

"Under the sod and the dew. 

Waiting the Judgment Day ; 
Love and tears tor the Blue, 

Tears and love for the Gray." 

Monroe County sent heroes into the 
undescribable tortures of hellish war 
since before the county was organized, 
and these sons ever showed the valor 
of true sons of America in their deeds 
of unflinching bravery. The largest 
number of men having made the su- 
preme sacrafice to support their gov- 
ernment's cause was in the Civil war. 
They were: 

14 th Regiment, Three Years' Service. 
Captain James E. Kelley, died May 8, 1862, 
of wounds received at Winchester. Sergeant 
John C. Cox. died at Huttonville, Va., Novem- 
ber 3, 1861. Jesse A. Steele, killed at Antie- 
tam, September 17, 1862. Alexander S. Re- 
tan, died April 14, 1862, of wounds received 
at Winchester. George Mclvei-y. died in No- 
vember, 1862. of wounds received at Antietam. 
Thomas W. Carlow, killed at Antietam. in 
September, 1862. Andrew M. Arthur, killed 
by accident, in September. 1861. Elijah Bar- 
rett, died in April. 1862. of wounds received 
at Winchester. Lewis Crump, died in April, 
1862, of wounds received at Winchester. 
James Decan. died in November, 1862. Edward 
Duncan, died in December, 1861. Andrew 
Harsh, killed at Antietam, in September, 1862. 
Richard Houston, killed at Antietam, in Sei>- 
tember. 1S62. James M. Hughes, killed in 
the Wilderness, in May. 1.S64. Joseph M. Mc- 
Calla. died in August, 1861. Joseph McDonald 
(veteran), killed in atfray near Stevensburg, 
Va. William Miller, died in April. 1862. of 
wounds received at Winchester. James H. 
Raper. died in May. 1864. of wounds re- 
ceived at Spottsylvania. John Raper. died 
in May, 1861. Stacy F. Smith, killed at An- 
tietam, September, 1862. Wil'.iam H. Smith, 
died in June, 1864, of wounds received at 
Spottsylvania. F. M. Wagoner, killed at Cold 
Harbor. W. S. Thomas, killed at Cold Har- 
bor. W. A. Steire, died in a hospital. George 
W. Kelley, died of wounds received at Antietam. 
18th Regiment, Three Years' Service. 
Lieutenant-Colonel WiUiam Stanley Charles. 
died from wounds November 10, 1864. Ser- 
geant Samuel W. Dodds. died at St. Louis. 
Mo., in November. 1861. Charles H. Slicncer. 
died at Helena, Ark., September, 1862. Syl- 
vester Barnett, died at Cassville. Mo.. April. 
1862. James Fox, killed by guerrillas, at 
Syracuse, Mo., in December, 1861. William 
Martin, died at Cassville. Mo., in 1862. John 
E. Martin, died at Cassville, Mo., in March. 
1862. Michael Odenwald, died at St. L«uis. 
Mo., in November, 1861. Thomas St. Clair, 
died at St. Louis, in November, 1862. Alvin 
Walker, died at St. Louis, in November, 
1861. Arthur Walker, died at Otterville, in 
December, 1861. Richard D. Wylie, died at 
Otterville, Mo., in October. 1861. John Carter, 

died at Warren, Mo. John T. West, died at 
New Albany, Ind. 

22d Regiment, Three Years' Service. 
Lieutenant Lewis W. Daily, died of wounds 
received at Cassvi'.le, Mo. Sergeant Benjamin 
T. Gardner, died December, 1863, of wounds 
received in action. William B. Miller, died in 
December, 1863, of wounds received in action. 
Verdman Johnson, died in April, 1862, of 
wounds received in action. Edward Graham, 
died at St. Louis, Mo., in October, 1861. Heze- 
kiah Brown, died in August. 1861. Copernicus 
H. Coffey (veteran), died in June, 1864, of 
wounds. Christopher C. Coffee, died at Farm- 
ington. Miss., in July, 1S62. Wi'liam H. Coop- 
er, died at Otterville, Mo.. 1861 ; James M. 
Coffey, died at Syracuse Mo., in December, 

1861. Henry L. Duncan, died at Harrodsburg, 
Ind., in April, 1862. Joseph Elkins. died at 
Harrodsburg. Ind., in April, 1862. Charles M. 
Goben. died at St. Louis. Mo., in May, 1862. 
William G. Jennings, died at Lynne Creek, 
Mo.. February, 1862. Fleming Johnson, died 
at Evansvil'.e. Ind.. in July, 1862. James H. 
Pettus. killed at Perryville. Ky., in October. 

1862. William Warman. died in August. 1862. 
William H. Williams, died in July, 1863. 
Elijah Lyons, killed at Rome. Ga.. in May, 
1864. Joseph M. Mayficld. died in September. 
1864. of wounds, received at Jonesboro. W. G. 
Jennings, died at Trynne Creek. Mo. 

31st Regiment, Three Years' Service. 

Sergeant James B. Fullbright. killed at 
Shiloh. in April. 1862. Miller M. Sutpin, died 
at Calhoun, Ky.. in February. 1862. John 
Baxter, died near Elkton. Ala., in July, .1862. 
Benjamin F. Taylor, died at Calhoun. Ky.. 
in December. 1861. James M. Eller. died at 
New Albany, Ind.. in July. 1862. Roily Frank- 
lin, killed at Shiloh. in April. 1862. Robert 
A. Harbison, died at Calhoun. Ky., in De- 
cember, 1861. James V. Livingston (veteran), 
killed at Kenesaw, in June, 1864. James 
J. Livingston, died at New Albany, Ind.. in 
May. 1362. Willis L. Mathers, died at Cal- 
houn. Ky., in December. 1861. Jacob Meadows, 
killed at Stone River, in December. 1862. 
Elisha Robertson, died at Evansville, Ind., in 
July. 1862. William H. Shafer. died at Corinth, 
in May, 1862. Thomas Tull. died at Corinth, 
in May. 1862. Benjamin H. Whisenand. died 
at Calhoun. Ky.. in Fcbruarj-, 1862. Jacob 
Wright, died at Bowling Green, Ky.. in No- 
vember. 1862. Samuel E. Wylie. died at Cal- 
houn. Ky.. in Februar>'. 1862. WilMam S. 
Butcher, died at Nashville. Tenn. Abraham 
Floyd, died at Madison. Ind.. in April, 1865. 
William H. Fox, died at Indianaiiolis, in 
March, 1864. Bedford Havins, died at At- 
lanta, Ga. Alvin Howard, killed at Nashville. 
Tenn., in December. 1864. John Keith, died 
in May, 1864, of wounds received at Resaca. 
Alexander Lucas, died at Atlanta, Ga.. in Au- 
gust. 1864. Lewis W. Shields, died at Indi- 
anapolis, in March. 1864. John W. Small- 
wood, died at Huntsville, Ala., in March, 1865. 
Jeremiah Vanderpool, died at Nashville, in 
August, 1864. 

38th Regiment, Three Years' Service, 

First Lieutenant Joseph H. Reeves, died 
March 15, 1864. Francis D. Mathew (veteran), 
killed while on picket duty near Atlanta, Ga., 
in August, 1864. James Ashbrook, died while 
held a prisoner in the Danville Prison (Va.), 

in January, 1864. James W. Nichols, died 
while in Andersonville Prison, in Decem- 
ber, 1864. John W. Smith, died at Andei> 
son\ille Prison. John M. Sharp, died at Chat^ 
tahoochie River, Ga.. in July. 1864. 

15th Regiment, Three Years' Service. 
Captain Isaac S. Daines. died of disease 
at Little Rock. Ark. William H. Coffey, died 
at Little Rock, Ark. William Lee. died at Lit- 
tle Rock, Ark. John Thompson, died at Louis- 
burg, Ark. 

82d Regiment, Three Years' Service. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Paul E. Slocum, died of 
wounds received in action, March 3, 1864. 
Second Lieutenant Samuel Guy. died of dis- 
ease. May 22, 1863. William J. Craig, killed 
at Resaca, in May, 1864. Henry Bunger. died 
at home, in December. 1862. James E. Bung- 
er. died at home, in August. 1864, of wounds 
received at Resaca. Adam A. Conenhaver, 
died of wounds, at Chattanooga. Tenn.. in 
February, 1864. Samuel Cnan, died at Mur- 
freesboro. in February, 1863. William Curry, 
died in March. 1864. from wounds received 
at Mission Ridge. James R. Dearman. killed 
at Chickamauga. in September. 1863. George 
W. Dnpois. died at GaMatin. Tenn. George 
W. Edwards, died at Murfreesboro, in Feb- 
ruary. 1863. John L. Gardner, died at Nash- 
ville. Tenn.. in March. 1863. Robert P. Hanna. 
died at Atlanta, in October, 1864. William 
Harbison, died at Louisville. Ky. Daniel C. 
Houston, died at Gallatin. Tenn.. in Novem- 
ber. 1864. Joseph Lills. died in October. 1863. 
from wound=; received at Chickaniauca. Abra- 
ham May. died at Nashville. Tenn.. in Feb- 
ruary. 1863. Clark McDermott. killed at 
Chickamauga. in September. 1863. Wi'liam 
McDermott. died of wounds received at Chick- 
amauga. Emmett MitcheM. died at Nashville. 
Tenn.. in February. 1863. .lohn W. Strong. 
died at Winchester. Tenn., in August. 1863. 
Edward T. Sluss. died of wounds, in Sep- 
tember. 1864. George W. Whitaker. died at 
Bow'ing Green. Ky.. in June. 1863. James 
Russell, killed at Chickamauga. John W. 
Temple, killed at Resaca. J. B. Hoover, died 
at Louisville. Ky. James M. Burris. died in 
Andersonville Prison. George Yund. died at 

93d Regiment, Three Years' Service. 
David Meadows, died at Cahaba, Ala., in 
September, 1864. Joseph Hooshour, reported 
unheard from (supposed to have died). Isom 
Prince, died in Lawrence County. Indiana, 
in November. 1862. Henry Southern, died 
at Walnut Hills, Miss., in July, 1863. Robert 
Alton, supposed to have been lost with the 
steamer Sultania. David Miller, died at 

Mound City, III., in August, 1863. James 
Meadows, died at .Indianapolis, in Jan- 
uary. 1864. 
lOlh Cavalary (125th), Three Years' Service. 
Captain Isaac A. Buskirk. died of disease, 
July 11. 1864. William F. Alexander, died at 
Pulaski. Tenn.. in August. 1864. Horace L. 
Beatly. died in Jacksonville Prison (Fla.), in 
May, 1865. William M. Berrj-, died in July, 
1865. Richard J. Drake, died at Pulaski. Tenn.. 
in August. 1864. Jonathan East, died at 
Louisville. Ky.. in April, 1865. Richard R. 
McCune. died at Pulaski, Tenn., in April, 
1864. Thomas Peterson, died at Nashville, 
Tenn., in December, 1864. Samuel Parks, died 
at St. Louis. Mo., in Januar>'. 1865. John 
Quick, died at Columbus, Ind., in April, 1864. 
Aaron J. Rutledge, died at Bloomington. Ind.. 
in April. 1864. James H. Waugh, died at Nash- 
ville, Tenn.. of wounds, in December. 1864. 
William Welch, died at Vicksburg, Miss., in 
August, 1865. Ira Young, died at Nashville, 
in November. 1864. Charles Amor, died at 
Corinth. Miss. Eli Fowler, died of disease, 
at Ft. Gaines. John R. Fielder, died of dis- 
ease, in Mobile, Ala. 

145th Regiment, One Year's Service. 
Hugh C. Adams, died at Dalton, Ga.. in 
April. 1865. William Clark, died at Nashville. 
Tenn.. in April. 1865. James M. Craig, died 
at Louisville. Ky., in February, 1865. George 
H. Collins, died in May, 1865. John M. Hub- 
bard, died at Indianapolis, in February, 1865. 
Tilghman A. Rogers, died at Dalton. Ga.. 
in March. 1865. John Stewart, died at Bain- 
bridge, Ga.. in October. 1865. James M. 
Pauley, died at Dalton. Ga.. in April, 1865. 
James H. Smithville. died at Cuthbert, Ga., 
in January. 1866. Jordan Wisley, died at Dal- 
ton, Ga., in April. 1865. 

Lieutenant Isaac B. Buskirk (27th), killed 
at Chancellorsville. 

Captain Fred Butler (21st Battery), died 
at New Orleans, La. 

Milton H. Mobley (2d Cavalry), died at 
New Albany, Ind. 

(List Continued on Page 47) 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


(List Continued From Page 46) 

William Barnes, killed at Ashley Gap, Va. 

James H. Knight (59th), died at Nashville. 

Elvin Farmer, died at Memphis, Tenn. 

Wren Allen (2d Cavalry), died in Ander- 
sonville Prison. 

Lee Stewart (2d Cavalry), killed at New- 
man Station. 

Abraham (2d Cavalry), killed 

at Newman Station. 

Daniel Breakison (2d Cavalry), died at 

James Thompson (9th Battery), killed at 

Robert H. Gourley (20th Battery), died at 
New Maysville, Ind. 

Captain Peter Kop (2Tth). killed at Antie- 

J. J. Howard, killed in service. 

William Rice (14th), died while in a south- 
ern prison. 

Captain Joseph Young (97th). killed at 


James A. Butcher (97th), died of wounds 
after returning home. 

James M. Hodges (43d), died of disease, 
at Helena. Ark. 

Hiram Reed (97th), died of disease, at 
Memphis. Tenn. 

Alfred Bowers (97th), killed at Kenesaw. 

William H. Carmichael (97th). died at 
Moscow, Tenn. 

James H. Sparks (97th). died at Camp 

Enoch Alexander (57th), died at Ander- 
sonville Prison. 

John D. Alexander (59th). died at Chat- 
tanooga, Tenn. 

JefTerson Smith (33d). killed at Thomp- 
son's Station. 

Samuel Knight (33d). killed by guerrillas, 
at Resacca, Ga. 

Joseph Richeson (27th). died at Williams- 
port, Md. 

E. F. Jacobs (54th), died in field hospital. 

Martin O'Comrel (27th). died in a field 


Thomas Tull (31st), died at Corinth. 

William Simpson, died of disease, at Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 

A. B. Yates (2d), killed at Vieksburg. 

Henry Sipes (27th), killed at Darnes- 
town Md. 

Thomas Todd (27th). died at Dames- 
town, Md. 

E. M. Flatlook (27th). died at Freder- 
ick. Md. 

Reuben Hendrix. killed at Resca. 

George Edwards (27th). killed at Resca. 

Thomas Pratt (27th). killed at Atlanta. Ga. 

David Cook, died at Louisville, Ky. 

C. M. Bowen (27th), died at Washington 

J. W. Litz (82d). died of wounds, at Chat- 
tanooga. Tenn. 

John Thomas (27th), killed at Atlanta, Ga. 

John Truebiood (31st), died at Pulaski. 
Ten n . 



Considering the size of Indiana Uni- 
vei'sity at the time of this great war, 
and taking into consideration the fact 
that many of the students of thg in- 
stitution may have been natives of the 
South, this list of college men from 
Indiana University to go into the 
war and give their lives shows a re- 
markable spirit of patriotism and 
loyalty of the college. 

The following is what we believe 
to be a complete list, or "Honor Roll" 
of Indiana University men who died 
in the Civil war of 1861-1864, and the 
publication at this time will recall 
many familar names to the older citi- 
zens, as well as be of historic interest 
to the later generations: 

Joseph G. McPheeters, sergeant, 33d 
Indiana Regiment. 

The Rev. Matthew M. Campbell, 
chaplain, 82d Regiment. 

Hugh P. Reed, colonel of an Iowa 

John A. Hendricks, colonel, 22d Indi- 
ana Regiment. 

Jesse I. Alexander, colonel, 59th Ind. 

William E. McLane, colonel, 43rd 
Indiana egiment. 

The Rev. John J. Hight, chaplain, 
.58th Ind. 

Theodore Reed, brigadier-general of 
United States army. 

William H. Lemon, surgeon, 82d Ind. 

W. C. L. Taylor, colonel, 20th Ind. 

Hamilton R. McMay, captain, 66th 

J. Howe Watts, major. United 
States army. 

David Beem, captain 14th Ind. 

Caswell Burton, surgeon, 5th Ind. 

David Chambers, captain, 36th Ind. 

James L. Mitchell, adjutant, 70th 

James W. Gorman, assistant adjut- 
ant. United States army. 

L. Smith Johnson, lieutenant (regi- 
ment unknown). 

Robert Smith, first lieutenant, 23d 

John D. Alexander, captain, 97th 

Samuel W. Dodds, sergeant, 18th 

Bradford E. Long, captain, 67th Ind. 

Richard M. J. Miller, captain, 67th 

Thomas W. Zook, major, 63d Ind. 

John Hood, lieutenant, 80th Illinois 


Henry Bunger, 82d Ind. 
William F. Catheart, 82d Ind. 
Arthur E. Mellett, 9th Ind. 
Henry C. Duncan, 136th Ind. 

D. O. Spencer, corporal, 18th Ind. 

John R. East, 59th Ind. 

After much comparing of notes, 
data and taking the word of older 
citizens, we find that, although the 
greater percentage of men who left 
Indiana University to go into active 
service in the War of the Rebellion 
were included in the list from Mon- 
roe County, still some left school and 
enlisted from their "home towns." 

\\ ji 


H'-.- ^ ^ .■•t.%' 

Jj^o ■- 





V ».f»« r 

The Student Building— Erected 1906 at a cost of SIOO.OOO. Made possible through generosity 

of 2,000 Alumni and other friends of Indiana University. 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. '*Pop" Hall 


Boston, city of culture ; great 
In lore of Puritans sedate — 

I know you now ! 
With all your historic treasure 
You gave me keenest pleasure. 

I will avow. 

Your folk were not as stiff or cold 
As I had heard, in stories told : 

But, seemed quite free 
In givinjr us information 
Of the founders of our Nation, 

Who dimiped the tea. 

Though, when I asked to see the town. 
They told me. with a little frown : 

"Take the Subway !" 
I saw graves of ancestors, old 
And the route of Paul Revere, bold. 
Who saved the day. 

Found, none could say:*'Have a seegar!' 
East is so old, it lost the "R" — 

Talk sounded weak. 
To one from Hoosier soil. 
Where the "R" can never spoil 

The words we speak. 

In their grand Museum of Art, 

I dreamed and dreamed, in my heart. 

Of some great time. 
When I may learn just what dream 
Was back of each artist's theme. 

In thoughts sublime. 

At Cambridge, and Ha'v'd Square, 
I saw college boys, I swear. 

Just like our own^ 
From some little, old home town. 
Striving so hard to live down 

That greenness shown ! 

While, I did have lots of fun. 
I longed for old Bloomington, 

With deep yearning : 
The town that takes such pride 
In every advancing stride 

For great learning. 

Our own University, 

Whitch lived through adversity 

In pioneer days — 
I hear calling with her chimes. 
Youngsters, in the future times. 

From Life's byways. 

By erecting buildings strong. 
We can tell the coming throng 

Of heroes, brave. 
Who fought for Democracy 
Against foul autocracy. 

The world to save! 

They gave their tomorrows 
To lessen the sorrows 

Of our today ! 
Then, we must pass it along 
With gratitude in our song. 

Lest all decay! 

We must give to coming youth 
A Memorial that will, in truth. 

Win admiration- 
As did our educators 
And olden legislators 

Show inclination. 

All may help the truth to live 
Even, without cash to give. 

Do all we can: 
Some can talk, others may write. 
Wo can, at least, all sit tight — 

For fellow-man ! 

As did founders of our land 
Leave tokens we understand. 

Just so. we must 
Raise a Million in the drive 
To keep memories alive. 

And prove our trust 1 

The Licinian law, effective 275 B. 
C, forbade any one to own more than 
500 acres of land and more than 100 
large cattle, or 500 small animals. 
Another law of the same name, 56 
B. C, imposed a heavy penalty on 
those who organized clubs for mass- 
ing power at an election, while an- 
other law, 103 B, C, limited the funds 
one might expend for supplying his 

VERSITY IN 1921-22 

Bloomington and Surrounding Community Youth Take Advantage of Higher 
Educational Opportunities of College Situated at County Seat— Other 
States Send Students — Eight Foreign Countries Represented in Enroll- 

It may be easier for the present- 
day citizen of Bloomington and Mon- 
roe county to realize what a wonder- 
ful advantage the presence of Indiana 
University, a college of world-wide 
recognition in higher learning in the 
immediate vicinity is for the native 
youth of the community when we see 
that young folk from Monroe County, 
Indiana come to the institution in 
greater numbers than do students 
from any other place. 

University attendance honors again 
go to the three "M" counties; Monroe, 
Marion and Madison. Monroe county 
has 352 students enrolled in the Uni- 
versity, Marion 302 and Madison has 
72. Union county trails the list with 
a single representative, Greyson C. 

Gardner, '2.5, of Cottage Grove. 

Following Madison county in the 
attendance race are Greene, Lawrence 
and Allen counties with more than 50 
represntatives. Warren, Switzerland 
and Ohio rank with Union county, 
having less than five representatives. 

Twenty states are represented by 
students attending the University. 
Ohio, Kentucky and Illinois, all bor- 
dering states, have the largest num- 
ber of students with 15 representa- 
tives each. There is a total of 105 
students from outside of the state, 22 
of whom come from eight foreign 

At present 2,583 students are en- 
rolled in the University at Blooming- 
ton and 220 at Indianapolis. 



IN 1821 

Sum of $30 Expended in First Purchase of Books— Grows to 800 Volumes by 
1830 — No Records Kept of Detailed Transactions — Fund Established by 
10 Per Cent, of Proceeds From Town Lot Sales Proves Munificent. 

An early law of the state of Indi- 
ana — the same law which caused the 
county of Monroe to be organized — 
provided that 10 per cent, of the pro- 
ceeds of the sale of town lots in 
Bloomington, the county seat, should 
be used to found and maintain a coun- 
ty library. 

The first purchase of books was 
made in 1821, when $30 was expended 
for a few dozen works of that time. 
They were brought by one B. Fergu- 
son (we can find no other record of 
the person in the county's annals), 
whoever he may have been. 

Grows to 800 Volumes in 1830. 

In the records for July, 1830, it is 
shown that $2,428.14 had been paid 
to the Library Treasurer, the greater 
part of which had been used in the 
purchase of books, and at this time 
the county had a fine library for that 
period, consisting of about 800 books. 

In this year $1,272.68 was turned 
over to the Library by the Town 
Agent and another installment of 
books was obtained. 

As no record was kept of purchases, 
the additions to the Library cannot be 
obtained or given here. As volumes 
wore out by use or were otherwise 
"lost" they were replaced from the 
constantly accumulating fund. The 10 
per cent from sale of town lots had 

proven to be a munificent fund for 
the maintenance of the Library. 

In 1880, this old Library, compris- 
ing a list of over 2,000 volumes of 
standard works, was still in the same 
office that was built during the 

McClure Library Founded. 

During the Fifties the McClure Li- 
brary was founded, and was another 
very useful mode of disseminating 
knowledge among the common people 
of the time. 

But cheap books and the paper-back 
novels, along with newspapers and 
magazines have taken the place of the 
old circulating libraries. 

In our present time we may occa- 
sionally find a small circulating li- 
brary, which has been revived in prin- 
cipal from those of other days. 

Alexander the Great wept on find- 
ing Darius III had been killed by 
traitors just before a battle with Al- 
exander's army. 

Investigating scientists of the bu- 
reau of fisheries and the bureau of 
standards in Washington are seek- 
ing simple means of distinguishing skin leather from that made of 
animal hides, the fish skin manu- 
facturers having made their product 
so nearly perfect it is now well nigh 
impossible to distinguish the differ- 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 



History of Bloominj;ton's Schools Show Earnestness of Early Settlers in 
EducatiiiK Their Children — First Los Schoolhouse Erected in 1820 — 
Son, Dudley F. Smith, Still Living on January I, 1922. 

Early in the history of Monroe 
:ounty, we find that the education of 
;hildren was one of the great factors 
n pioneer life, especially in the coun- 
;y seat, and citizens of the present 
Zity of Bloomington may look back 
A^ith pride to the efforts of the early 
;ownsmen along this line. 

In an earnest endeavor to give the 
;rue history, as best we can now learn, 
jf the early incidents in the life of 
Bloomington, we find that some his- 
;orians have stated that Addison 
smith was probably the first school 
;eacher, but, in ti'acing the data which 
f/e are fortunate enough to discover 
ive find this to be evidently erron- 


Dudley C. Smith First Teacher. 

As near as we can learn for a cer- 
tainty, the first school in Blooming- 
ton was taught in the old log court 
douse, during the winter of 1818-19 
by Dudley C. Smith, father of Addi- 
son C. Smith. 

In order to prove our statement to 
this effect we herewith submit short 
sketches of the lives of the three men, 
and trust the readers may be enabled 
to form an opinion as to the correct- 
ness of our theory: 

Dudley C. Smith, the father of Ad- 

dison C. and Dudley P., was thrice 
married. He first married Maria 
Humphrey, who bore him one child — 
Olive (Givens). He was next married 
to Elizabeth Berry of English birth. 
Her brother founded an institution 
called "Harmony," where everything 
was in common. To this marriage 
were born two children. 

The family came to Monroe county 
in 1820, settling near Bloomington, 
and there remained for five years. 
They then moved to Van Buren town- 
ship and purchased 100 acres of land 
partly improved. 

They were among the first to set- 
tle there, and Mr. Smith died at this 
home at the age of eighty-four, pos- 
sesing 600 acres of land and $10,000 
in money at his death. He distributed 
this among his children. 

He was a member and elder of the 
Christian church for about forty 

Among First Born in Town. 

Addison C. Smith was born on 
March 11, 1827, in Bloomington, be- 
ing one of the first children born in 
the town. 

He was the oldest of three children 
born to Dudley C. and Elizabeth (Ber- 
ry) Smith, natives of Vermont and 

North Carolina, and of English de- 

Addison C. was reared on a farni, 
and for some time was sent to the 
public schools. He lived with his par- 
ents until he was eighteen j'ears old, 
when he began learning the carpenter 
trade following this for one year. 

He enlisted in he Mexican war, 
June, 1847, in Company A, 3rd Ind. 
Volunteers, serving under Captain 
John Sluss and Colonel James H. 
Lane, and took part in the battle of 
Buena Vista, and was honorably dis- 
charged at New Orleans, in July, 1848. 
Married Sarah Hardesty. 

After returning home he worked at 
his trade for two years. He then mar- 
ried Sarah Hardesty of Blooming-ton, 
Ind., a daughter of George and Mar- 
tha A. (Blair) Hardesty, Virginians, 
of English ancestry. 

By this marriage there were six 
children, of whom five survived to 
maturity — Donald H., Alice (Shir- 
ley), Egbert, Thurston and Rodney. 

In 1852 Mr. Smith removed his 
family to Missouri, settling near St. 
Joseph, where he entered forty acres 
and purchased forty acres of land. 

After residing in Missouri for six 
years, he returned with his family 
to Monroe county and establshed 
himself permanently in Van Buren 
township, where he took great inter- 
est in education, and gave all his chil- 
dren the best opportunities for learn- 

Addison C. Smith was a Republican 
and was Assessor of his township for 
four terms, and was appointed one 
year by the county board. 

He and his family were members 

Fairview Graded School Building. The McCall a Graded School Building. 

(Units in Bloomington's Superior Educational System, as they appeared in 1921.) 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

Bloomington Junior High School (Old College), and Central School Building (City's first gi'aded 
school, erected on site of the old tannery), where Professor Hunter established present system. 
(Units in Bloomington's Superior Educational System, as they appeared in 1921.) 

and active workers in the Christian 
church, and Mr. Smith was quite 
widely l^nown as a liberal giver in 

Dudley F. Smith, farmer and stock 
raiser, was born in Van Buren town- 
ship, Moni'oe county, Indiana, near 
Bloomington on March 17, 1839. 

He was the third of five children 
of parents Dudley C. and Isabelle 
(Porch) Smith, natives of Vermont 
and North Carolina, and of English 

The grandmother of Dudley F. 
Smith was a sister of Salmon P. 
Chase, of national fame. 

Dudley F. attended the common 
schools, and also the State University 
at Bloomington. His father had 
taught school for fifteen years, and 
he also followed that vocation to some 

Mr. Smith married Sarah Blanken- 
ship December 2.3, 1836. She was a 
native of Decatur, Indiana, a daughter 
of James and Dolly (Stark Blanken- 
ship, of English ancestry. To them 
were born, Winona, Ulyssees Howe 
and Paul Smith, and one other child 
which died in early childhood. Mr. 
Smith is now living in Bloomington, 
and is almost eighty-three years of 

He belonged to the Grange, is a 
Republican, and his family are mem- 
bers of the Christian church. 

Log School Houses Erected. 

The next summer (1820), a log 
school house was erected near the 
present site of Bloomington's postof- 

fice building or the old Female Sem- 
inary building, which is now owned 
by the Masons, and is situated just 
across the street north of the post- 

The growth of the town was so rap- 
id, however, that it was found neces- 
sary within the next two years, to 
build another log school house in the 
eastern part of the town. 


Some Interesting Data Found in Tracing Early History of Bloomington's M'on- 
derful School System — Growth of Patronage Constantly Increased With 
Each Year's Crop of Youngsters — Much Praise Due Early Instructors. 

We find the citizens of pioneer days 
in Bloomington rapidly taking on 
signs of true progress in the ad- 
vancement of education. The zeal- 
ous vigor shown by parents in an ef- 
fort to fit their children for meeting 
requirements in life's sti'uggle are 
evidenced in the rapid growth of the 
first schools, and it was soon found 
necessary to erect another new school 
building in the county seat. 

Brick School House Built. 

In 1822, or perhaps 1823, a brick 
school house was erected, which, with 
the two log school houses, with other 
schools taught in private homes or 
elsewhere, supplied the iown with 
public schools for several years. 

During the thirties, forties and fif- 
ties, other houses were built for 
school purposes, mainly for the ac- 
commodation of the smaller child. 

All these schools were supported 

mainly by subscription, as there was 
at that time no free schools as we 
know them in the present day. 
Churches were often used, as well as 
the upper stories of business houses 
situated on the public square. These 
places were rented for a series of 
years by educators, who converted 
them into seats of learning. All these 
schools were conducted more for the 
education of smaller children, who 
were not ytt ready to enter the Sem- 
inary or the University. 

Prof. D. E. Hunter Prominent. 
Professor D. E. Hunter was prom- 
inently connected with the town 
schools late in fifties, and during the 
sixties. The teachers of the public 
schools were mostly women, who were 
scattered throughout the town in 
buildings they were able to lease for 
this purpose. 

No grading was done at this time; 

Historic Treasures, Cumpiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


the scholars, both large and small in 
any part of the town, attended the 
school that was nearest their homes. 
Many of these schools were of the 
hig'hest character, having been taught 
liy <i'raduates of Indiana University 
(ir the Seminary; or in some cases 
taught by persons from abroad who 
had come west to follow their profes- 

The subject of grading the schools 
was strongly urged by Professor 
Hunter, a leader in the movement 
throughout the county, in 1863. The 
first public meeting to consider this 
subject was held by citizens of Bloom- 
ington on July 21 of that year, when 
Professor Hunter explained the prin- 
ciple of high, or graded schools. Oth- 
er meetings were held, and arrange- 
ments completed for opening the first 
gi-aded school in Monroe county in 
September, 1863. 

Free To .411 in Corporation. 

The first principal of the graded 
schools of Bloomington was Profes- 
sor Hunter, with assistants as fol- 

School, in the old Baptist chuich — 
Miss Mattie Cherry, Miss Lizzie An- 
derson and Miss Laura Verbrylie; 
school, in the Second Presbyterian 
church — Miss Mary Anderson; school, 
in the "new" building — Miss M. Mc- 

The principal held forth in the "new 
building" which was none other than 
the old tannery, on the later site of 
what we know as the "old" Central 
school building, which was considered 
a fine edifice when it was erected. 

Milton Hight was the trustee, and 
announced that the school system was 
"free to all pupils within the corpor- 
ation." It was found necessary to in- 
crease the school fund by several hun- 
dred dollars, which amount was raised 
by subscription among the citizens of 

Capacity Increased. 

Soon after the graded school sys- 
tem started it was found necessary to 
start another primary department, 
which was taught by Mrs. S. S. Get- 
zendanner. The old Center Scnooi 
house, as it was then called, was used 
as was also, a frame building situat- 
-ed on Seventh street between Lincoln 
and Grant streets. 

The old tannery building was thor- 
oughly overhauled and fitted up for 
the establishment of four depart- 
ments in 1864. This state of educa- 
tional facilities prevailed until the 
then "new" Central school building 
was started in 1871 and completed in 
1875, at a cost of over $.50,000. 

Bloomington Schools Unsurpassed. 

The public schools have never been 
surpassed by those of any town or 
city in the state, in standards of 
learning, and have stood out as super- 
ior to those of many places in disci- 
pline, and efective practical educa- 
tional work. 

Among the early high school prin- 
cipals or superintendents down to 
1881 we find the following: D. E. 
Hunter, E. P. Cole, G. W. Lee, James 
M. Wilson, W. R. Houngton and Miss 
M. H. McCalla, who have been spoken 
of in the highest terms of praise for 
the manner in which Bloomington's 

public schools were conducted and de- 

Figures for 1921. 

The comparative success of Bloom- 
ington's educational system may he 
seen by the following report for 1921: 

With enrollment opening day 201 
ahead of the corresponding day last 
year, Bloomington schools began their 
year's work in 1921. Supt. E. E. 
Ramsey states that there has been a 
gain in attendance in every building, 
all of which were already crowded. 

The senior high school leads vrith a 
gain of 99 students. 

The heaviest enrollment in any 
room was 72 in the Central Building. 
The next largest is 66 for one room in 
the McCalla building. The IB class 
is not quite as large as that of last 

Figures for the various buildings 
are as follows: 

1919-20 1920-21 

Senior H. S 486 585 

Junior H. S 580 615 

Central 508 540 

McCalla 441 449 

Fairview 329 339 

Banneker 81 98 

2425 2626 




In the Coldest Weather of Dead Winter, Little Fellows Ran Barefooted Through 
Snow to Schoolhouse — Carried "Hot" Board to Warm Their Freezin.'^ 
Feet— But, They Got an Education. 

We, of this present day may have 
heard of some of the children of the 
pioneer settlers of Indiana having 
gone to school barefooted during the 
whole year, winter included, but many 
of us look upon the story as a 
figure of speech. The mere fact 
that it seems impossible for a child 
to trudge through the snow and ice 
in the dead of winter with nothing 
upon its feet is probably responsible 
for our treating the matter so lightly. 

Fact in History. 

In Washington township, that por- 
tion of Monroe county, Indiana, sit- 
uated just due north of the city of 
Bloomington, and known to us as the 
neighborhood of Wayport and Hin- 
doostan, early settlers tell of the hard- 
ships endured in the decades of 1816 
to about 1836. 

In writing of the history of Wash- 
ington township. Weston A. Good- 
speed, in 1883, makes the following 

Go Barefooted in Winter. 

"Schools were taught during the 
thirties in the Collier, the Bales and 
Langwell neighborhoods. They were 
very imperfect in every respect ex- 
cept want of comfort and facilities for 

"The schools were taught in the 
rudest log houses, and were poorly at- 
tended, probably by children of two 
or three nearest families. 

"It was then the custom, as more 
than one resident of the township can 
testify from experience, to go to 
school winter and summer barefooted. 
That seems unreasonable, but it was 
done in Washington towmship." 

To begin with, the barefooted child 
had gone thus far into the seasons 
until his feet were hardened and cal- 
loused to resist the cold, by several 
extra layers of epidermis, which ne- 
cessity compelled Nature to provide. 

The child could stand a degree of 

cold which would, apparently, chill 
him to the bone, and could walk for 
some time in snow and frost without 
suffering more than he could bear 
with reasonable fortitude. 

Devise Crude "Foot Warmers." 

When he had to do extra duty in 
the snow, the child would take a 
small piece of board (hickory if he 
had it), say a foot wide and two feet 
long, which had been seasoned and 
partly scorched at the fire, and aft- 
er heating it until it was on the 
point of burning, he would start on a 
run toward the school house with the 
hot board in his hands. 

When his feet became too cold to 
bear with longer, he would put the 
hot board on the ground and stand 
upon it until the numbness and cold 
had been partially overcome. 

Takes Up "Stove" and Hikes. 

Then, he would again take his 
"stove" in his hand and make another 
(lasli for the school house, and repeat 
the process until the building had been 
reached. Sometimes a flat piece of 
rock was substituted for the board, 
and was much better as it held heat 
longer, but was too heavy for the 
smaller children to handle well. This 
was actually done in Washington 
township, Monroe County, as mention- 
ed above. 

One South American country has 
produced an emerald of 630 carats 
size and claimed it was the lai'gest 
emerald in the world, and then learned 
that fields in the Ural mountains have 
produced emeralds that weighed six 
and three-quarter pounds, while the 
South American stone weighed only 
one-third of a pound. The six-and- 
three-quarter-pound emerald was 
among the crown jewels of Russia and 
its location now is unknown. 

The Jenolan caves in New South 
Wales, discovered in 1841, rival the 
Mammoth cave of Kentucky in gran- 
deur, magnitude and variety. 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 




(Reprinted from History of Robert Fee Family) 

During the reign of James the Sec- 
ond and in the day of the fiery per- 
secution of the Presbyterians of Scot- 
land, when Claverhouse with his fiend- 
ish minions were hunting them down 
with such brutal ferocity, that to this 
day, wherever the Scottish race is 
settled on the face of the globe, his 
name is spoken with a peculiar energy 
of hatred, our maternal ancestor, 
David Dempster and family fled to 
Ireland for safety. They settled in 
County Antrim near Belfast. Their 
daughter Margaret married Robert 
Scott, who was also a strict Coven- 
anter. This much is known of the 
maternal ancestor; a period embrac- 
ing over sixty years before our pater- 
nal ancestor, Captain William Fee, 
appears upon the arena. We are in- 
troduced to him through a very pretty 
romance in his life. He was a Scot- 
tish Highlander and when first known 
to us was a captain in the English 
Army. One day, with banners flying, 
drums beating and bagpipe giving 
forth its enlivening strains, Captain 
Fee marched with his company 
through the streets of Belfast. He 
was every inch a soldier in martial 
bearing, being six feet eight inches 
tall, well proportioned and of hand- 
some features. Lady Elisabeth Daw- 
son, the young daughter of an Earl, 
was watching the procession of Reil 
Coats as they wended their way 
through the streets and was charmed 

"The bonniest lad that e'er she saw. 
Who wore a plaid, and was fu' braw- 
And on his head a bonnet blue. 
This bonnie hif^hland laddie." 

So deep an impression was made on 
the fair Elisabeth, that she sent a 
servant to Captain Fee with her com- 
pliments desiring an acquaintance. 
This seems to us a little unmaidenly 
but it was a privilege that her rank 
gave her and quite in the order of 
things. Captain Fee was at that age 
when such a request from so honor- 
able a source was intensely appreci- 
ated and he lost no time in complying 
with her re{|uest. They met and it 
was a repitition of the "old, old 
story." "The light that ne'er yet 
shone on land or sea" beamed from 
her beautiful eyes and the intrepid 
highland soldier surrendered his 
heart to the fair girl whose acquain- 
tance was so strangely formed. Some 
time afterwards they were married 
— in the year 1749. Her father ob- 
jected, not to the man, but that she 
was forming an alliance beneath her 

The Lady Elisabeth was disinher- 
ited, but her father, the Earl, gave 
her a farm in County .A.ntrim. Cap- 
tain Fee resigned his captaincy and 
they settled down in life on the little 
farm. There they lived a quite an- 
eventful life, and near by lies their 
sleeping dust. This union was blessed 
with five children: three girls, Lucre- 
tia, Eleanor and Elisabeth; two boys. 

Joseph and our Grandfather Robert, 
who was the and was born in 
17.50 near Ballymena. 

Strict Covenanters. 
Ill religion they were strict Cov- 
enanters, so called because they ad- 
hered to their covenanted vows. Rob- 
ert Fee married Rachel Scott in ihe 
year 1780. She was a granddaughter 
of our forefather David Dempster 
who left Scotland on account of the 
persecution of his family, as before 
stated. When Robert Fee desired the 
consent of Mrs. Margaret Scott to 
their marriage, she could not con- 
scientiously give her consent, as the 
young man was not a member of the 
Church. That one must be a strict 
member of the Church was paramount 
with them to every worldly considera- 
tion. Therefore, she frankly objected 
to their union. Mrs. Scott was a 
widow. Robert, however, being a 
"chip of the old block," persuaded 
Rachel to elope with him and he mar- 
ried her without her mother's consent. 
In a short while the mother relented 
and inv-ited them to her house. They 
remained over night, and, as was the 
custom with all Covenanters, 

"The cheerful supper done, wi' serious face. 
They roand the ingle formed a circle wide." 

to hold family worship. The Bible 
and Psalm book was given to Robert 
Fee and he was a.sked to lead in the 
family devotions. And be it said, to 
his credit, he cheerfully complied. On 
returning to his home a family altar 
was set up, whose fires were kept 
brightly burning for sixty years — 
extinguished only by death. He re- 
mained in County Antrim until the 
year 1791, when with his wife and 
four children and Mrs. Margaret 
Dempster Scott, his wife's mother, he 
emigrated to America. They arrived 
at Charleston, S. C, on Christmas 
day 1791, having been on the water 
13 weeks. They at once came to Ches- 
ter County, west of the Catawba 
river, where there was a settlement 
of their countrvmen of like religious 

Five Children Born. 
Five children were born of this 
union — four of them in Ireland — 
Margret, November 20, 1872; Robert 
Dec. 5, 1875; William, May 1, 1787; 
Jean, June 21, 1789. The youngest 
child, Mary, was born a short while 
after they arrived at their new home 
in 1791. Robert settled on a farm 
where he lived about thirty-nine 
years. Mrs. Scott died in 1793. His 
wife, Rachel, died, September 8, 
179.5, and Mary the youngest child 
died a few days later. They were all 
buried in the Burnt Meetinghouse 
graveyard, near Wylie's Mill postof- 
fice, Chester county. About two years 
after the death of his wife he was 
married to a Miss Nancy Allen. She 
lived about ten vears. She had no 

children and was of very delicate 


Took Third Wife. 

In the year 1816 our grandfather, 
though sixty-six years old, being de- 
cidedly of the opinion that "it is not 
good for man to be alone," married a 
third wife in the person of Miss Isa- i 
bel Hayes. At this time his chikh-en ' 
were all married and strenuously ob- 
jected to his third matrimonial ven- 
ture, except the youngest daughter 
Jean, who had married William Cher- 
ry. She went to her father's home 
and received him and his bride, and 
reconciled the other children. That 
Isabel Hayes was a most estimable 
woman may be inferred from the 
number of children in the families 
who bear her name. Two children, 
Matthew Hayes, born February 7, 
1817, and Joseph Dawson, November 
8, 1818, were the fruit of this union. 

Came to Bloomlngton. 

The Covenanters believed it to be 
a heinous crime to barter in human 
flesh; hence Robert Fee Sr., never 
o\\ ned slaves. He believed that slav- 
ery- would eventually bring war be- 
tween the North and South, hence 
he left South Carolina in November, 
1830, and came to Indiana, being then 
in his eightieth year. Besides his 
wife and his two young sons, Mat- 
thew and Joseph, his son William and 
family, his son-in-law, William Tate 
and family emigrated to Indiana at 
the same time. Robert Fee Sr., set- 
tled near Bloomington, Ind., where 
many of his descendants .still remain 
to this day. 

He lived to be ninety-one years of 
age. This remarkable man was never 
sick a day in his life, and his death 
was due to a fall by which he received 
injury to his head. He died July 21, 
1841, at his home, near Bloomington, 
and was buried in the old Covenanter 
cemetery, east of Bloomingrton. 
William Orr Fee. 

William Orr Fee, second son of 
William and Elizabeth Ferguson Fee, 
although born in Chester County, 
South Carolina, March 10, 1815, was 
one of the pioneers of Monroe county, 
having come to Bloomington with 
his father. One of the incidents of 
his boyhood he loved to tell of was 
a trip to Charleston, S. C, with his 
parents when he was a "wee, sma' 
fellah," where he had the pleasure of 
riding on the first railroad built there, 
which was ten miles long, and the 
cars were propelled by sails, much as 
a ship — this was before the use of 
the steam locomotive. 

After the family moved to Bloom- 
ington in 1830, he remained at the 
homestead near this cit.v for some 
years, and after a trip to his native 
home in the south in 1839 returned 
to Bloomington where he engaged in 
various pursuits. He merchandised 
in Morgantown, then taught school 
near Bloomington, and was a stock 
dealer, marketing horses in New Or- 
leans, and cattle in Wisconsin. In 
1841 he engaged in the mercantile 
business in Bloomington and proved 
himself worthy of the confidence in 
his ability and honesty placed in him 
by fellow-townsmen, as people would 
deposit their money with him for safe- 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


keeping, before Bloomington's banks 
werei organized. He retired from 
active business life in 1882, and gave 
his attention to farming. He made 
a fitting choice of a life companion 

in his marriage to Miss Jane Innian 
Owens, September 5, 1850. 

Many descendents of the Fee family 
are a part of Bloomington and Monroe 
county's citizenship at present, Janu- 
ary 1, 1922. 



Dr. David H. Maxwell, the first 
doctor to practice medicine in what 
is now the City of Bloomington, be- 
sides among those pioneer frontiers- 
men who helped clear the way for 
civilization and peaceful settlement of 
the new country by fighting Indians, 
along with Colonel Ketcham and (Jap- 
tain Dunn, won a place in history as 
a statesman, whose ability was re- 
sponsible for the wonderful educa- 
tional advantages now offered by our 
"City of Higher Learing." 

In 1812, Dr. Maxwell joined the 
historic organization of Rangers, and 
served under Captain Williamson 
Dunn (mentioned by Colonel John 
Ketcham, in his account of the Indian 
battles of the Rangers), as surgeon, 
for about a year during the cam- 
paigns of the whites in quelling eind 
subduing the Indians in their incui'- 
sons on the pioneer white settlements 
of Indiana. 

After the company of Rangers dis- 
banded, in 1813, Dr. Maxwell located 
in Madison, Indiana, and it was from 
this place that he was elected as dele- 
gate to that historic First Constitu- 
tional convention, held at Corydon, in 

Drafted First Constitution. 

Elected a delegate to the first Con- 
stitutional convention, held at Cory- 
don, Indiana Territory, in 1816, from 
Madison, Dr. David H. Maxwell won a 
place in honorable history of Indiana 
by one deed he performed in having 
been the man who drew up the First 
Constitution of Indiana. 

Had this been the only thing Mon- 
roe's pioneer physician did, u vvuuid 
have been sufficient honof lor uiiis 
man to be rememberd for; but, we 
find in looking up the life of this 
truely great benefactor of our pres- 
ent citizenship, that his life was com- 
pletely filled with deeds of valor in 
preparing for the coming of future 

Dr. David H. Maxwell was elected 
to the House of Representatives 
from this district for four con- 
secutive years, 1821, 1822, 1823, 1824, 
and in one of these years he was 
chosen Speaker of the House. In the 
years 182.5-1826 he was elected as 
Senator from this district composed 
of Monroe, Owen and Green counties. 
First Doctor in Bloomington. 

Removing from Madison to Monroe 
county in 1819. Dr. Maxwell lo- 
cated in Bloomington, the county seat 
of the then new county, and estab- 
lished his family in their new home 
which was situated on the lot where 
what was known as "The National 
House" in later years was erected. 
He was the first practicing physician 

in Bloomington. He also served as 
postmaster of Bloomington for four 
years during an eventful and useful 
life, which ended with his death. May 
24, 1854. His widow, Mary (Dunn) 
Maxwell, survived the death of her 
husband nearly twenty-six years, and 
in 1880, on March 18, died at the 
unusual age of ninety-three ^ears. 
President Madison's Act. 

It was in the year, 1816, that Presi- 
dent Madison had designated what 
is now Perry township (old Seminary 
township) in Moni-oe county, as the 
additional township to which Indiana 
Territory would be entitled, under rul- 
ing of the United States Congres- 
sional Act, for educational purposes 
on becoming a State. And, naturally, 
as a member of th Constitutional Con- 
vention, Dr. Maxwell's attention was 
directed to Monroe county from this 
time on, and at the first sale of 
town lots, in 1818, he purchased one 
of the first locations in Bloomington. 
On May 10, 1819, the >ear following 
the establishment of Monroe county 
and Bloomington as the county seat, 
Dr. David H. Maxwell moved his fam- 
ily to Bloomington and established 
his home on the lot where later the 
old "National House" was erected. 

We quote the following from "Indi- 
ana University, Its History from 1828 
to 1890": 

Unusual Foresight. 

"Dr. Maxwell appreciated more 
than most of the early settlers the 
advantages of an education higher 
than that of the country schools, and 
also anticipated the educational pos- 
sibilities at Bloomington. He chose 
this place as his home, and ever since 
to the end of his life, in his character 
as a private citizen, as a representa- 
tive and senator, as an excellent 
writer, as a man of sound judgment, 
and for many years as president of 
the board of trustees, he was indefa- 
tigable in his labors for the interests 
of the University." 

Having been a member of the First 
Contiutional Convention, and well ac- 
quainted with most of the early legis- 
lators of the State, Dr. Maxwell went 
to Corydon in the winter months of 
1819-1820, to use his influence in pi'o- 
curing, if possible, the location of 
the State Seminary at Bloomington. 
Effort Was Successful. 

Evidently, Dr. Maxwell's efforts as 
a lobyist for Monroe county's inter- 
ests were successful, for we find that 
on January 20, 1820, an act was 
passed by the Indiana Legislature es- 
tablishing the Seminary at this place 
in the old Seminary (now Perry) 
township, including ten acres (where 
Bloomington's High School is now sit- 

uated) just bordering the town of 

Dr. Maxwell was appointed one of 
the trustees of the Seminary, and 
was elected to the presidency of this 
body by the assembled board of trus- 
tees soon after their organization. 
With the exception of the years 1838 
when he was elected to the state leg- 
islature, he was president of the board 
of trustees, first of the Seminary 
from 1820 to January 24, 1828, when 
Indiana College was established out of 
the old Seminary, then of Indiana 
College until February 15, 1841, when 
Indiana University was chartered out 
of the Indiana College system, and the 
board of trustees reduced to nine, of 
which new University Trustees he 
was elected president, and sei-ved un- 
til 1851, when he resigned this honor- 
able position. 

Born Sept. 17, 1786. 

Dr. Maxwell, it seems, was born 
in Gerrard County, Kentucky, near 
Lancaster, September 17, 1786. His 
parents had come to Kentucky from 
Virginia, and his grandparents had 
come to America from the northern 
part of Ireland, the County London- 
derry, who having been Scotch-Irish 
Pj-esbyterians, emigrated at a vei-y 
early date to the colony of Virginia. 
Under the infuence of rigid discipline 
of this Scotch-Irish parentage, Dr. 
Maxwell reared his own family. His 
early education had been received in 
the home of his father, aided by such 
as the early-day neighborhood schools 
of Kentucky afforded, until he went 
to Danville, Ky., at the age of eight- 
een to complete his education. There 
he became well versed in mathematics 
for that early time, and was con- 
sidered an excellent English scholar 
and well read, though not classical 

He studied medicine with Dr. Eph- 
raim McDowell, a man who was re- 
puted to be a leading doctor and sur- 
geon in Danville in those pioneer 
times. After he had prepared him- 
self for the competent practice of his 
profession, he married Mary. E. Dunn, 
of Danville, Ky., in 1809 and moved 
to Jefferson County, Indiana Terri- 
tory (where Hanover now stands), and 
practiced medicine in that vicinity un- 
til about 1812. 

Worthy Son Is Doctor. 

The oldest son of Mr. David H., and 
Mary (Dunn) Maxwell was born May 
19, 1815, near Hanover, Jefferson 
county, Indiana, and was named James 
D. Maxwell. This son came to Mon- 
roe county with his parents, in 1819, 
and in 1827, eight years later, entered 
the old Seminary, in Bloomington, 
where he graduated in the fall of 1833, 
after having taught in the prepar- 
tory department of the college for 
two years. He then travelled to Mis- 
sissippi, and taught school in the town 
of Clinton, to which only the aristro- 
cracy of the white southern planta- 
tion owners sent their children in that 
early day. 

Returning to Bloomington, after 
teaching in the southern town one 
year, young James D. Maxwell took 

up the study of medicine under the di- 
rection of his able father, and attend- 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

ed a course of lectures at Transyl- 
vania Medical College, in Lexington 
college after two years of study with 
his father. After returning to Bloom- 
ington, he entered regular practice 
of medicine with his father for another 
year, then formed a partnership with 
Dr. J. G. McPheeters. This partner- 
ship continued for about nine years, 
when it was dissolved and the two 
doctors each looked after their sep- 
arate practice. Dr. James D. Max- 
well was elected secretary of the 
board of trustees of Indiana College 
from 1838 to 1855, and was a member 
of the board of trustees again from 
1860 until his death, as well as look- 
ing after his duties among the sick. 

July 6, 1843, Dr. James Maxwell 
married Miss Louisa J. Howe, daugh- 
ter of Joshua O. Howe, a pioneer of 
Monroe county. Ten chidren were born 
of this happy union, as follows : Emma 
M., Mary E., Howard, Allison, James 
D. Jr., David H. Jr., Anna, Louisa 
A., Fannie B., and Juliette Maxwell. 
The family of Dr. Maxwell was reared 
in the teachings of the Presbyterian 

church, of which the parents were 


James Darwin Maxwell Prize. 

Miss Juliette Maxwell, '83, director 
of physical education for women in 
Indiana University (youngest child of 
Dr. James D., and grandaughter of 
Dr. David H. Maxwell), offers an 
annual prize to students of Indiana 
University to be known as the "James 
Darwin Maxwell Medal," in memory 
of her father, James D. Maxwell, '33. 
This prize is awarded to a woman 
undergraduate of Indiana University 
each year, consideration being given to 
high scholarship, participation in Uni- 
versty activities, bearing, manner, 
neatness, principles, sincerity, suffici- 
ent attainment in physical education 
to be eligible for an "I. U." sweater. 

In 1920 — 1921 school year this prize 
in honor of Dr. Maxwell's honorable 
life, was awarded to Miss Louis Van- 
ceave, an undergraduate woman stu- 
dent of Indiana University. 




During the decade of the Thirties, 
away back there, when an education 
was considered a luxury, there came 
to Bean Blossom township, in Mon- 
roe county, Indiana, three brothers, 
Eusebius, Euraneus and Ambrose 
Hinkle, sons of a wealthy slave-holder 
of Tennessee. 

The three young men were soon 
noted among the then backwoodsmen 
for their fine manners, which marked 
them as men of good family, and fin- 
ished education. 

These men were in such demand 
to take charge of schools in the com- 
munity that comparatively large sums 
were offered them as teachers. These 
amounts were raised by subscriptions 
in addition to the amount of money 
supplied by the school fund to pay the 
three brothers for their services. 

The Hinkle brothers became famous 
as educators and maintained the best 
quality of discipline that could be 
boasted of in any of the early settle- 
ments at the time. 

Eusebius Hinkle, one of the broth- 
ers, the oldest of the three, was a 
Lutheran minister, and often preached 
in German to members of his church 
who could not understand English 
very well. 

The brothers were single men, 
though Eusebius married one of the 
fair daughters of Bean Blossom town- 
ship at a later date. 

These men introduced grammar, 
United States history, and algebra 
into their schools and created an in- 
terest in improved and advanced edu- 
cation that had a marked effect upon 
the schools of the surrounding coun- 

Clinton C. Owens was another early 
teacher in the township who was 
famous as a teacher of pronounced 
success. He was well educated and 
his discipline was the pride of the 
district where he taught. 


Bloomington has had her quota of 
medical men, the same as every other 
city in the United States, and these 
men whose work brings them into 
such close touch with all that is vital 
in the life of the community in whicli 
they labor have maintainetl a very 
high standard of professional effi- 
ciency, in keeping with the progres- 
sive spirit of our city and great Uni- 

Before the World War plans were 
discussed and partially completed for 
the still closer co-operation of these 
medical men by the organization of a 
medical and surgical clinic. The in- 
tentions was to erect a modern build- 
ing in which would be located the 
offices, library, laboratories, first aid 
rooms, etc., of the members. The 
idea was that by having a modern, 
well equipped clinic building in which 
the physicians would caiTy on their 

work and study as is done in the Mayo 
Brothers clinic at Rochester, Mimi., 
the close association of the members 
would greatly benefit by improving 
the (juality of work done, and by 
creating a medical and surgical cen- 
ter for the public. 

When the United States took her 
stand in the great World War, Bloom- 
ington sent her (luota of physicians 
into the conflict and the clinic plans 
were of course interrupted. After 
peace was declared these men were 
gradually tlischarged and returned 
home to pick up the broken threads 
of their profession, and the cimic 
idea was again taken up. This time 
the plans were worked out more in 
detail, and the members incorporated. 
A modern building of pleasing archi- 
tectual design for the exclusive use 
of the clinic will be built in the near 

The membership as it now stands is 
as follows: 

F. H. Austin — Internal medicine : pastro in- 
testinal diseases. 

F. H. Batman — General practice. 

W. H. Culmer — Ear. nose and throat. 

O. K. Harris — Ellettsville. Ind. — General i)rac- 

W. W. Harris — General practice. 

J. E. P. Holland — Eye — Also University phy- 

G. F. Holland — Major surgery. 
Joseph Kentlinp — General practice. 

G. L. Mitchell. Smithville. Ind. — General prac- 
O. M. Morris — General in-actice. 

B. D. Myers — Professor of anatomy. 
Wm. C. I^eed — General practice. 

O. F. Ro«:ers — General practice. 
R. C. Rojrers — General practice. 
J. C. Ross — General practice. 
Rodney Smith — Anesthetics and y:eneral prac- 

C. C. Strouii — General ijractice. 
F. F. Tourrer- General ijractice. 
J. P. Tourner General practice. 
Leon E. Whetsell — Chronic disease^e 

X-Ray laboratory. 
Homer Wooley — Pediatrics and obstetreas. 


Halos (sundogs), the large circles 
or parts of circles about the sun or 
moon, occurring after the weather in- 
dicate the approach of a storm. 

A tleep blue sky color, even when 
seen through the clouds, is an indica- 
tion of fair weather; a growing white- 
ness indicates an approaching storm. 

The small colored circles (corona) 
fre(|uently seen around the sun or 
moon, are regarded as indications of 
changing weather. A corona grow- 
ing smaller indicates rain; a corona 
growing larger indicates fair weather. 



First Step in Establishing Higher Educational Institutions Was .\ttractive 
Feature in the Growth of Hluoinington's Early Lif« — Old Female Seminary 
Came Later in the Field — Building Finally ('((nvcrletl into Residence. 

The State of Indiana was admitted 
to the Union on the 11th day of De- 
cember, 1816. The State constitution 
provided for a graded system of 
schools leading upward from the town- 
ship school to the State University. 
Indiana was at that time, however, a 

dense foiest, broken only by scattered 
settlements along the Ohio river and 
the lower Wabash. Little immediate 
progress was therefore made in the 
direction of higher education. Ten 
years previously (Nov. 29, 1806) the 
General Assembly of the Territory of 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


Indiana had incorporated a university 
at Vincennes, but for reasons which 
need not be given here, the Vincennes 
University was never fully recognized 
as a State institution. During the 
administration of President Monroe a 
township of land was given by the 
national government to the State of 
Indiana for university purposes. This 
township, the present one of Perry, 
lying on the southern boundary of the 
town of Bloomington, was located by 
Monroe, in honor of whom the county 
containing the township was named 
Monroe county. 

In the early times of our state's 
life, it should be remembered the free 
common school system of today was 
unknown. Schplars then were required 
to pay tuition fees in all schools. 

As the weight of these expenses 
fell upon the families who were less 
able to sustain it, the system, if such 
it may be called, was not favorable 
to the education of the masses. Also, 
there was a lack of higher education- 
al facilities in the early times. 

Creation of Centers of Learning. 

All this led to the creation of cen- 
ters of learning where private or 
public enterprise, or individual dona- 
tions and bequests were the sustain- 
ing or maintaining power. 

The County Seminary was designed 
to afford each county the means of 
furnishing a higher education to the 
youth within its own borders. For 
many years this proved to be a pop- 
ular institution. 

The funds for maintenance of the 
Seminary was furnished from fines, 
forfeitures, etc. 

In July, 1829, the fund in Monroe 
County, "Indiana, was $443.89. Six 
years later, the fund had increased to 
nearly $2,000. 

Brick Seminary Building Erected. 

At this time, the old brick Semin- 
ary building was built in Blooming- 
ton, and school in it was begun. 

Long, long before the idea of ever 
allowing a girl to attend the same 
college as the boy — rather, a young 
lady and young man — Bloomington 
was put on record by the establish- 
ment and incorporation of what we 
of today have heard called "The Old 
Female Seminary." 

This institution of Monroe county 
was incorporated in 18.33 under the 
name of "Monroe County Seminary 
and Female Institute," and committed 
to a board of trustees. 

From its first organization, (with 
the exception of one session it was 
placed under the sutierintendency of 
Prof. C. Pering, A.M., as principal, 
whose literary attainments and ex- 
periences as an instructor eminently 
qualified him for this responsible pos- 
ition. (Mention is made of both Mr. 
Pering and the "Seminary" in other 
articles in this book.) 

Three Classes. 

The pupils were divided into three 
classes. Primary, Junior and Senior, 
in which the charges were respective- 
ly, $5, $7, and $10 each session — extra 
charges were made for French, $8; for 
Music, with use of piano, $10; for 
painting in crayon and oil, $10, in 
water colors, $8; and for a course of 
lessons in Short Hand, $3. 

The price of boarding for pupils in 

Old "Seminary Building," first building we have any record of 
as a part of the great educational institution we know as 
Indiana University — this appeared in Professor Pearing's 
letter as the smaller building on the old College Campus- 

Bloomington was from $1.25 to $2 a 
week, including room. 

In one of the institution's adver- 
tisements we find the following: 

"Ladies desirous of qualifying them- 
selves for competent and efficient 
teachers, so much needed throughout 
our State and country, will find the 
mode of teaching and discipline here 
pursued well calculated to promote 
this desirable obiect." 

The following advertisement ap- 
peared in the "Indiana Gazette and 
Advocate" issued in Bloomington, Ind. 
on April 25, 1835, which gives us 
a rather good idea of the old school, 
and the terms for tuition and the sub- 
jects taught. Also, it gives us in- 
formation concerning the educational 
standards of that day. 
"Monroe County Female Seminary." 

"The first session of this institu- 
tion will commence on Monday, the 
4th of May next, in the new building 
erected by the Trustees for that pur- 

"The high and airy situation of the 
edifice, it is presumed, will materially 
conduce to the comfort and health of 
the Young Ladies who may attend 

"The terms for a general English 
education are eight dollars per session 
of five months, Music ten dollars, 
Drawing and Painting in water col- 
our, eight dolars. The French 
language eight dollars, Stenography 
three dolalrs the course. 

"The advantages offered to the pub- 

lic in this establishment are of the 
highest order. Mr. Pering's abilities, 
and success as a teacher are well 
known, and we will, we trust, ensure 
the patronage of an inteligent com- 

"By order of the Board of Trustees. 
"WM. ALEXANDER, Sec'y." 

Converted Into Residence. 

In 1852, when the new school law 
was adopted, the Seminai-y was or- 
dered sold, and was purchased by the 
Methodists, but soon after was re- 
turned to the county, and was used 
for school purposes for many years. 

Some time during the late seven- 
ties or early eighties, the county sold 
the Seminary to Mr. Leppert, who 
converted it into a dwelling. 

The building is owned at the pres- 
ent time by the Bloomington lodge 
of Masons, who, it is understood, in- 
tend to wreck the old building and 
construct a modern lodge home on the 
lot, which is situated north across the 
street from Bloomington's present 
Post Office building. 

More people live in the valley of 
the Yangtse Kiang than along any 
other of the world's greatest water- 

Radium traces in hot mineral wa- 
ters point to its existence in con- 
siderable quantities in the interior 
of the earth. 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


Educational Institution Was Great Factor in Growth of Bloomin<;ton in Early 
Days — Dr. Wylie's Arrival in City Occasion for Celebration — Joseph A. 
Wright Was Janitor, Later Became Governor of State — Future Must Be 
Looked After. 

Indiana University was first named 
"Indiana College" and later became 
a school for both men and women, but 
at first was an exclusive men's col- 
lege, and the old Female Seminary 
took care of the feminine seekers of 

We realize that most of Blooming- 
ton residents are familiar with his- 
tory of the old school, still most ar- 
ticles we have found on the subject 
are drawn out and co\er so many de- 
tails that some people merely glance 
over the pages and lose the fine 

On the 20th of January, 1820, an act 
was passed definitely establishing the 
"State Seminary," in Perry township, 
at Bloomington. This seminary, giv- 
ing at first instruction little nigner 
than that of the present common 
schools, was changed by the act of 
January 24, 1828, into the "Indiana 
College." The college was organized 
by the election of a president, Dr. 
Andrew Wylie, and two professors, 
Baynard R. Hall and John Harney. 
During the first year 42 students were 
enrolled, and in 1830 a class of four 
finished the classical course. 

The institution known as "Indiana 
College" was built in 182.3 (we find 
in a note of 1830 date) and was the 
pride of the town. 

"In 1830," says an old history, "the 
population of Bloomington was not 
less than 700. At that time the 'In- 
diana College' had a large attendance, 
an excellent corps of instructors and a 
superior curriculum. 

Bloomington Prosperous. 

"This institution, which was built 
in 1823, was the pride of the town 
and the means of rapidly and gi-eatly 
increasing its population, enterprise 
and material wealth. The town also 
boasted a flourishing newspaper. 

"The citizens had established the 
village a number of years before and 
this was another source of joy and 
satisfaction. In addition to all this 
there were numerous factories of 
leather, liquor, domestic and farming 
implements, flour, tailor goods, oil, 
and numerous stores, shops, offices, 
mechanics, artisans, tradesmen, edu- 
cators, professional men and specu- 
lators. The pioneer town of Bloom- 
ington was a prosperous place." 

From other sources we find that 
iu 1822, the Trustees let out the 
building of two seminary houses, one 
to be used as a dwelling for a teach- 
er, and the other for the State Sem- 

Seminary Absorbed in 1827-28. 

At the session of the Legislature 
in 1827-28, an act was passed 1x) 

transform the State Seminary into 
the Indiana College, and Edward Bor- 
land, Samuel Dodds, Leroy Mayfield, 
Jonathan Nichols, James Blair, Da- 
vid H. Maxwell, William Banester 
and William Lowe, of Monroe county; 
Seth M. Levenworth of Crawford 
county, and William Dunn of Mont- 
gomery county, were appointed to 
make the alternation and establish the 
new institution in accordance with 
the provisions of the new enactment. 
"On May 5, 1828, the above named 
board of trustees met in the Semi- 
nary building in Blomington, elected 
Dr. D. H. Maxwell, president of the 
board; the Rev. P. M. Dorsey, secre- 

tary, and James Borland, treasurer. 
And on motion of Mr. Dunn, proceed- 
ed to the election of officers of the 
new Indiana College. 

Dr. Wylie Chosen President. 

"The Rev. Andrew Wylie, D.D., of 
Washington county, Pennsylvania, 
was unanimously chosen President of 
the college; B. R. Hall, R-ofessor of 
Languages, and John H. Barney, Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics and Natural 
Phylosophy for one session, at a sal- 
ary of $400 per year, with the addi- 
tion of $40 to Harney for house rent. 
The following is a copy of an allow- 
ance made to Joseph A. Wright, aft- 
ei-ward Governor of Indiana: 
Rang School Bell — Became Governor. 

"Ordered, That Joseph A. Wrght 
be allowed for ringing the college 
bell, making fires in the college build- 
ing during the last session of the 
State Seminary, .$16.25; also for lock, 
bell rope and brooms, $1.37 1-2, and 
that the treasurer of the late State 
Seminary pav the same. 

"In the fail of 1828 President An- 
drew Wylie arrived in Bloomington, 
and the occasion was considered of 







Later drawing of Old Indiana Conege uuilding, which Professor 
Poring described and pictured in his letter. 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


much importance; a torch-light pro- 
cession and public illuminations was 
given in his honor. Jealousy on the 
part of Professors Hall and Harney 
led to unpleasantness, which event- 
ually caused them to leave in 1832. 

"The college flourished greatly un- 
der the management of President 
Wylie, and its influence was soon felt 
upon the community. People of cul- 
ture and refinement came to live in 
the tovioi; churches grew strong and 
shed their influence abroad, and the 
presence of superior intellectual and 

moral cultui-e made the town justly 
famous throughout the state." 

The City of Bloomington owes a 
great part of her prosperity of past 
years, and her growth to Indiana 
University, and the institution will 
continue to spread out in order to 
accommodate more students as time 

In 1831 the first annual catalogue 
was published. On the 15th of Feb- 
ruary, 1838, an act was passed chang- 
ing the name of the institution to 
"The Indiana University." 




Seminary Township One of Two Set Apart By Law In Indiana for Educational 
Purposes — Later Named Perry Township — Infested by "Squatters in Early 
Days of Land Settlement — First Purchasers — Opened For Settlers in 1827 
— Rural Schools of Present. 

When we look back upon the deeds 
of our early legislators, and see the 
results of some of their foresighted- 
ness in preserving certian lands for 
educational purposes, we can only 
offer a prayer of gTatitude for their 
gifts to the present and future gen- 

A very clear demonstration of what 
those early law-makers were intend- 
ing to accomplish has been brought out 
in tracing back the history of what we 
know as Perry township, situated in 
Monroe County, just edging in the 
southern part of the present-day City 
of Bloomington. 

The Seminary Township. 

Township S north, Kange 1 west, 
was one of two in the State of Indiana, 
devoted by legislative enactments to 
special school purposes. 

The Indiana State University was 
then unknown, and its future place in 
the social system of humanity was un- 
thought of. 

In the year 1820, the General As- 
sembly of Indiana, in pursuance of 
an act of Congress, selected two full 
Congressional townships — one in Gib- 
son County, and the other in Monroe 
County, Indiana — to be used in found- 
ing and maintaining two State Sem- 

Commission Appointed. 

The selection was made through the 
medium of a commission, appointed 
by the State Legislature, such officers 
being required to locate the tovmships 
and carry into effect other provisions 
specified. This was done and Perry 
Township, or as it was known at that 
time Township 8 north, Range 1 west, 
being the township selected in Monroe 

Trustees were appointed to super- 
intend the erection of the necessary 
seminary buildings — two — one for the 
school, and the other for the Principal 
to occupy. 

This work was done in 1822, four 
sections of land on the north side of 
the towniship being reserved for the 
site of the seminary. Sections 4 and 5 

and the west half of Sections 3 and 9, 
with the east half of Sections 6 and 8. 
These four full sections of land were 
reserved from sale. Neither were 
"squatters" allowed to make improve- 
ments thereon, such as clearing the 
land, erecting buildings, planting- 
crops, etc. 

"Squatters" Took Up Abodes. 

The rest of the Seminary Township 
was treated diffirently, however, and 
many "squatters" took up abodes on 
the land from year to year. The citi- 
zens were aware of course, that at 
some future time, the lands of the 
township, except perhaps the reserved 
sections, would be thrown into the 
market and sold in parcels to suit the 
purchaser for the highest obtainable 
purchace price. 

None of this land being remote from 
the county seat, and much of it very 
iiear, with the rapid growth of Bloom- 
ington, then the location of the State 
Seminary there, and the coming of ed- 
ucators and people of unusal (at that 
early day) culture created a demand; 
or rather, inspired a covetiousness for 
the land of the township. 

In the early twenties its bounds 
were invated by an army of eager 
"squatters," who went to work, regard- 
less of the fact that they had no right 
to do so, erecting buildings, cutting- 
down the forest, erecting mills, etc., as 
if the land already belonged to them. 
Wanted Land Sold. 

The year passed, the "squatters" 
ever clamoring for the sale of this 
land, and at last, in 1827, the Legis- 
lature provided for throwing this 
much sought for land upon the mar- 
ket. Then the "squatters" became 
quite a bit worried, for some had made 
extensive improvements and had be- 
come much attached to their home (?) 
as the sale ment that their claims 
should be subjected to competitive bids 
of speculators, prospective citizens 
and themselves. 

The speculators, for instance, could 
bid on a "squatter's" claim, and if wil- 
ling to buy the improvements which 

the law of pre-emption required of him 
could run the price far above that 
which the "squatter" himself was will- 
ing- or able to give, and thus secure 
the home of the settlers in spite of all 
he could do. 

Sharp Competition For Land. 

Nothing- serious was done, however, 
although some sharp competition de- 
veloped for the tracts of the superior 
quality or most favorable location. 

The appraisment of the land was 
made by James Borland, in June, 1827, 
and the rating of the land will be 
noted in the following certificate made 
by Mr. Boland: 

"I hereby certify that the above is 
a plat of the Reserve Township of sem- 
inary land in Monroe County as rated 
by me agreeably to an act of the Gen- 
eneral Assembly of the State of Ind- 
iana, approved January 25, 1827. 

"Given under my hand this 15th day 
of June, 1827. 
"JAMES BORLAND, Commissioner." 

The land was not subject to entry 
in the usual way at the land offices. 
It was under the control of a special 
commissioner, who was empowered to 
negotiate the transfer. For a period of 
years James Borland was this commis- 

Named For Commodor Ferry. 

Previous to 1830, the township re- 
mained attached to Bloomington town- 
ship for election and judicial purposes, 
but at a later date was given a sepa- 
rate organization and named in honor 
of Commodore Perry, the author of the 
famous message, "We have met the 
enemy and they are ours," referring 
to his victory on Lake Erie. 

Elections were ordered held at the 
house of Benjamin Kenton, for two 
Justices of the Peace. Mr. Kenton was 
appointed inspector; Jesse Davis and 
George A. Ritter, overseers of the 
poor; Solomon Butcher and Finney 
Courtney, fence viewers. The first 
election was held on May 26, 1830. 

The first purchasers of land in this 
opening of the Seminary to-wnship 
(Perry), in 1827 as shown by old 
records, were chiefly the "squatters" 
and some Bloomington residents. Many 
names are still prominent among 
those of families of Bloomington re- 
sidents and the surrounding- county. 
The first purchasers were as follows: 
First Land Owners. 

Alexander Kelly, Joseph Piercy, 
John Armstrong, and John Griffith, 
in Section No. 1. 

James G, Fleener, Gran-ville Ward, 
Milton McPhetridge, Isaac Rodgers, 
Aquilla Rodgers and Samuel Dunn, in 
Section No. 2. 

Thomas Smith, on Section No. 3. 

George Henry, James Borland, Ellis 
Stone and Hiram Paugh, on Section 
No. 6. 

Emsley Wilson, Andrew Dodds, Ab- 
raham Pauley, Richard Hunter and 
Alexander Murphy, on Section No. 7. 

Sammuel Dodds, Richard (Dick) 
Shipp and John Hight, on Section 
No. 8. 

William Bilbo, on Section No. 9. 

Benjamin Rodgers, David Batterton, 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

and Zachariah Williams, on Section 
No. 10. 

John Griffith and Jacob Isomniger, 
on Section No. 11. 

Garrett Moore, John A. Wilson and 
Moses Williams, on Section 12. 

Benjamin Rodgers, on Section No. 

Josiah Baker and Abed Nego Wald- 
en, Section No. 15. 

William Dunning, Levi Thatcher, 
and William Knatts, Section No. 16. 

Isaac Pauley, Daniel Davis, Thomas 
Carter and Absalom Kennedy, Section 
No. 17. 

Isaac Pauley, Edv\ard Borland, and 
Samuel Moore, Section No. 18. 

Simon Adamson, on Section No. 19. 

Jacob Depue, Evan Dallarhide, 
David Sears and John Mathers, Sec- 
tion No. 20. 

Robert D. Alexander, William Davis 
John W. Nicholson, William Taylor, 
Michael Keith and David Findley, 
Section No. 21. 

John Bolting-house, William Patrick 
and William Taylor, Section No. 22. 

Solomon Butcher, Banner Brummet 
and James Berryman, Section No. 27. 

Williamn Taylor, James Alexander, 
William Alverson, John Musser, Ro- 
bert Sanderson, James Brummet and 
Thomas Abbott, Section No. 28. 

William Alverson, Carey James, 
David Sears, William Henry, James 
Parsons, and Charles Brookshire, Sec- 
tion No. 29. 

Samuel Rhorer, Solomon Green, 
John Smith and Absalom Cooper, Sec- 
tion No. 30. 

John Smith, on Section No. 3'. 

William Ross and Alexander Miller, 
Section No. 32. 

George Short and Moses Grantham, 
Section No. 33. 

William Chandler, on Section No. 34. 

These were the only purchasers in 

1827 from October, when the sale be- 
gan. The four "Reserve Sections 
were still reserved. 

1921 County Rural Schools. 

Every township school in Monroe 
county opened for the year's work 
in 1921 with the exception of No. 
9 in Benton township. At this school. 
Miss Gladys Lucas, teacher, decided 
not to accept the job and Tinistee M. 
E. Chitwood opened the school wdth 
another teacher. 

For the first time in the history of 
the county every rural school will be 
eight months in duration. Last year 
some of them were less than six and 
none were seven months. Last year 
the minimum wage rate for the year 
was $450 and this year, under the new 
law, it will be $800. 

Several schools were ordered closed 
by the state rural school inspector, Le- 
roy Scales. These were as follows: 
Buck Creek, Oak Grove and Center, 
in Washington township; Sandhill, in 
Bean Blossom; Powell, in Marion; 
Polly, in Benton, and No. 8 in 
Indian Creek. The schools were closed 
because the total attendance at 
each last year was less than twelve. 
The law provides that the trustees 
must provide free conveyances to haul 
the pupils to other schools where the 
distance they would have to walk is 
more than a mile and a half. 

Another new law is that a boy or 
girl must stay in school until sixteen 
years of age, even if they have gradu- 
ated from the eighth grade. Hereto- 
fore they could quit school at the age 
of foui-teen. 

Miss Blanche Merry, state attend- 
ance officer, came to Monroe county 
and gave final instructions concern- 
ing the enforcing of the attendance 



Oh, yes, I am a "Hoosier," as allowed by 
those "K-Y'kies" across the stream. 

Who think they'll lower our .spirit proud 
When, in defamation, the name they 

When we are called a "Hoosier" we 
naturally feel a rather friendly feel- 
ing for the person who so honors us. 
That is, we feel like being pleasant 
with that person as one feels like do- 
ing when some stranger calls him by 
a pet name his family has made use 
of around home. 

We Indianians of today hold the 
name to be rather a .sacred "home 
name" and are always glad to be 
called by that, as we are also glad 
to be recognized as an American when 

Was Once Looked Down On. 

"Almost from the foundation of the 
first American settlement within the 
Indiana border, the defamation be- 
gan," says the late David Demaree 
Banta, '55, in one of his addresses 
which is published in Indiana Univer- 

sity's Centennial Memorial Volume. 

"LawTenceburg and vicinity were 
settled mainly with men from Maine, 
Massachusetts, and Connecticut," Mr. 
Br.nta continued, "but not long is it 
b-f;r.3 we find these representatives 
ot the cultured East engaged in a 
vdr of epithets with their Kentucky 
neighbors on the south side of the 

Kentuekians Screamed "Hoosier." 

"The Kentuekians screamed 'Hoo- 
sier,' the Indianians shouted back 'Al- 
gerine.' The latter word has been for- 
gotten — absorbed in 'Com Cracker', 
possibly — but 'Hoosier' has stuck. 

"Who knows its genesis? 

"No one, nor its meaning. It came 
from without — that seems certain; and 
was used at first as an epithet of re- 

"It did not need to have a meaning 
in the beginning — nay, it served the 
better purpose without meaning for it 
was enough to cry 'Hoosier,' 'Hoosier!' 
to make the Indianians, from the 
Ohio to the outermost verge of the 

settlements grit their te^h and curse 
their tormentors." 

Sting Is Gone. 

Indiana and her people and their 
mode of life and sayings were fruit- 
ful themes of jests and comments un- 
til after the war of 1861-1864, but 
from along in the year of 1830-1840 
the name no longer hurt. The Indi- 
anians had begun to conquer the ele- 
ments that had marked their poverty, 
and were able to grin in anticipation 
of victory when "Hoosier" was ap- 
plied to them. 

As our forefathers made progress 
in education and industry, and sons 
of Indiana went forth and brought 
honor to the land of their nativity, the 
grin of anticipation broadened to a 
smile of pride when the word "Hoo- 
sier" was mentioned. 

And, today, we may well be proud 
to even become an adopted child of 
the great family of "Hoosiers." 



Dr. David Starr Jordan, president 
of Indiana University from 1885 to 
1891, wrote the folowing poem re- 
cently. This is the year of his 70th 
birthday anniversary, and he writes 
looking back over his three-score and 

Registrar John W. Cravens was 
presented with a copy of the poem 
which Dr. Jordan sent to many of 
his friends. 

Men Told Me, Lord 


Men told me, Lord, it was a vale of tears 
Where Thou hadst placed me, wickedness and 

My twain companions whereso I might go ; 
That I through ten and three score weary 

Should stumble on, beset by pains and fears. 
Fierce conflict around me, passion.s hot within. 
Enjoyment brief and fatal, but in sin. 
When all was ended then should I demand 
Full compensation from Thine austere hand : 
For, 'tis Thy ijleasure, all temptation past. 
To be not just but penerous at last. 

Lord, here am I ! My three-score years and 

All counted to the full : I've fought Thy fight. 
Crossed Thy dark valleys, scaled Thy rocks' 

harsh height. 
Borne all Thy burdens Thou dost lay on men 
With hand unsparing, three-score years and 

Before Thee now I make my claim, O Loi-d ! 
What shall I pray Thee as a meet reward ? 

I ask for nothing! Let the balance fall! 
All that I am or know or may confess 
But swells the weight of mine mdeb'.edness : 
Burdens and sorrows stand transfigured all : 
Thy hand's rude buffet turns to a caress. 
For Love, with all the rest. Thou gav'st me 

.\nd Love is Heaven's very atmosphere! 

— David Starr Jordan. 


When a plumber makes a mistake 
he charges twice for it. 

When a lawyer makes a mistake, it 
is just what he wanted because he has 
a chance to try it over again. 

When a preacher makes a mistake 
nobody knows the difference. 

When a judge makes a mistake, it 
becomes the law of the land. 

When a doctor makes a mistake he 
buries it. 

But, when an editor makes a mis- 
take — Good Night. 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


Indiana University Lives Through Adversity—Citizens Aid 

Officials—History Interesting 

Aiter the State Legislature had 
passed an act to establish a Univer- 
sity in the state of Indiana, in 1838, 
ten men were apointed as trustees 
to make the change from Indiana 
College to Indiana University. 

This board of trustees was made 
up of the following men: John Law, 
of Knox county; Robert Dale Owen, 
of Posey county; Richard W. Thomp, 
son, of Lawrence county; Samuel R. 
Hosovuer, of Wayne county; P. C. 
Dunning, James Blair, Joshua 0. 
Howe, Chesley D. Bailey. William 
Turner and Leroy Mayfield, of Mon- 
roe county. It may be noted that six 
of the ten men on the first board of 
trustees of Indiana University were 
residents of Monroe county; giving 
the majority vote, or conti'ol to the 

New Building Erected. 

This board of trustees met for the 
first time in regular session May 24, 
1838, and elected Paris C. Dunning 
of Monroe county, president of the 
board; and James D. Maxwell as sec- 
retary. The board of trustees then 
proceeded to make such changes as 
were deemed necessary for the con- 

version of Indiana College into Indi- 
ana University. 

A new brick building was erected 
upon the site of what is now known 
as the old University building (on 
Bloomington's High School campus), 
in this year, and the old building, 
which became later known as the old 
Seminary building, and still later 
converted into a residence, was not 
used as a University building, but 
was used as a Female school build- 

This new building was really the 
first building of Indiana University 
as the school had not been a Univer- 
sity until this time. 

In 1851 the State adopted a new 
constitution, in which no mention was 
made of any provision for higher edu- 
cation. To remedy this omission a 
special act was passed by the Legis- 
lature on the 17th of June, 1852 "rec- 
ognizing" the "college established in 
1828," at Bloomington, as "the Uni- 
versity of the State." 

All this time however the Univer- 
sity had received no money from the 
State, and its sole source of income 
consisted of its fees and the monev 
($6,000 to $8,000 per year) received 
as interest on the proceeds from the 
sale of Perry township. During these 
years, the number of students in at- 
tendance in the collegiate classes (ex- 
clusive of members of the Prepara- 
tory or "Normal" department) ranged 
from 38 (1841) to 118 (18.59), and the 

number of graduates from 2 (1853) to 
22 (1801). 

Destroyed by Fire in 1854. 

The "old" University building was 
used until April, (All Fools' Day) 
18.54, when it was destroyed by fire, 
which loss embarrassed the insti- 
tution very much as not only were the 
recitation rooms gone, but a valuable 
library of rare works were burned. 
(An erroneous belief that this build- 
ing was razed seems generally accep- 
ted at this time.) 

It is believed that this fire was the 
work of an incendiary, as evidence 
gathered at the time, and the strife 
which seemed to exist during this 
period in regard to higher education 
would lead one to accept as a prob- 
able truth. However, no one was 
ever prosecuted for the act. 
Citizens Raise Funds. 

The citizens immediately went to 
work to raise funds for erecting a 
new building for Indiana University. 
They removed a comparatively mea- 
ger sum from the State, but by popu- 
lar subscriptions and donations 
Bloomington citizens raised $10,000, 
and were enabled to complete the 
new college building. This building 
stands on the "old University Campus" 
in the southern part of the Old City of 
Bloomington, (the present Junior 
High school building). 

Permanent Endowment. 

In the historic year, 1867, the 

Old Indiana University Building (erected after fire of 1854), now used as a Junior High School. 
(Unit in Bloomington's Superior Educational System, as they appeared in 1921.) 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

fii-st legislative appropriation was 
made. This was an annual appropria- 
tion of $8,000, an amount that was 
increased in 1873 to $15,000, and still 
later to $23,000. This increase in 
equipment was followed at once by a 
decided increase in the number of stu- 
dents, as well as in the general effi- 
ciency of the Institution. This growth 
and development continued during- the 
administration of Dr. Lemuel Moss 
(1876 to 1884), and also during that 
of Dr. Jordan. 

On the 8th of March, 1883, an Act 
providing for the "permanent endow- 
ment of the University" was passed by 
the State Legislature. By this ordi- 
nance, a tax of one-half cent to be 
collected annually for thirteen years 
is levied on each $100 of taxable prop- 

"This amount when collected is put 
in the form of non-negotiable bonds of 
the State, bearing interest at 5 per 
cent. This sum collected amounts to 
about $50,000 each year, giving an an- 
nual increase of income of $2,000 to 
$3,000. This fund will amount to about 

$750,000 in 1896. It will then yield an 
income equal to that now received 
form all other sources." 

No donations of money from individ- 
uals for any purpose had been re- 
ceived by the University. 

Second Fire in July, 1883. 

In the late seventies, a fine brick 
building was erected on the old Uni- 
versity campus, to be used for scien- 
tific purposes in connection with the 
work of the University. 

This building was struck by light- 
ning and completely destroyed by 
fire which followed, in July, 1883. 
The loss was estimated at probably 
$300,000, as the library consisting of 
over 12,000 volumes, and the then fa- 
mous Owen collection of fossils, etc., 
along with many other valuable ar- 
ticles were destroyed at the time. 

The burning of Science building 
on the old campus of Indiana Univer- 
sity, while coming, as it did as a ca- 
lamity, was really a blessing in dis- 
guise for not only the University, 
but Bloomington and Monroe county. 

It was after this great disaster that 
the new site was purchased and the 
University really began to spread 
forth out-reaching arms of progress, 
which could never have happened had 
the old site been retained. 

The loss was in part made good by 
a State appropriation ($43,000), and 
by a donation ($50,000) from the 
County of Monroe. 

In rebuilding the trustees selected a 
more eligrible site, about a mile from 
the former location, and on these 
grounds the work of the University 
has been carried on since 1885. 

Present Site Purchased. 

In the same year, 1883, the Trus- 
tees of Indiana University purchased 
a tract of twenty acres of land of 
what was then known as Dunn's 
Woods, fronting on Fifth street, and 
made preparations to erect two fine 
buildings on this site. One oi the 
buildings was planned to be used as 
the main University edifice, and the 







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Exceptional action picture of fire scene on Indiana University Ca mpus, showing Bloomington's old "Steamer" fire 
engine at work— Wylie Hall was the building in this seen e, which has been rebuilt. 

Historic Treasurer, Compiled hij Forest M. '"Pop" Hall 


other to be used as a scientific de- 
partment building. 

The tract of land cost the Board 
of Trustees of Indiana University 
$6,000, and the estimated cost of the 
two new buildings planned at that 
time was $60,000 for each building. 

In Indiana University's published 
account of this incident, as printed in 
the "History of Indiana University," 
published in 1890, we find the fol- 

Calamity Follows Prosperity. 

"It sometimes seems that calamity 
follows prosperity. Just one month 
after the commencement, July 13, 
1883, the college building, the corner 
stone of which Governor T. A. Le- 
onidas Sexon, laid, July 2, 1873, was 
a mass of ruins. 

"As there had been no one occupy- 
ing this building for more than a 
week, there was no way of account- 
ing for the fire but by a vivid flash 
of lightning, which occurred about 6 
p. m., on July 13, during a heavy fall 
of rain, which continued the whole 

"The fire must have been smould- 
ering in the building until 8 o'clock 
when the alarm was given. The 
building was so prevaded by the 
smoke that no part of It could be en- 
tered, except the museum, in the low- 
er story, from which some tables 
covered with specimens were taken. 

"The valuable library of about 13,- 
000 volumes (from other sources we 
learn that there were over 12,000 but 
not quite 13,000 volumes) was com- 
pletely destroyed, and also all the 
physical and chemistry apparatus and 
valuable collections, together with 
the library of Professor, later Presi- 
dent, Jordan. 

Firemen Do Good Work. 

"Had it not been for the exertions 
of the firemen, and the heavy rain, 
the other building, only ten feet from 
it, must have met the same fate. 

"The calamity occurring during 
vacation, most of the professors were 
out of town. In the emergency, the 
resident trustees, professors and some 
influential citizens, met and discus- 
sed the situation. 

"About the beginning of August 
the board of trustees, in a called ses- 
sion, and with funds in hand, im- 
mediately proceeded to prepare the 
old college bulding (the building 
erected in 1854-55) for the tempor- 
ary reception of the professors who 
had lost their rooms and apparatus 
by the recent fire. 

"It was also resolved at this meet- 
ing of the board to select a new site, 
removed from the annoyance of the 
railroad, on which to i-ebuild the Uni- 

"The board, after an examination 
of various situations, selected a tract 
of twenty acres, situated on what is 
known as 'Dunn Wood.' This they 
purchased from Moses E. Dunn, Esq., 
the grandson of the original proprie- 

County Commissioners Give $50,000. 

"About the beginning of Septem- 
ber the commissioners of Monroe 
county voted to donate $50,000 to 
the University, for the purpose of 
erecting buildings; and this gener- 

ous grant and the money received 
from the insurance companies, the 
tru.'^tees were enabled to immediate- 
ly make preparations for building. 

"Mr. George W. Bunting, of Indi- 
anapolis, was employed as architect. 
At the mooting of the board in No- 
vember, 18S3, the plans were sub- 
mitted and adopted. Three buildings 
were, at this time, stipulated for. 
Ground Broken in 1884. 

"On Wednesday. April 2, 1884, the 
ground was broken. On June 10, in 
accordance with arrangements pre- 
viously made, the corner-stone was 
laid. The day was unpropitious, and 
so rainy that the addresses were de- 
livered in the Methodist church, com- 
paratively few assembling to witness 
the actual ceremony of putting the 
stone in place. 

"The three buildings were named 
Wylie Hall, Owen Hall and Maxwell 
Hall. Wylie Hall, when the main 
building shall be erected, is intended 
for the department of physics and 
Chemistry. Owen Hall is intended for 
the Departments of Natural Science 
and the Museum. Maxwell Hall is a 
wooden sti-ucture. On its lower 
floor are the Chapel, a recitation 
room and the ladies' room. In the 
second story are five recitation rooms. 
Opened in 1888. 

On September 3, 1888, to the grati- 
fication of all concerned, the students 
assembled in their new commodius 
halls, for prayers, lectures and reci- 

This progress and advancement of 
the institution of higher learning has 
also meant a wonderful progress and 
growth for Bloomington, as it not 
alone has advertised the City near 
and far, but more money has been 
spent in the town with each year's 
increase in enrollment at the school. 

The chief changes since that year 
have been an increase in the number 
of professors and the extension of the 
elective system in the course of stu- 
dies. With these changes, and the 
greater income which has made them 

possible, has come a decided increase 
in the number of students. The num- 
ber enrolled in the college classes in 
the year 1888-89 was about 300, and 
the graduating class of 1889 contained 
44 members. 

Women were admitted to the uni- 
versity in 1867. A law school was in 

successful operation from to 

1877. It was closed on account of 
adverse feeling in the Legislatui-e. 
The Indiana Medical College ol In- 
dianapolis had, for a number of years, 
a nominal connection with the Indi- 
ana University. This connection, how- 
ever, included no financial support, 
and no responsibility of management. 

Here was builded the Indiana Uni- 
versity that we all know. Every one 
knowns, or should at least, know the 
story of the growth of Indiana Univer- 
sity from this stage on. But the 
little things about us that really mean 
so much are passed by unobserved. 
The Sundial's Story. 

Every day hundreds of students 
pass by the old sundial, but few know 
and still fewer stop to remember that 
it once stood on the old campus. The 
money was donated by the members of 
the classes of 1870-72. The dial is 
made of Monroe county stone. The 
story goes that, when Cyrus Nutt, the 
third president of the University, was 
walking across the old campus one 
dark night, he struck a match so that 
he could see what time it was by the 

About the Well House. 

The Well House is easily the most 
popular structure on the campus, but 
how many who drink at its fountains 
think of the creaking old green pump 
that used to stand in its place, and 
how many stop to think that the por- 
tals were once entrances to the old 
building. Theorode Rose of Muncie, 
who is now dead, obtained permission 
to move the old doors. He moved them, 
designed, and had the Well House 
constructed, and presented it to the 
University in memory of the class 
of '75. 




Duty Calls Each Individual to Make Some Personal Effort in Preparing 
Memorial for Heroes of Indiana in Order That Vounssters May Respec! 
Higher Ideals— Opportunities of Present Must Be Used To Benefit Those 
of the Future. 

When we look through the records 
of Indiana University, and see evi- 
dences of the struggles some of her 
students have made in order that hu- 
manty might be benefitted by deeds 
worthy of sacrafice of time, energy 
of youth — yea, even to the actual giv- 
ing of lives — in order that the com- 
ing generations might be benefitted 
through their sacrifice, we must stop 
and ponder. 

In the past when Indiana Univer- 
sity struggled with misfortunes, the 
people of the state, of the county in 
which the institution was situated; 

and the townsmen of dear old Bloom- 
ington vied with the graduate of 
years past in offering aid in rebuild- 
ing the school. 

We Can Do What Others Did. 
Indiana University is surrounded 
Ijy universities that have raised large 
funds or are now engaged in Mem- 
orial Fund campaigns. Ohio has 
raised $1,500,000 for an athletic sta- 
dium, as a lasting and useful memor- 
ial to her heroes. Illinois is now work- 
ing on a $3,000,000 fund and has al- 
ready raised $700,000 toward this 


Historic TreaHures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

fund from her student body alone. 
Kentucky is in the midst of a ^eat 
campaign for a project of the same 
noble principle; Chicago will soon be- 
gin a Memorial Fund drive, while 
Wisconsin and Michigan have gone 
"over the top" with oversubscrip- 
tions; Kansas has raised more money 
than she had set as her goal, and Iowa 
is all ready to open a campaign for a 
fund of the same nature. 

In our own State, Purdue, our 
neighbor and colleague in the ad- 
vancement of the gi-eat educational 
interests of the State, desei-ves great 
honor and hearty eongi-atulations for 
completing a Million Dollar Building 
Fund, while Notre Dame is now pre- 
paring for a $2,000,000 drive. 

We ask — What, then shall Indiana 
do ? 

The answer that jumps to our lips 
tells us what we must do — it tells us 
that Indiana must not take a sec- 
ondary position in this respect; that 
Indiana, her alumni and people inter- 

ested in the great institution of higher 
learning, can do what other colleges 
have done. 

Act Now! 

Indiana can not wait longer to set 
up on her campus a lasting and fitting 
memorial to the men who have offered 
or given their lives in order that the 
world might be made a better place 
in which to live. 

In an interview concerning the pro- 
posed Million Dollar Memorial fund 
for Indiana University, Mr. William 
A. -Alexander, late of Swarthmore 
College Faculty, who is a graduate of 
old I. U., expressed his feelings for 
Indiana in a few words, which seems 
typical of the true brotherhood which 
exists within the hearts of all Indi- 
ana Alumni, students, friends of the 
institution and citizens of Blooming- 
ton, where the old school is established 
for all time. Mr. Alexander said, in 
part : 

"As you may know, I have recently 
returned to Indiana, after sixteen 


Entrance drive to Indiana University Campus, as it appeared at 2 : 02 p. m 
o'clock (the hands of the clock in the Student Building- tower will show 
in the picture), on Christmas Day, December 25, 1921. 

years of service at Swarthmore (Jol- 
lege, under the masterful leadership 
of President Joseph Swain, a gradu- 
ate of Indiana University and for 
years its president. Some of my in- 
timate friends asked why I should 
want to leave the pleasing surround- 
ings I enjoyed at Swarthmore. Theie 
are many answers to the question, but 
the answer I find most predominant 
is this: 

"Besides the desire to get back to 
my people; besides the desire to re- 
turn to the work of my choice, there 
stands out one all-pervading purpose, 
namely, to serve in my small way my 
Alma Mater, the institution whicn 
has done more for me and means more 
to me than any other. 

Heeds the (all. 

"So, when I was asked to return to 
Indiana and do what I could to help 
raise a Million Dollar Memorial Fund, 
there could have been no other an- 
swer than that 'I'll be there.' 

"The alumni of Indiana University, 
heartily supported by the board of 
trustees," continued Mr. Alexander, 
"set for themselves by a unanimous 
vote at the last commencement, the 
duty of raising a Million Dollar Mem- 
orial Fund, dedicated to the memory 
of Indiana men and women who have 
given or offered their services in the 
service of their country. 

"It was voted that the fund should 
be apportioned to the following pur- 
poses: For a Union building, $.500,- 
000; for an Athletic Stadium, $250,000, 
and for a Women's Dormitory, $250, 
000. The resolution setting forth the 
plan to raise this Memorial Fund as a 
gift to Indiana University contains 
the following declaration of faith: 

" 'We believe that the children of 
the University throughout the coun- 
try and the world, and all who know 
her achievements and who honor her 
memory will enter upon this move- 
ment with affection for their Alma 
Mater and with a fixed determination 
and purpose to accomplish the end in 

"I am much pleased that the Alum- 
ni Association recognized the worth 
of Iner-collegiate athletics by mak- 
ing the Stadium one of the great ob- 
jectives of this campaign. I believe 
in high scholastic standings for our 
University; I believe in high moral 
standards for our Alma Mater; I be- 
lieve in making adequate provision 
for a safe, sane and democratic social 
life of the undergraduates. 

"Because I believe in these stand- 
ards, and in order to make them pos- 
sible, I believe in inter-collegiate and 
intramural athletes. The recrea- 
tional life of undergraduates in the 
American colleges must be organized. 

"We have come to know that the 
killing of time is a deadly sport. The 
waste of leisure is one of the most 
tragic things in American life, today. 
It is well, therfore, that a great 
Stadium is to be one of the results 
of the Memorial Fund Campaign; be- 
cause, through it we shall announce 
to the world our faith in the value of 
inter-collegiate sports, and our de- 
termination to help the University 
promote her best interests by proper 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hail 


attention to the recreational life of 
her students and alumni. 

"I am much pleased, also, that the 
fund is to serve as a lasting and fit- 
ting: memorial to the men and women 
of Indiana who gave or offered their 
lives in order that the world would 
be made a better place for us to live in. 

"We have not waited too long to 
establish this memorial, because the 
longer we wait, the bigger and grand- 
er it must be." 

In the great war for world democ- 
racy, college men were found in every 
line, every trench, every outfit in the 
terrible struggles — many were offi- 
cers of highest rank, and a great por- 
tion of the great armies of the na- 
tions who were victorious were offi- 
cered chiefly by men who had been 
athletes in their civilian youth, while 
the rank and file was well filled with 
college men, who took their hardship 
and shared the trials of the enlisted 

men with equal fervor along with 
their brothers from the industrial 
walks of our nation's great citizenship 
— all served with credit and honor, 
none was seen to waver in the face 
of duty. 

"Shall we now waver when the call 
is issued to pay our debt of gratitude 
to those men who gave their todays 
for our tomorrows?" said Mr. Ale.Kan- 
der, in touching again upon the sub- 
ject. "I think not! 

Call Is Clear and Loud. 

"This call today is loud and clear, 
to you and to me, to do everything we 
can for this great cause, to say all 
we can for its success; to write every- 
thing we can in its behalf, and by 
sacrifice and affection, give every- 
thing we can, in order to show oui- 
respect for our heroes, and give In- 
diana a strategic position among the 
great universities of the land." 




History of Executive Heads of State Educational Institution — Andrew Wylie 
First President of Indiana College, Later University — How River Jordan 
Got Name — Joseph Swain in College 41 Years, First Indiana Graduate 
To Become President. 

After tracing, through the years 
of struggle, the years of hope and fi- 
nal prosperity of the life of Indiana 
University, it is easy for one to see 
that wonderful bond of sympathy, of 
kindred feeling which existed since 
the earliest settlement, between the 
citizens of Bloomington and Monroe 
County and the great institution 

here. It is a feeling to be proud of, 

President Wylie Is First. 

President Andrew Wylie, D. D., 
who came to Bloomington as first 
President of the Indiana College, in 
the fall of 1828, was also made first 
president of Indiana University when 
the conversion of the old college took 

place, and continued to serve as Presi- 
dent of Indiana University to the 
time of his death in 1851. 

After the death of Pi-esident An- 
drew Wylie, for two years following 
Theophilus A. Wylie, Daniel Reed 
and Alfred Ryors acted as president 
of Indiana University. 

William M. Daily was appointed as 
President of the University in 1858, 
and continued to serve in this posi- 
tion until 1858, when, owing to trouble 
which seems to have come up, he re- 
signed from the honorable position. 
President Nutt Appointed. 

After the resignation of President 
Daily, in 1858, Theophilus A. Wylie 
again acted as president for a year, 
and was followed by John H. Lath- 
rop, who served for a year, or until 
1860, when Cyrus Nutt was appoint- 
ed president of Indiana University. 

Cyrus Nutt served as president of 
the institution from 1860 until 1875, 
fifteen years in all. 

In 1875, Lemuel Moss, D. D., LL. 
D., was chosen president of Indiana 
University, and it was under his con- 
trol that the school was enabled to 
become situated on the present site, 
in 1883. 

In 1884, President Moss, resigned 
from that position, and David Starr 
Jordan, LL. D., was elected as the 
seventh President of Indiana Univer- 
sity, and served until 1891 in that 

"The River Jordan" Named. 

In an address given at the Centen- 
nial celebration of Indiana Univer- 
sity, Ex-President Jordan told the 
following little story: 

"The growth of the University 
makes me feel that my place is bacK 
among the early founders, not far 
from the days in which one professor 
and one president compiled the fac- 

"In those days the president and 

Dr. David H. Maxwell. 

Dr. Andrew Wylie. 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

the professor once met on a foot-log 
which crossed the stream on the main 
street of the town (Bloomington). 
Neither would budge, and the presi- 
dent elbowed the professor into the 

"And, speaking of the brook, I 
once reminded the Board of Trustees 
that they need name no building for 
me; I asked only that this brook, 
coming thi'ough what was then the 
'new campus,' should be called the 
River Jordan. And it was done, but 
they did still better, for the meadow 
across the brook they named Jordan 

In 1891, upon the resignation of 
Dr. Jordan, his friend and co-worker 
in Indiana University, was elected to 
fill the position of this great man. 
Dr. John Merle Coulter, was elected 
president and served well in that ca- 
pacity, receiving much help from the 
state legislature in the next years, 
but resigned to take upon himself the 
presidentcy of Lake Forest. 

First I. U. Man President. 

Joseph Swain, who was in Indiana 
University for forty-one years, as 
student, teacher and President, was 
elected to that honorable position, 
which he held until 1902. He was 
really the first son of Indiana to have 
this honor. 

In 1902, when Joseph Swain left 
the University there were 334 stu- 
dents enrolled for attendance at class- 
es in the institution of Higher learn- 

President Bryan Is Greatest. 

Then it was that Monroe County 
came to the front wdth one of the 
greatest men that has been elected to 
the honorable position of President of 
Indiana University. 

The faculty, the student body, the 
alumni, the board of trustees and Citi- 

William Lowe Bryan, 
President, Indiana University. 

zens of the State of Indiana, Bloom- 
ington, and old Monroe county, all 
turned to Dr. William Lowe Bryan, 
much as the Children of Isreal turned 
to Moses for guidance. 

Dr. Bryan was elected President of 






This building was used about 1840 as a labratory for Indiana Col- 
lege students. 

Indiana University in 1902, and 
through his wonderful ability to 
gather about him an educational or- 
ganization second to none, he has 
been enabled to harmoniously conduct 
the affairs of the college through the 
most successful years the institution 
has known. 

It is chiefly to his ability that the 
efficient faculty has been asembled, 
which is a factor in the growth of the 
school from an enrollment of 334 stu- 
dents in 1902 to probably 4,000 stu- 
dents in the present semester of 
1922, and to him the institution owes 
its progress. May he long continue to 
live and prosper, that future genera- 
tions may prosper through his gfreat 
efforts. He was 61 years of age, 
November 11, 1921. 

For More Detailed History. 

For more detailed and later his- 
tory of Indiana University we would 
advise the reader to procure a copy 

of "Indiana University, 1820-1920, 
Centennial Memorial Volume" from 
Secretary John W. Cravens, of Indi- 
ana University, or procure the use of 
same through the local public library. 
The book is interesting and of high 
educational character for older peo- 
ple as well as the coming genera- 

1921 Record. 

A total of nearly 2,400 students had 
registered at Indiana University for 
the fall semester, 2,122 of whom en- 
rolled the first day, the best first 
day's enrollment in the history of the 
institution. For the first time in 
years, more men have signed up than 

A total of 1,167 men and 955 women 

It is more than likely that this will 
be the University's greatest year in 
point of attendance. 



"When I die, I want to go where 
Professor Kirkwood goes," was the 
simple eulogy of one of the admirers 
of Daniel Kirkwood, for whom one of 
Bloomington's main streets was 

named, as was one of the substantial 
buildings situated on Indiana Univer- 
sity's campus, in honor of the great 
gift this man made to science. 

One writer, in 1883, in commenting 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


upon the sentiment expressed in this 
statement of an admirer, said: 

"Watever may be said of this sen- 
timent, certain it is that during fifty 
years as a teacher, Professor Kirk- 
wood has gained from his students 
such universal contributions of love 
and admiration as few men enjoy; 
and, while as a mathematician, he has 
made many valuable contributions to 
science, as a genial, temperate, and 
genuine man, he has solved the prob- 
lem of gracefully growing old. 
Came to Indiana in 1856. 

Prof. Daniel Kirkwood accepted the 
Chair of Mathematics in Indiana Uni- 
versity in the latter part of 1856, and 
held the same position in Washington 
and Jefferson College (Pennsylvania) 
in 1866 and 1867, but was recalled 
to his former place in Indiana Uni- 

The great things that this man did 
for the betterment of the human race 
can scarcely be appreciated by the or- 
dinary individual who is not directly 
interested in scientific matters, but 
we can in a slight sense, give an idea 
of his greatness in the scientific 
world bv setting forth in our simple 
language what we are able to under- 

The scientific world first took notice 
of Professor Kirkwood in 1849 
through the publication of his analogy 
between the periods of the rotations 
of the primary planets. The law 
which he announced became known 
as Kirkwood's Law, was generally re- 
garded as a discovery of much im- 
portance in supporting the nebular 
hypothesis, and received much inter- 
est at this time. This law pertains 
to the revolution of the planets on 
their axis. When only about fifty 

asteroids were known in the solar sys- 
tem. Professor Kirkwood, it seems, 
conceived the notion that in those 
spaces where simple commensurabil- 
ity with Jupiter occurs, there must be 
gaps in the asteroid zone. It was 
then, however only a theory, as the 
number of asteroids sufficient for its 
verification were not known. We find 
that the scientific world immediately 
accepted this theory, and Mr. Proctor, 
an eminent astronomer of his day, 
wrote in 1870, concerning this theory: 
"We may assume that when many 
more asteroids have been discovered, 
the law * * * will appear more dis- 

Professor Kirkwood was the first 
to show that the divisions of Saturn's 
rings are due to the same cause as 
the gaps in the zone of asteroids. 

Daniel Kirkwood, while not a native 
of Indiana, was one of the men to 
whom we can proudly point as one of 
our great citizens, as he became a 
part of Bloomington when he first 
took his place in Indiana University. 
He was of Scotch-Irish descent, his 
grandfather coming from Ireland in 
1771, and settling in Delaware. His 
parents, John and Agnes (Hope) Kirk- 
wood were both born in America, and 
Professor Daniel Kirkwood was born 
on a farm, in Tartford County, Mary- 
land, September 27, 1814. 

His early life was spent on the 
farm, his first attendance at school 
being in the rural district of his native 
county. Not having much taste for 
agriculture, he entered the York Coun- 
ty Academy (York, Pa.) in 1834, and 
in 1838 was elected first assistant and 
mathematical instructor of the insti- 
tution. While teaching in York, one 
of his students was Samuel R. Frank- 
lin, who later won fame and was 
chosen superintendent of the great 

Government Observatory, in Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

In 1943 he accepted the principal- 
ship of Lancaster, (Pa.) High school, 
which position he gave up to become 
principal of the Pottsville Academy 
after a few years. He was then Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics in Delaware 
College from 1851 to 1856, being elect- 
ed President of this institution in 
1854, and in the last year mentioned 
accepted the Chair of Mathematics in 
Indiana University. His residence in 
Bloomington gave the community a 
zealous worker for the citizenship's 
welfare throughout the long life of 
this great scholar and teacher. 
Honors Bestowed. 

Professor Daniel Kirkwood received 
the honorary degi'ee of Master of Arts, 
in 1850, from Washington College, anu 
the degree of Doctor of Laws in 1852, 
from the University of Pensylvania. 

He was elected a member of the 
American Philosophical Society in 
1851, and the American Association 
for the advancement of Science, in 

Not alone these honorable attain- 
ments were the result of his untire- 
ing study, but he was a frequent con- 
tributor to scientific journals, and was 
author of the well-known work on 
"Comets and Meteors," as well as a 
book published earlier, entitled "Me- 
teoric Astronomy." Besides, being 
the man to establish "Kirkwood's 
Law" as a theory for scientific devel- 

The Bee Hive geyser in Yellow- 
stone national park is becoming more 
and more active every season. 

Many parts of the dense forests 
of the Adirondack mountains in New 
York are still unexplored. 

Observatory at Indiana University, in charge of Prof. W. A. Cogshall, where 
students are learning of the "great beyond" in concrete lessons and figures. 



Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


Bloomington and Indiana University 
received a fine "writeup" by one of 
the State papers. This time it is the 
Union which is one of the leading of- 
ficial organ of the Labor Party in the 
United States. The article which ap- 
peared in the Labor Day edition (Sept. 
5, 1921) is as follows: 

"Clang. A grinding of wheels — the 
call of a brakeman as the train slows 
down. Bloomington. The home of In- 
diana University — the home, for a 
time, of our boys and girls who are 
fortunate enough to be allowed to go. 

"You alight from the train and an 
animated scene confronts you. You 
behold crowds of laughing and seem- 
ingly care-free boys and girls — In- 
diana's boys and girls — some leaving, 
some coming to resume their studies — 
and a feeling of their exuberant good 
fellowship grips you. 

"You leave the depot and are soon 
in the business section of the town. 
You pass through the square and note 
the stores that face it — the up-to-the- 
minute styles that show through the 
windows, and you know that you are 
in a college town where progi-essive 
merchants keep pace with the exact- 
ing requirements of thousands of stu- 
dents from all walks of life. You pass 
along a street, made beautiful by im- 
posing homes and overhanging trees, 
and finally you stand on the college 

"Then and only then, does the real 
significance of the heading of this ar- 

ticle come to you: 'What Indiana Uni- 
versity Means to Indiana.' 

"You behold the mighty buildings 
dedicated to the advancement of our 
children — you gaze in rapture at the 
campus, which has been laid out in all 
of its natural beauty — and with a feel- 
ing of pride you realize that Indiana 
University is yours — is a part of your 
state — ^is the result of your efforts and 
the efforts of your people. 

"You look about you and behold 
beautiful homes and churches and as 
you come to know these people of 
Bloomington and their kindly, hospit- 
able ways — as you come to realize the 
atmosphere of refinement and culture 
that is so manifest — you breathe a 
sigh of relief that Indiana University 
is located in such a town — that your 
children are to live for a time in such 
a community — and then, while think- 
ing what Indiana University means 
to Indiana there comes to you another 
thought: What Bloomington as a 
home for our children means to the 
parents of the State of Indiana. For 
are not surroundings, is not refine- 
ment and kindly consideration of a 
people, as important to the welfare 
and advancement of our children as a 
college itself? 

"I have often wondered why some 
people take it upon themselves to op- 
pose every additional appropriation 
asked for by our colleges. Colleges, if 
we as a people are to be progressive, 
need increased equipment, increased 

salary fund, more money for research, 
more housing for students that crowd 
to their halls in ever growing num- 
bers. That the money must be care- 
fully handled goes without saying. In 
times like these, the richest state has 
not a dollar to waste. But, rightly 
used, the money spent on colleges will 
come back a hundredfold. 
- "There is no public activity that 
pays quite so well as education. Some 
of the dividends are obvious — gains 
that can be readily seen. There are, 
however, gains less easy of appraise- 
ment, whose value no thoughtful man 
doubts. All increased undei'standing 
of life and duty, all broadening of 
sympathy and growth of knowledge, 
are worth while, even though their 
money price is difficult to ascertain. 

"A university is an investment, not 
a charity and he who stands in its 
way is a detriment to his people, his 
state and his own advancement. 

"While Bloomington is known as a 
college town, it also enjoys other dis- 
tinctions that without a college would 
make it known. It is almost the very 
center of population in the United 
States. It is also in the very heart of 
the limestone district — a building 
stone that finds a market throughout 
the entire country where beauty and 
durability is a factor in the building. 
Bloomington is also the home of the 
universally known Showers Brothers 
Company. America's largest furniture 
makers, with a record of one complete 
piece of furniture every nineteen sec- 

"Bloomington, to an observer, indi- 
cates unusual inducements for any in- 
dustry deserving location. Excellent 
labor conditions, adequate transporta- 

Typical University Student Organization Houses of Blooming ton (1922) . 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


tion facilities, near the mining dis- 
trict, the center of population, desir- 
ible neighbors, pure water, ample 
light, heat and power at economical 
rates, and a satisfactory serivce such 
as is always maintained by the Inter- 
state Public Servnce Company; fine 
lotels and co-operation of fellow- 
:ownsmen — but more than this — with 
anequalled educational opportunity 
rpr the children of the employe and 

"Bloomington! Big enough to carry 

the impression of a much larger city; 
small enough to zealously cherish re- 
finement, good fellowship and hospi- 
tality — a city of kindly people, wheth- 
er they be employer of employe, teach- 
er or business man or student. 

"The shades of night were slowly 
settling over the campus at Indiana. 
I turned to go. Again I passed along 
the streets and down to the depot, 
where I took my train. Leaving I 
carried with me a vision of mighty 
buildings and a beautiful campus — a 

thought of a beautiful city of homes 
and a people of refinement and genial 
ways — but more than this I carried 
with me the thought that some day I 
would like to have my children go — to 
Indiana University — and Blooming- 

Sheriff Walter Peterson is a lone- 
some man today. 

"Reason — the jail is entirely empty 
for the first time since Mr. Peterson 
took office." November 18, 1921. 

Scenes on Indiana University Campus after a winter snow storm has spread its mantel 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 





























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fc- **--■ 


■v=^i !fln 



■ r^ni V— 

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■' mn *-r 

T»; ->r»\/ 


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Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


Indiana University Downs Purdue In Annual 
Football Game of 1921 

The historic rivalry between the two 
Universities of our State gives the 
victory of Indiana University and 
Bloomington a right to have the ac- 
count of this contest placed in the 
columes of this boolv. 

In thirty years Purdue and Indiana 
have played 22 games. Purdue has 
won 11, Indiana 10, and there have 
been 2 ties. The record follows: 

In 1891, Purdue, 60, Indiana 0; 1892, 
Purdue 69, Indiana 0;; 1893, Purdue 
60; Indiana 0; 1897, Purdue 20, In- 
diana 6; 1898, Purdue 14, Indiana 
0; 1899, Purdue 5, Indiana 17; laOO 
Purdue 5, Indiana 24; 1901, Purdue 
6, Indiana 11; 1902, Purdue 39, In- 
diana 0; 1904, Purdue 27, Indiana 
0; 1905, Purdue 11, Indiana 11; 1908, 
Purdue 4, Indiana 10; 1909, Purdue 

3, Indiana 36; 1910, Purdue 9, Indiana 
15; 1911, Purdue 12. Indiana 5; 1912, 
Purdue 34, Indiana 7; 1913, Purdue 4, 
Indiana 7; 1914, Purdue 23, Indiana 
13; 1915, Purdue 7, Indiana 0; 1916, 
Purdue 0, Indiana 0; 1917, Purdue 
0, Indiana 37; 1920, Purdue 7, In- 
diana 10; 1921, Indiana 3, Purdue 0. 
Before the game, 3,000 cards con- 
taining the following verses were 
passed among the Rooters, for it was 
fully realized that Indiana's only 
chance to win would be by the superior 
gameness of the Crimson players: 


- H H iTjIh 

f ' „.l 







Scene at Indiana-Purdue Football Game on Jordan Field 

The Downfallen. 

"I came here to learn," 

Said young Willie Green : 

"Not to'fall for' or yern 

For each 'queen* that I've seen." 

But — alas and alack — 

This wise young fellow 
Was asleep on his back. 

For his heart was mellow. 

One spoonful of nei'\'e 

Was all that he lost : 
For a bushel of brains 

Would ne'er pay the cost. 

Four years he was dead 

In his loveless strife. 
Refusing to be led 
To the joys of life. 

Then, he awoke with a start 

And a creeping skin — 
Something was wrong with his heart. 

And his blood seemed thin. 

The girl— that wonderful one. 

In all the classes with him — 
Had, this day, just begun 

Wearing his room-mate's pin. 

The Team and Stiehm. 

(By Forest M. "Pop" Hall) 
I've gone far to see our team 
And dear old "Jumbo" Stiehm 

Fight hard for fame 
With fnes. wbose grnater odds 
Would have frightened the gods. 

In any game. 

So hard they fought, that sly Fate 
Tried her hand to slow their gait 

As ground they gained : 
And. the team tried to the last 
Ounce of strength to hold fast ; 

But then — it rained ! 

Watch, with confident smile. 
How they play for Cap Kyle, 

And lead the scoi-e 
Tn this more equal rmtch. 
And beat Purdue like Scratch, 
Just as before. 

High in the b'eachers. we too. 
Must work for Indiana, true — 

Ta'k long and loud! 
Ijet the boys know we are there 
To back them with OUR share. 

And show we're proud. 

No yellow was ever shown. 
For none was ever grown 

Tn old I. U. 
So YELL! For this final game 
Will see our team bring shame 

To all Purdue! 

And, true to prediction, the spirit 
of "never giving up" gave victory to 
Indiana's nervy players in this his- 
toric gridiron game. 

Indiana beat Purdue 3 to in the 
season's last football game on Jor- 
dan Field Saturday, November 19, 
1921. A drop kick by Kyle in the last 
quarter with five minutes left to play 
put the contest on ice for the Crimson. 
A crowd of about 9,000, the largest 
ever on the field, witnessed the con- 
test, and 1,000 who had bought tickets 
in advance remained away on account 
of rain. 

Purdue came on two special trains 
and brought 1,600 rooters. 

Engines 440 and 400, pulling the 
special trains over the Monon, were 
gaily decorated in Purdue colors, black 
and old gold. 


Captain Kyle 

Before adjournment of its sessions 
on November 5, 1921, the Indiana 
University board of trustees definitely 
decided upon the location of the site 
upon which the new $250,000 build- 
ing for the School of Commerce and 
Finance of the University will be 
erected. The site chosen is 100 feet 
east of Biology Hall and 100 feet 

south of Science Hall, on the college 
campus, just north of Third Street. 

The board also selected the site for 
the President's house, which is to be 
erected on the east end of the Uni- 
versity campus, almost due east of 
the north end of Forest Place, Bloom- 

Miss Louise Rowe was selected as 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

secretary to William A. Alexander, 
who will have charge of the $1,000,000 
drive among the alumni and other 
friends of the institution. 

Mr. Alexander reported that the 
first pledges for the alumni fund have 
been made by Dr. Joseph Swain and 
his wife, Mrs. Frances Morgan Swain. 

The board was much pleased that 
President Bryan had received from 
Marshal Foeh an autographed repro- 

duction of the famous order which 
the marshal made during the battle 
of the Marne. As translated by Prof. 
E. C. Hills of the depai-tment of 
Romance languages, the order was as 
follows : . 

"My left is giving way, my right 
is falling back; consequently I am 
ordering a general offensive, a deci- 
sive attack by the center. 

"Signed, F. Foch." 


President of American Association Emphasizes Importance of United States 
Interesting Itself in Problems of Europe — Time for Greatest Anxiety 
Now Appears Nearly Past as 1921 Comes to Close. 

Business prospects for 1922 are, in 
general, hopeful, according to state- 
ments by prominent bankers, made 
public December 31, in New York, by 
the American Bankers' Association. 

"The future of business and finance 
in the United States is encouraging," 
said Thomas B. McAdams, president 
of the association. He emphasized 
the importance of this country in- 
teresting itself in the problems of 
Europe in order that American pros- 
perity may be maintained. He said 
that, although some leading politic- 
ians and newspapers opposed extend- 
ing aid to Europe at this time, "fu- 
ture prosperity depended upon the 
wav financial America answers the 

"The time for anxiety seems to be 
entirely past and the middle of 1922 
should see recovery well established," 
said John C. Lonsdale, president of 
the National Bank of Commerce of 
St. Louis. "All the things necessary 
to commercial betterment seem to 

have been set in motion, so that 1922 
should see the beginning of the era 
of our greatest and most golden pros- 

Farm, Industry and Trade. 

Prosperity among our farmers, 
manufacturers and merchants is di- 
rectly affected by the unsettled con- 
dition of finance and politics in Eu- 
rope, J. A. House, president of the 
trust company division of Guardian 
Sa\'ing and Trust Company of Cleve- 
land, Ohio, believes. 

"This must be remedied," he added. 
"It is apparent, also, that strikes 
for higher wages are certainly not in 
keeping with the present order of 
things. Labor must bear its fair 
share in future deflatoin." 

Mr. House emphasized the need of 
the rehabilitation of the railroads 
and said the Congress should pass 
equitable tax laws to encourage the 
flow of capital through channels 
which would mean investment. 

John S. Puslicher, vice-president 

of the American Bankers' Associa- 
tion, said the trend was toward easier 
money rates and he saw nothing to 
indicate this would not continue. 
Strength of the Banks. 

"The strongest factor in the pres- 
ent situation is the growing strength 
of the banks," he said. 

"It is our belief," said R. S. Heclit, 
president of the state bank di%'ision 
of the American Bankers' Associa- 
tion, "that we will not again have real 
prosperity in this counti-y until some 
kind of economiu restoration has been 
accomplished in Europe and a stable 
basis for international trade worked 
out." — The Indianapolis News. 


In an attempt to locate the monarch 
of all American elms, the American 
Genetic Association discovered a few 
years ago what is now thought to be 
the largest speciman of ulmus ameri- 
cana in existence. The trunk of this 
giant measures thirty-three feet in 
circumference. A remarkable record 
for one small seed! It reached these 
colossal proportions in the soil of 
West Virginia. 

According to tree experts an elm 
almost equally large has since been 
found at Rathlaone, Ohio. It measures 
thirty-two feet in girth and has a 
spread of IfiS feet. It has five limbs 
as large as ordinary trees branching 
out from the main trunk. The age of 
this majestic specimen is estimated 
at from 500 to 700 years. A record 
quite as remarkable is accredited to 
"The Great Elm" of Wethersfield, 
Conn. This tree reached the enor- 
mous dimensions of twenty-eight feet 
in girth and 100 feet in height at the 
estimated age of 2.50 years. 

The Monarch Elm of Boston, blown 
down in 187(i, was only twenty-two 
feet in circumference and seventy- 
two in height. While the Washington 
Elm at Cambridge, perhaps the best 
known of all American trees, can 
boast only a mere fourteen feet of 
girth and forty-one in height. 


We i-ead the following article in an 
old, old copy of the "Indiana Gazette," 
Vol. 1, No. 27, published in Blooming- 
ton, Ind., Saturday, April 25, 1835, 
which we forthwith pass on: 

"What," said she, "because I have 
been married once, shall I refuse to 
marry again ? 

"Shall I not take a second hus- 
band, because I have lost the first? 

"That would be a reflection upon a 
marrited life. Nay, it would be a sort 
of slandering, as it were, on my first 
husband — good man. And, I'll never 
say that for him, though he's dead 
and gone. 

"I loved him so well, and enjoyed 
his dear society so much, that I can 
never be satisfied till I get another — 
and the sooner I get the second, the 
more I shall show my affection for 
the first. 

"The world may say what it pleases, 
but I am sure that the best evidence 
that any person can give, whether 
man or woman, that they loved their 
first partner dearly, is to take a sec- 
ond as soon as possible after the first 
is dead." 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 



Pavern Opened in 1819 — Howe, Owens, Batterton and Stuart Establish Early 
Commerce With Local Trade — Austin Seward Began Wagon Manufacture 
in 1821 and Did First Blacksmithing- in Present City — Colonel Compbell 
Started Leather Tannery. 

Incoming: students of Indiana Uni- 
versity, as well as Bloomington resi- 
lents of the present time may be in- 
:erested to know just who were the 
"irst men to open "business houses" 
n what is now the City of Blooming- 
on, Tnd. 

The thriving business houses situ- 
ited within the city today, with all 
he up-to-the-minute details to be 
'ound in modern business concerns 
nay be compared with those rude log 
structures which contained the first 
;tores, away back in 1S18. 

First Store Opened, 1818. 

The first store to be opened in the 
county seat of Monroe county, Indi- 
ma, was that ooened in Bloomington 
n 1818, by William Hardin, who sold 
vhiskey principally, and carried a 
;tock of notions worth about $150. 
rhis man, (Hardin), also kept tavern 
at the same time. 

The following; year, 1819, Georg:e 
Wliisenand started a tavern with a 
3ar in connection, and he, too, sold 

About this time, or perhaps soon 
aftei-ward, Joshua O. Howe, Alexan- 
der Owens and Henry Batterton estab- 
lished separate stores which were 
much more pretentious than that of 
Hardin, which scarcely rated the name 
of store. These men really kept gro- 
ceries (as liquor, in the early times 
was classed as "wet g:i-oceries") and 
saloons, or the name were unknown. 

These three men did not begin their 
business at the same time, but .^ome 
time between 1819 and 1822, the 
exact date not being obtainable at this 
time, but these dates come from re- 
liable sources. 

Seward Began Blacksmithing. 

In the month of September, 1821, 
Austin Seward began manufacturing 
wagons, and did general blacksmith- 
ing, as did Benjamin Neal during 
about the same period. 

Colonel Joseph Campbell started a 
tannery west of Bloomington. Day, 
Lucas & Campbell also had an interest 
in the local tanneries of about this 




Fown Shows Signs of Prosperity and Much New Business Enters — Indiana 
College Great Factor in Village Growth to 1,000 Inhabitants in 1835— Center 
of Culture and Religious Conferences — Two Newspapers and College Paper 
— Old Market House Was Created. 

After reading the life of our pio- 
neer city fathers in the first ten or 
twelve years of the struggling county 
^eat town of Monroe county, Bloom- 
ington residents of the present day 
may be glad to obtain an added 
glimpse into the early life of the old 
settlers; therefore, we will now peep 
again into the past and find some cf 
the interesting deeds of our pioneers 
during the decade beginning with 
the year 1830. 

Population of 700 in 1830. 

In 1830, the population of Bloom- 
ington was probably not less than 700; 
the citizens bad incorporated the vil- 
lage a number of years before, and the 
Indiana College was a great factor in 
the town's thriving life in that early 

Besides this, there were numerous 
factories of leather, liquor, domestic 
and farming implements, flour, tailor 
goods, oil and numerous stores, shops, 
offices, mechanics, artisans, trades- 
men, along with the educators and 
professional men; also, speculators 

were locating permanently in the com- 
munity with the coming of each month. 

In fact, the pioneer \'illage of 
Bloomington was considered a pros- 
perous place during the early years 
of this decade. 

New Business Comes. 

Merchants during the period from 
1830 to 1840, as we have been able to 
learn from different sources, include 
the following: 

Alexander & John Owen, Joshua 0. 
Howe, Evans & Barnes, Parks & Hes- 
ter, Henry Baterton, Patterson Officer, 
Notley Baker, George H. Johnson, 
John Borland, Labertew & King, Wil- 
liam S. Bright, Nichols & Roach, John 
Bennett, Hardesty & Graham, J. & J. 
W. Carter, John M. Sluss, B. R. Byers, 
John Campbell, Rogers, Blakelev & 
Co., F. T. Butler. John M. Berrv, 
Asher Labertew, Sluss & Hall, Til- 
ford & Glass, John S. Barnes, John 
Fee, William Alexander, Moore & 
Swarengin, and Handerty & Robert- 

By 1835 the village had gained a 

population of 1,000, and the merchants 
increased their stocks as the village 
graduated into a town. 

Bloomington, as a town, had three, 
or perhaps four, churches (mentioned 
elsewhere), attended by comparative- 
ly large congregations and served by 
ministers of ability. 

Indeed, Bloomington became the 
center of the conference of most de- 
nominations in religious circles at that 
time, and the Presiding Elder or the 
preachers of circuits resided in the 
town. Consequently, it was here that 
the religious interests of all this por- 
tion of Indiana found their controlling 

Center of Culture. 

The old County Seminary (female 
college) had been built in 1835, and 
had so changed that females alone 
were admitted. Before this reorgan- 
ization the school had been a "prep" 
school for both boys and girls, answer- 
ing about the relative nurnose as our 
present-day hip-h schools, for vouth in 
entering the University. In the Indi- 
ana College (State University) boys 
onlv were admitted. 

Students attending both institutions 
at this time numbered phout 200 and 
the presence of such facilities for edu- 
cation exerted an influence which gave 
to Bloomington a literary atmosphere 
and social caste such as was not pos- 
sessed by any other town in the State 
of Indiana in those days. 

There were two newsnapers, each 
having a fair circulation for that early 
time, and besides these. Marcus I. 
Deal issued a semi-monthly neriodical 
in the interest of Indiana College. 

Sewards were doing a biff business 
in all kinds of iron work; D. Batter- 
ton manufactured ironware pnd stove 
furniture; Philip Murnhy & Co., made 
hats and caps, procuring the wool they 
used in these articles from the sur- 
rounding territory; Noilsy Baker was 
the only barber in Bloomington at 
this time: S. P. Seall was proprietor 
of the Globe Inn; J. McCullough was 
tanner and currier. 

William Lowe Postmaster. 

William Lowe was postmaster of 
Bloomington in this early period, and 
the representative attomev-at-law of 
the town were. Watts, Dunninsf. Gor- 
man, Dennv, .1. B. Lowe. J. A. Wright 
and a number of other lawyers whom 
we can not eet trace of as practicing, 
exigent throuffh unreliable hearsay. 

The practicing phvsicians in the 
town during this decade seems to have 
been Doctors McCorckle, Hamill and 

.John McCulloueh's tannery was an 
extensive establishment for this early 
day: T. J. Ryan manufactured saddles. 
A man named Day was the town's 
nainter. The master tailors of Bloom- 
ington durine this neriod were. Abra- 
ham Funk. W. J. FIniTV. A. Labertew, 
S. T. Hardesty and H. Hardesty. These 
men formed what we mieht term the 
first men-chants' association, as tbev 
got tog'ether and adopted a set sched- 
ule of prices for their work in cutting 
and making clothinfr. Most of their 
business came in making up the home- 
spun cloth which their customers furn- 
ished for clothing. 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


Amusing Facts Concerning Inhabitants Around Whitehall, 1920 Center of 
Population of United States — Taken From Article Published in The Indi- 
anapolis Star, With Prefix Addition. 

While historic and cultured Bloom- 
ington folk are priding themselves on 
the fact that Blooming1;on is the center 
of culture and learning, nowhere in 
the world is a return to normalcy more 
evident than at the center of popula- 
tion of the United States. 

It will be a long time before the peo- 
ple of the little village of Whitehall, 
Owen county, Indiana, will quit talking 
about that great day when they held a 
celebration and dedicated to their lit- 
tle village a ten-foot wooden monu- 
ment, set up in the main road, bearing 
the proud inscription "Center of Popu- 
lation, U. S. A.— 1920." 

Pride Changed to Disgust. 

But, as of old, "pride goeth before 
a great fall." 

The first excitement and flush of 
pride of these simple Hoosier folk was 
suddenly changed to lament and much 
disgust. Prof. W. A. Cogshall, Indi- 
ana University astronomer, took a trip 
to Owen county, and after a few nights 
of "star gazin'," as the natives called 
it, determined from astronomical cal- 
culations that an old beech tree in a 
hillside briar patch on Russell Robin- 
son's farm, two and one-half miles 
west of the village of Whitehall, and 
eleven miles west of Bloomington, and 
of Indiana University and the old cen- 
ter of population in 1910, was the new 
hub of the nation's human life for the 
decade of 1920. 

No Interest in Fame. 

The old familiar "House For Rent" 
sig:n, so long absent in the nation's 
metropolitian centers, is hanging out 
in Whitehall, and at Ben Ranard's 
blacksmith shop, says the correspond- 
ent to the Indianapolis Star, and the 
Hoosier villagers are whittling on 
goods boxes and speculating on wheth- 
er or not the earth is round, just as 
they did before the war. 

Natives have had slight interest in 
their sudden leap into national lime- 
light, and Oliver Rainard, who lived 
within 200 yards of the old beech tree 
that marks the actual center of popu- 
lation of the United States, has moved 
out. Ranard served notice that the 
center of population is a poor place 
for a rent profiteer by moving two 
miles down the road, where he gets a 
house, bam, garden and pastm-e free. 

And, now, within 200 yards of the 
center of population, the five-room 
bungalow which he formerly occupied, 
stands wanting a renter, at $5 a month. 
Garden, orchard, pa.=-ture, heavily lad- 
en walnut trees, a big persimmon 
patch, paw-paws, squirrels within gun- 
shot, fish in Little Raccoon creek near- 
by; only two miles from where a 
white lightnin' still was raided recent- 
ly by government agents; and with a 
church house only a quarter-mile away 

— all for $5 a month, but not a renter 
in sight. 

It is easy to see that the housing 
situation is not a problem at the center 
of population. 

Free Information Bureau. 

Ben Ranard has been urged to es- 
tablish a cold drink stand in connec- 
tion with his blacksmith shop, near- 
est business establishment to the popu- 
lation beech, where Ben serves as a 

free information bureau for seekers 
after center of population information. 

Many well-minded and sympathetic 
travelers have pointed out that a cold 
pop stand would be the hub of busi- 
ness for the country, stratigically lo- 
cated for national trade from all di- 
rections, but Ben insists that the 1920 
census can bring no good to the people 
of Owen county, Indiana, until they 
take the center of population away 
from that "consarned" old beech tree, 
and put it back in Whitehall, where 
it "would be convenient, and where it 
ought to have been left in the first 

During the decade of 1910 to 1920, 
the center of population for the United 
States was located in Monroe county, 
Indiana, and the city of Bloomington 
)-eceived much advertising through the 
publicity thu c was given the fact. 


Decrease during the last decade in 
the average number of persons in a 
family and to a dwelling in the United 
States is indicated by comparative sta- 
tistics made public in October, 1921, 
by the census bureau. The 1920 census 
showed, a statement said, that the na- 
tional population was gi-ouped into 
24,351,676 families, living in 20,697,- 
204 dwellings, making an average of 
4.3 persons to a family and 5.1 persons 
to a dwelling. 

In 1910 the average number of per- 
sons to a family was 4.5 and to a 
dwelling 5.2. The average in both 
cases was still higher in 1880 — 5 per- 
sons to a family and 5.6 persons to a 
dwelling — and has declined steadily 

The census bureau applies the term 
"family" to a group of persons, wheth- 
er related by blood or not, living to- 
gether in one household. One person 
living alone is counted as a family, 
while the occupants of a hotel or in- 
stitution, regardless of their number, 
are regarded as of one family. An en- 
tire apartment house, although the 
home of many families, constitutes 
only one dwelling in the census bu- 
reau's classification. 

As shown by the 1920 census, the 
average size of families was greatest 
in southern states and smallest in 
western state. The number of persons 
to a dwelling was greatest in 
New England and middle Atlantic 
states and smallest in western states. 
Among individual states the average 
to a family ranged from 3.5 in Nevada 
to 5 in North Carolina in 1920, and a 
dwelling from 3.7 in Nevada, to 7.8 
in New York. 

The 1920 census shows the popula- 
tion of the United States, exclusive 
of outlying possessions, to be 105,- 

The increase in population during 
the last decade was 13,710,842, or 14.9 
per cent. 

New York, Chicago and Philadelphia 
maintained their positions as the three 
largest cities in the United States. 

New York's population, according to 

the 1920 census, is 5,620,048; Chicago, 
2,701,705, and Philadelphia, 1,823,158. 

Detroit leads the 500,000 to 1,000,000 
cities with a population of 993,739. 

Nine cities have more than 500,000 
and less than 1,000,000 population. 

Cleveland ranks next to Detroit 
with 796,836; St. Louis has 772,897 
Boston, 748,060; Baltimore, 733,826 
Pittsburg, 588,193; Los Angeles, 576, 
073; Buffalo, 506,775, and San Fran- 
cisco, 503,400. ' 

Milwaukee leads the twelve cities 
with a population of more than 225,000 
and less than 500,000. Milwaukee's 
population is 457,157; Washington's 
437,751; Newark, N. J., 414,216; Cin- 
cinnati, 401,247; New Orleans, 387,219; 
Minneapolis, 380,582; Kansas City, Mo., 
324,410; Seattle, 315,652; Indianapolis, 
314,194; Jersey City, 297,864; Roches- 
ter, 295,750; Portland, Ore., 258,288; 
Denver, 256,369. 

The 1920 census shows that 64,680,- 
405 people in the United States live in 
incorporated cities and towns, and 
41,002,703 in the rural districts. This is 
an increase of 14,000,000 for the cities 
and about 130,000 in the rural districts 
of the country. 

Of the larger cities in the country, 
Detroit showed the largest percentage 
of increase in population. Her popu- 
lation in 1910 was 465,766, and in 1920 
it was 993,739. 

The 1920 census indicates that the 
population of the country was aug- 
mented through excess of immigrration 
over emigration by about 4,100,000. 

The city of Bloomington showed a 
population of 13,500 in the 1920 census. 

A red sunrise, with clouds lowering 
later in the morning, is considered to 
be a forerunner of rain. 

An evening rainbow is regarded as 
an indication of fair weather; a 
morning rainbow is a sign of rain. 

High Nnsibility (usually clearness of 
the atmosphere), unusual brightness 
or twinkling of the stars are regarded 
as indications of rain. 

Historic Treasures, Compiled bij Forest M. "Pop" Hall 





Merchants Were Forced to Barter, But All Got Along Some Way — Some Im- 
portant Data Concerning Conditions in the Twenties — List of Business 
Men of Remainder of Decade. 

We are fortunate in being able to 
give a little idea of the financial 
problems which faced the pioneer set- 
tlers of Bloomington and Monroe 
county away back in the early times 
of the city's history. 

All kinds of merchandise at prices 
which would seem triple to the prices 
of our time up to the recent world 
war period of high cost of living 
which we are still feeling the effects 
of, may be compared. They are as 

Calicoes and prints were priced at 
from 25 cents to 50 cents a yard, and 
other articles similarly high. 

Hard Times 

One thing which helped to make 
harder times was the lack of market 
for the products of the farmers of 
that time. Wheat, corn, oats, etc., 
were worth but 20 to 40 cents a bush- 
el, and it was quite difficult to dis- 
pose of any quantity at that price. 

Money was scarce — real money 

good money. Paper money was in 
existence and was worth most any 
price below par. As the value of bills 
was constantly fluctuating, they were 
practically mechantable property, as 
gold and silver were during the war 
of 1861-64. Silver money was scarce, 
but gold was much more scarce. 
Coins Cut in Price. 

The smaller denominations of gold 
and silver coins were almost unknown 
in the community, except as they 
were created and used by mutual 

The silver quarters were quartered 
or cut in half, and these pieces were 
called 'Sharp Shince," passed current 


Although the whole country at the 
present time seems to be having a 
terrible struggle to meet unemploy- 
ment problems which our nation is 
facing, Bloomington, Indiana, is in 
better fix than most of the larger 
cities and all the smaller places that 
we can get information of, in this 
respect at the date of 1921. 

Not alone is Bloomington given an 

all over the country has almost come 
to a standstill. 

It is quite natural for a certain per- 
centage of people to have a desire to 
change about in the industrial and 
business world, but while the condi- 
tion of finances and industry are .as 
at the present time, discouraging, we 
consider the following good advice for 
any one: 

for 6'i cents or 12% cents, respec- 

Money was so scarce that the mer- 
chants were forced to barter their 
goods and were compelled to do a 
"provision, pork and grain" buiness. 
Farmers could trade live or dressed 
hogs for goods, the demand regulat- 
ing the supply and price. They could 
trade their grain in the same manner. 

This forced the merchants into 
pork packing and grain shipping, 
which necessitated the construction 
of flat-boats for the conveyance of 
this product of the land to the south- 
ern markets. 

Towns along the larger streams 
had an advantage over Bloomington 
in this particular respect, and nearly 
all the heavy pork and grain ship- 
ments were made from these points 
after it was transported overland or 
in smaller boats down the creeks to 
these places of embarkation. 

This accounts for the fact that ex- 
tensive business in that direction was 
not developed in Bloomington. 

Merchants in Decade of Twenties. 

From about 182.3, during the re- 
mainder of the decade of the twenties, 
the li^t of enrlv morchnnts and busi- 
ness life included the following: 

Alovander <^' John Owens, Joshua 
O. Howe, Henry Batterton, A. F. 
Morrison, .Tohn Muir & Co., during 
the year 1824. 

John Borland and G. M. Early were 
in business in 1826. 

Andrew Todd, John Garner, Evans 
& Barnes were doing business in 

George Henry & Co., Patterson Of- 
ficer, George Hardesty and possibly 
a few others were among the mer- 
chants starting business in Blooming- 
ton in 1828. 

What We See and Hear. 

Things are dull in San Frascisco, 
"On the bum" in New Orleans; 

"Rather Punk" in cultured Boston, 
Famed for codfish, pork and beans. 

"On the hog" in Kansas City: 

Out in Denver, things are ".iarred," 
And, they're "beefing" in Chicago, 

That the times are getting hard. 
Not much doing in St. Louis — 

It's the same in Baltimore; 
Coin don't rattle in Seattle, 

As it did in days of yore. 

Jobs are scarce around Atlanta; 

All through Texas, it is still. 
And, there's very little stirring 

In the town of Louisville. 

There's a howl from Cincinnati, 
New York City; Brooklyn, too; 

In Milwaukee's foamy limits 
There's but little work to do. 

What We Think. 

In the face of all such rumors. 
It seems not amiss to say: 

That, no matter where you're eroing. 
You had better stay away 

For, when winter gets real cold 
And things become more tight, 

Those who stay in Blonminfrton 
Keep warm each wintery night. 

Study of Conditions in Industrial Life of Nation's Cities, Shown in Verse — 
Better Stay in the Old Town Where Things Look Good, is Advice of Writer 
— Ifniversity and Industries Make Work for Many, While Other Places 

added boost by the incoming hordes 
of students attending Indiana Univer- 
sity, which may be considered a great 
help in keeping business of the city 
in a healthy conditon; but, when we 
consider the wonderful way in which 
the great industries situated in and 
near the city are running, we must 
feel grateful for the way these indus- 
tries "keep pegging" while industry 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


Good Axes Manufactured for the Back-woodsmen of Monroe by Mr. Seward — 
First-Class Tavern Established in 1823; Also First Really Good Store in 
the Little Town — Old Thacker Mill and Distillery in Operation. 

In the period about 1820 to 1822, 
we find that many of the incoming 
settlers were changing about, al- 
though for the most part, people 
locating close to Bloomington were 
endeavoring to clear the land for agri- 
cultural uses. 

Blair & Lowe owned an old horse 
mill. David Tucker owned and also 
operated one of the cumbersome old 
mills, where the grain was ground in 
a crude manner and bolted by hand, 
the ovimer of the grain doing the 
turning. The toll was one-sixth for 
the grinding. 

Small Distillery. 

David Thackers mill was used chief- 
ly to supply a small distillery with 
ground grain. This distillery was also 
owned by Thacker, however, not more 
than a barrel of liquor a day was 
manufactured. Mr. Thacker later 
sold the tread-mill to Mr. Legg. 

A man named Garner conducted a 
saw mill just south of town (or at the 
south edge of what was then the 
tovra. This mill had as its motive 
power cattle or horse driven on a big 
tread wheel to run the saw. 

Ellis Stone started a carding mill 
(for carding wool) as early as 1820. 
This mill was operated by a tread- 

wheel, and continued for more than 
twenty years, some times doing a 
rather brisk business in the old log 
structure built for the purpose. The 
packages of rolls of yarn were pinned 
up with thorns, which boys of the 
community were paid to gather in 
the woods. 

Haws Armstrong was operating a 
fulling mill (where the home-spun 
woolen cloth was taken and made 
more compact, thicker and stronger 
by shrinking — called fulling in early 
times) in 1824. which some early resi- 
dents think he started about 1820. 
We are sure he was operating this 
mill in 1824, and that he continued 
to supply his patrons for a number of 
years following. 

John and Samuel Orchard started 
a carding machine in or about 1823, 
which was operated by means of a 

Made Gun Powder. 

Gun powder of a then superior qua- 
lity was manufactured by Haws Arm- 
strong, along with his fulling mill 

The Orchards also manufactured 
linseed oil. One or two others in the 
busy little town also made linseed oil 
at this time. 

Mr. Seward manufactured axes for 

the woodsmen of that day, also plows 
and wagons, and did expert repair 
work along lines of this nature. He 
steadily increased his business until, 
desiring to reach out, he started an 
iron foundry and began manufactur- 
ing general foundry output for the 

In 1823 E. C. Moberly kept a tavern 
(for that time, a first-class hostelry), 
considered a step in progress for the 

About this time Joshua H. Lucas 
opened a really good store. He was 
an eccentric character (mentioned 
elsewhere), a good story teller, natu- 
ral mixer, and soon built up a thriv- 
ing business. He also became inter- 
ested in politics in 1824, and in spite 
of his lack of education, won his 
audiences through natural ability. He 
was elected to the State Legislature 
in that year, over William Alexander, 
his opponent. 

Kirkville Established. 

Kirkville was a comparatively re- 
cent village in the township, and was 
named in honor of the Kirk family. 
Lane & Carmichael started the first 
store, but later sold out to Mr. Kirk, 

The Sydney Gazette, under an 1832 
date line contains an advertisement 
which is rather amusing: 

"Notice To Gentlemen Housebreak- 
ers and Thieves — J. Waran will feel 
obliged to the intruders that broke 
into his domicile on Sunday morning 
last, between the hours of one and 
two, to return him the small quantity 
of plate they took that morning. J. 
Warman would not trouble them, but 
the articles are family presents." 

Pleasing summer scenes along Bloomington's shady resi dential streets. 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 





County Board of Monroe Agrees to Pay $200 Toward Cost of Construction of 
Market House, Providing Town Would Pay Like Sum — Every One Went 
to Barter With Farmers. 

Bloomington was at one time the 
proud possessor of a really and truly, 
sure-enough market house, vi'here 
farmers could bi'ing their produce and 
dispose of it to the housewife, thus 
assuring the sale at fair price. 
Market House Erected in 1837. 

In 1837 the old "market house" was 
erected, the County Board paying 
$200, providing the town of Bloom- 
ington should pay the same amount 
toward establishing this co-operative 
market place, which the town offi- 
cials immediately furnished as the 
town's share of the bargain. 

Here it was that the townspeople 
went to barter with the farmers at 
market. Instead of going to the gro- 
ceries as is done at the present time. 
This old market house was continued 
until some time in the fifties. 
Pioneer Fire Company Formed. 

The tovm had grown to such pro- 
portions that in 1838 it was felt that 
the old system of fighting fire with 
buckets or just "let i t burn out" 
methods was a costly and back-woods 
way. An effort was made to secure 
a fire engine (evidently one of the 
"hand-pump" variety). But the effort 
failed for lack of financial support. 
Nevertheless, the attempts directed 
attention to the public need, and not 
many years later the old "Pioneer 
Fire Company" was organized. This 
companv endured for a great many 
years, down through the sixties and 
eighties, and was finally succeeded by 
our present metropolitan fire-fight- 
ing methods. 

Sax-Horn Band Furnished Music. 

The first record we are able to find 
of any organized band in the com- 
munity leads us to believe that the 
old Sax-Horn Band, which was orga- 
nized during this decade (1830-40) 
was the first in Bloomington. This 
band furnished the town of Bloom- 
ington with public music until about 
the time of the war. in 1860-64. 

There were probably many enter- 
prises of that period which we are 
unable to get track of. but suffice to 
say, these were evidently the more 
imnortant, and worthy of note as his- 
torical facts. 



J. W Jackson, veteran Bloomington 
city fireman, substituted for a mem- 
ber of the city fire department during 
the week in October, 1921, and recalled 
to old timers who saw him again on 
the job, the days when he was a 
galliant member of the old Pioneer 
Fire department in the days gone by. 

Jackson was a member of this old 
volunteer fire department, which was 
in existence to about 187.5, when each 
member paid $1 entrance fee and 10 

cents a month dues, but members of 
the Pioneer Fire Company were ex- 
empt from road taxes. The old hand- 
drawn hook and ladder wagon of this 
company was kept in one comer of 
the old court house yard, along with 

a full equipment of fire buckets and a 
hose reel. 

Besides this experience in the old 
days, Jackson is rather proud of his 
record as a professional fire fighter, 
having attended more than 3,000 fires 
in the thirty-odd years he has been 
a fireman. He served for five years 
in the chemical squad of the Decatur, 
111., Fire department, one year as 
foreman of the hook and ladder squad 
of the Charleston, 111., department, 
and the rest of his experience came in 
the City of Higher Learning. Bloom- 
ington, too, is proud of Mr. Jackson's 
faithful devotion to the safety of its 
property and life in those years of 
service he gave it. 


Leading Merchants of Two Decades— New Ideas Introduced in Enterprising 
Town— But "Shinplaster" Came as a Temporary Relief in Financial Circles, 
and Soon Developed as an Injurious Element in Business Life. 

It seems that Bloomington, after 
surviving- the hard struggles through 
the pioneer stages of the first two 
decades of the tovni's life, was in a 
fair way to become one of the sub- 
stantial towns in the state, and was 
reincorporated, under a different 
form of charter during the period. 

The leading enterprises were the 
carding mill of Thomas Hardesty; 
MeCrum's grist mill; the various tan- 
neries, wagon and iron shops, harness 
and saddle makers, hatters, etc. 

It was during this period that Major 
Hite started a steam grist mill 
and carding mill, which marked an 
important step toward modern meth- 
ods of industry in the community. 

Bloomington, as a town, was again 
incorporated in 1847, with its popula- 
tion showing an increase to about 
1300 inhabitants. 

Leading Merchants of Decade. 

The leading merchants of the town 
during the forties were: Peter Mar- 
tinsau, Labertew & Ray, Johnston & 
Stout, Thomas McCalla, E. P. Farmer, 
J. O. and J. H. Howe, A and J. Owens, 
John Campbell, G. H. Johnson, Dieth & 
Block, William Wylie & Co., Cathar- 
ine Owens. H. W. Woodward, J. Mc- 
Corkle, Snyder & Isaacs. Andrew Hel- 
ton, G. W. More, E. E. and G. W. 
Sluss, S. P. Chipman, Coleman, Levy 
& Co., J. and W. O. Fee. Richard 
Hardesty, J. W. Carter, S. and J. 
Pennigton, Y. B. and J. W. Pullen, 
Alexander Sutherland and probably 
others of whom no record was kent. 

Among the grocers were Richard 
Hardesty, Aquilla Rogers, Jacob 
Young, J. M. C. Hunter, Felix G. Hite 
and Rogers & Pajiie. 

18.50 to 1860 Brings New Ideas. 

During the fifties many changes in 
business methods were made among 
all classes of industry, and new 
ideas brought forth many inventions 
throughout the country as a whole, 
and Bloomington shared in the pro- 
gress of the times. 
Among the prominent merchants of 

this period were the following: Suth- 
erland & Jones, Tarkington & Abel, 
W. C. Fee, H. D. Woodward, Andrew 
Helton, Jesse Cox & Co., J. B. Mulkev, 
J. O. and J. M. Howe, Thomas McCal- 
la, S. P. Chipman, William McCrum, 
G. H. Johnson, E. E. Sluss, Tuley & 
McCrea, Samuel and Isaac Kahn, E. 
B. Pennington, James Millen, J. W. 
Davis & Co., Helton & Dodds, Miller 
& Moffett. Asher Labertew, John 
Campbell, Dunn & Co., Pennisrton & 
Tuley, J. B. Hobson & Co., Pleasant 
Williams, J. B. Mulkey, drugs (this 
is the first record we find of a drug 
store in Bloomington), Carsaw & An- 
drews, monuments (another new en- 
terprise), J. J. Cherry & Co., furni- 
ture, Tarkington & Atkins, Joseph 
Orr, drugs; Daniel Shrader, boots and 
shoes; A. Helton & Sons, Benjamin 
McGee, tailors. 

First Bank Is Opened. 

The first bank of Blomington was 
opened during the fifties. The wool- 
en factory belonging to Mr. Holtzman 
had become a large and prosperous 
concern. George Heppert was the 
town's butcher; Theodore Johnson 
made saddles in his factory; Cox and 
Springer, Woodward & Buchanan 
sold drugs, as did Mason & Faris; 
Slider & Tibbetts merchandise. There 
were also a host of kindred establish- 
ments too numerous to mention. 

Tarkington & Atkins began to issue 
"shinplasters" of the denominations 
of 50 cents and $1 in the year 1855. 
J. M. Howe also issued a small quan- 
tity of these notes. 

These "shinplasters" of small de- 
nominations were devised as a means 
for facilitating exchange, as a great 
want was being felt for denomina- 
tions of notes smaller than the banks 
of the time or the Government issued. 
It is said that Tarkington & Akin 
issued several thousand dollars worth 
of these "shinplasters." 

In a year or two these "shinplas- 
ters" began to depreciate in value, 
and then there was a pretty mess, ac- 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

cording to the word of several older 

Action Against "Shinplasters." 

The following action was taken by 
leading business men of Bloomington 
in 1858, the proceedings being pub- 
lished in the town paner at that time, 
from which we quote herewith : 

" 'Shinplasters' — We, the under- 
signed citizens of Bloomington, Indi- 
ana, pledge our word and honor that 
we will not take any 'shinplaster' cur- 
rency after the 1st day of February 
for more than ninety cents on the 
dollar; and that we will not circulate 
anv more after that date — nor any 
other paper currency not regularly 
chartered according to law. 

"January 20. 1858. 

"Signed— William O. Fee, Thomas 
Mullikin, A. W. Campbell. Kahn & 
Bro., Howe & Co.. W. D. Owen, O. L. 
Draner, Tuley and McCrea, Benjamin 
McGee. Millen & Moffett. Mason & 
Faris, P. Henoch, A. S. Mercer. E. E. 
Sluss, B. S. CowP-ill. J. R. Tibbets, 
A. Helton & Co., M. L. McCullough, 

A. Adams. Dunn & Co.. E. Johnson, 

B. J. Wade. J. C. McCullough." 

First Bank Organized. 

The first bankine businp<!s was 
done in the earlv fifties, by Tarkine- 
ton and Atkin. who issued at first onl-" 
"shinplasters": J. M. Howe did the 
same thing. 

In about 1857, the Bloomington 
Bank was regularly organized, with 
a capital of about $20,000, and soon 
bank bills were issued, signed by the 
above men. 

Missouri and other state bonds were 
deposited with the Auditor of State, 
but in 1860 these bonds so depreci- 

ated in value as to cause the sus- 
pension of the home bank. 

Soon after this a private bank was 
organized, and continued until about 
1870, when it was transformed into 

the First National Bank of Blooming- 
ton, with a capital stock of $50,000 — 
later increased to $100,000. 

The actual population of Bloming- 
ton in 1866 (August) was 2,118; in 
July, 1876, 2,404, and in 1884, 3,200. 



With the decade of the fifties, the 
town of Bloomington became more im- 
pressive as an industrial and educa- 
tional center than had been its fortune 
ever before, and it became evident that 
the town could not be kept from a 
healthy growth. With the building of 
the first ra'h'oad through Monroe 
county passetl out of existence the old 
stageline which the Orchard brothers 
had run in connection with their old 
log "Temperance House" situated on 
what is now College avenue. But, the 
Orchards had seen the future of their 
stage line fading, and a couple of years 
before the railroad was actually built 
into Bloomington these men, Samuel 
and John Orchard erected what was 
then considered a modem hotel and 
called it the "Orchard House" (men- 
tioned elsewhere). 

This up-to-date hostelry, along with 
the coming of the New Albany (now 
the Monon) railroad was quite an in- 
ducement for new industrial enterprise, 
and the development of native indus- 
try, which naturally forced business 
of" the town to a substantial growth. 

The New Albany Railroad, which 
had been built through Monroe county 

early in the fifties, added materially 
to the growth of the county seat. It 
gave the town an advantage of quick 
transportation at far less cost than 
heretofore had been offered for mark- 
eting the products of the community, 
thus adding importance to the progres- 
sive town. 

The Mails In 1859. 

The following schedule was posted 
in the Bloomington post office, and 
may serve to give persons of today a 
hint of what was considered rapid 
mail service in 1859-1860. 

"THE MAILS Arrive at and de- 
part from the Bloomington Post Office 

"From New Albany (by railroad), 
arrive at 5:25 p. m., and depart north 

"From Columbus (by two-horse 
hack), arrives evei-y Tuesday, Thurs- 
day and Saturday at 12 m., and de- 
parts every Monday, Wednesday and 
Friday, at 10 a. m. 

"From Bloomfield (by hack when 
necessary), an-ive evei-y Tuesday and 
Saturday, at 4 p. m., and departs every 
Monday and Friday at 8 a. m. 

"From Indianapolis, via Martinsville 
(by two-horse hack), arrives every 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


Tuesday and Friday, at 12 m., and de- 
parts same days at 1 p. m. 

"From Point Commerce, via White- 
hall (horse-back), arrives every Thurs- 
day, at 1 p. m., and departs same day, 
at 1:30 p. m." 

Showers Bros. 
About 1856 the Seward & Chase 
Iron Foundry doubled its capacity, and 
began doing- a large business. 

It was some time during this decade 
that Showers & Hendricks established 
a general cabinet shop, doing general 
manufacture of furniture (by hand, 
chiefly), and jobbing work. This firm 
continued to grow, and finally sold out 
to Showers Brothers, about November 
17, 1869, when the new firm began the 
manufacture of bedsteads as a spe- 

The following is quoted from an old 
newspaper issued in Bloomington,on 
August 27, 1858, in which the follow- 
ing quotations were made as an adver- 
tisement by a local concern: 

"Bloomington Prices Current — Cor- 
rected every Friday morning by Dunn 
& Co.: Wheat, per bushel, 55c to 65c; 
Oats, 30c; Corn, 35c to 40c; Wheat 
Flour, per 100 lbs., $2; Corn Meal, per 
bushel, 40 to 50c; Potatoes, per bushel, 
50 to 75c; Bacon, per lb., 4 to 6 l-2c; 
Lard, per lb., 7 to 8c; Butter, per lb., 
10 to 13c; Eggs, per dozen, 8c; Sugar, 
per lb., 11 to 12 l-2c; Coffee, per lb., 
14 to 20c." 

Among the merchants and business 
men during the decade of the sixties 
(known as uncertain period, during 
the War of Rebellion and following) 
in Bloomington were: Dunn & Co., J. 
M., Howe, W. O. Fee, S. J. Wade, Geo. 
BoUenbacher, J. S. Faris, Benjamin 
McGee, Milton Rogers, Mei'cer & 
Adams, Seward & Sons, G. W. Bat- 
terton, A. Holtzman & Sons, J. H. Hay 
& Co., E. Johnson & Co., Small and 
Riddle, Showers, Hendricks & Co., G. 
McCrea, C. P. Tuley, A. P. Helton, W. 
L. Bates, Turner & Sidway, Cherry & 
McKinley, Chase & Co., Munson and 
Doughton, Stuart and Manley, Kahn 
& Co., J. Misner, Carter and Perring, 
B. M. Burt, and T. S. McCune. 

Business Life of Eighties. 

The comparative growth of the city 
of Bloomington may be made in noting 
the business concerns existing in the 
middle eighties, as classified by the 
line of business rather than the indi- 
vidual as a merchant. We herewith 
give a list of firms grouped undei- each 
■ representative business heading: 

Drv Goods— W. W. Wicks, Lane & 
Buskirk, McCalla & Co., L. S. Fields 
& Co., S. K. Rhorer, MefTord & Sons. 

Readv-Made Clothing— Moses Kahn, 
Queen City Clothing Store, C. P. 
Turner, manager, Benjamin McGee. 

Merchant Tailors — Benjamin Mc- 
Gee, John W. Davis, John Ehni. 

Groceries— D. T. Raley & Co., Rob- 
ertson & Bro., J. B. Clark & Son, W. 
H. Meadows, Lane & Buskirk, A. H. 
Wilson, J. W. Robinson, Dunn & Co., 
Collins & Karsell, J. W. Johnson, 
James M. Hunter, J. R. Anderson. 

Hardware — Stuart & McPheeters, 
W. J. Allen. 

Books and Stationery — E. P. Cole, 

James D. Faris, Hiram Lindley, Lew- 
is H. Anderson. 

Drugs — H. Lindley, J. D. Faris, 
Peter Bowman. 

Agricultural Implements — W. J. 
Allen, Stuart & McPheeters, H. C. 

Wagons and Carriages — James Ry- 
an, Gilmore Bros., W. J. Clark, W. J. 
Alexander, Hoover & Dodson. 

Jewelry — M. J. Smith, Leveret 
Cochran, J. O. Howe, Henry Turner. 

Boots and Shoes— W. T. Blair, 
George BoUenbacher, George Atkin- 
son, W. W. Wicks, L. S. Fields & Co., 
McCalla & Co., C. C. Mefford & Sons, 
S. K. Rhorer. 

Hotels — National House, L. M. San- 
ders, proprietor; Orchard House, Wal- 
nut Street House. 

Milliners and Di-essmakers — Mrs. 
Nichlos, Mrs. Arnott, Mrs. Gregory, 
Mrs. Adams, Mrs. Snodgrass, Mrs. 
Atkins, Mrs. Harold, Mrs. Bullard and 
Cooper, Mrs. Tilley, Misses Faris. 

Restaurants — Mrs. Lucky, Mrs. 
Rott, George Buckart. 

Livery Barns — M. B. Rogers, Wor- 
ley & May. 

Flour Mills — Baldridge & Gourley, 
Hilton Height. 

Saw Mills — Gemmel Peterson, Jo- 
seph Alexander. 

Woolen Mills — Holtzman & Bros. 

Spoke Factory— Waldron, Hill & Co., 
BoUenbacher & Sons. 

Bedstead Factory — Showers Bros. 

Chair and Table Factory— Showers, 
Dodds & Co. 

Tannery — John Waldron. 

Planing Mills— C. J. McCalla. 

Brick Yard — J. Garrison. 

Lumber — W. H. Hughes. 

Builders and Contractor.s — Adams 
& Benton, H. J. Nichlos (architects 
also), M. D. Griffey & Co., W. C. 
Black, A. Robinson. 

Stone Contractors— Byerly & Stev- 
enson, James Voss. 

Plastering Contractors — H. H. and 
Benjamin Voss, R. M. Denton. 

Furniture — Baker & Neeld, Mat- 
thews & Turner. 

Barbers— W. T. Voss, Ephraim 
Hugos, Benjamin Voss William Proffet 
Daniel Pinkston. 

Butchers — Cron & Roseberry, J. M. 
Phillips & Co., Walker & Bros., Bult 
& McConnell. 

Foundry and Machine Shop — Se- 
ward Bros. 

Cigar Manufactory — George Seiner 

Stone Quarries — Matthew Willon, 
Moses Dunn, John Baldoff. 

NOTE — The fact that people ot the present 
day are familiar with happenings from the 
eiehties on. it is not deemed necessary to 
take up space for further details, other than 
callinu attention to business concerns of 
BloominEton in 1922. as represented in the 
last part ot this book. 



About 1835, N. Whisenand and R. 
Wilson opened liquor establishments 
in the village of Fairfax, which has 
always been a village of moderate 
pretensions, as regards size, but one 

of the landmarks of Clear Creek town- 
ship and Monroe county. 

So far as can be learned, these men 
continued in business and increased 
their stocks. Scarborough & Wilson 
opened a store in the place about 
1838, and did a good business for 
several years. Holton & Huston be- 
gan merchandising about 1840. The 
Hilton grist mill was erected at a 
very early time and considerable 
flour was sent down the creek in 
flat-boats, as was pork. Mr. Helton 
continued in business in the village 
with his store, mills and factories, 
until the fifties, when he removed to 
Bloomington. A large amount of 
furniture was manufactured at that 
time in the village. 

About 1847, L. Q. Hogatt and Mr. 
Helton formed a partnership, and 
later the Redfields succeeded Mr. 
Helton. After that time the village 
remained small and its life was un- 


Commodore Perry's Flagship Niag- 
ara is Docked at Port Erie. 

The United States brig Niagara, 
that famous unit of Perry's fleet to 
which his flag was transferred on the 
foundering of his flagship Lawrence, 
is to have a permanent home in the 
port of Erie, Pa. 

After nearly a century in a wa- 
tery grave in Misery bay, where it 
was sunk along with the other mem- 
bers of the fleet on the signing of the 
international treaty between Great 
Britain and the United States, the old 
Niagara, having been raised in con- 
nection with the centennial celebra- 
tion of Commodore Pei-ry's victory 
in 1913, is far too much of a historic 
relic to pennit of its being jostled 
about from place to place. 

For the purpose of assuring it a 
permanent resting place, where it can 
be inspected by visitors from all parts 
of the world, the city of Erie has 
made presentation of the Niagara to 
the United States government. Con- 
gress at its last session accepted the 
gift, and passed a bill directing the 
navy department to assume charge 
of the old relic and to keep it in fit- 
ting repair, and also erecting, if nec- 
essary, a suitable dock for its an- 
chorage at the port of Erie. 

Friendship Almost Was. 

One township almost had a vil- 
lage once upon a time, in fact in 
the month of September, 1857, James 
G. Fleener, with the assistance of the 
county surveyor, laic\ off eighteen 
lots on Section 21, Township 8 north. 
Range 1 east, and named the plot 
thus laid out "Friendship." 

But Friendship was doomed to die 
on paper, as it seemed impossible to 
make friends who cared to live at the 
place through the trials of life, and 
receiving no friendship, how could 
"Friendship" be shown. The project 
was surrendered to the inevitable in 
a few short months. 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 








Samuel and John Orchard Were Early Promoters of Projects Which Aided in 
the Progress of the Community— Orchard House Erected to Meet Needs 
of Traveling Public When Railroad Came. 

One of the most prominent factors 
in the early life of Bloomington, the 
really premier project which put 
Bloomington on the map and adver- 
tised the tovi^n and this section of the 
state, was its first stage line. 

This transportation project was 
started on a rather gigantic scale in 
1836, and when we take into con- 
sideration the fact that highways of 
the "West" at that early period were 
nothing but mud roads, and the com- 
parative expensive equipment re- 
quired in maintaining a stage line to 
any extent, we must take off our mod- 
ern hats to men who had nerve enough 
to launch such a venture — especially 
when we recall the scarcity of cap- 
ital in the pioneer days. 

But needless to say, it was these 
early stage lines which ultimately led 
to the growth and progress of our 
State and communities, for with each 
trip from the outside world, the old 
stage coaches, trundled into Blooming- 
ton with three to eight passengers. 
Orchards Responsible. 

Samuel M. Orchard and his brother, 

John Orchard came to Bloomington 
about 1823, from Washington County, 
Indiana, where their parents, Isaac 
and Margery (Mitchell) Orchard had 
moved from Bourbon County, Ken- 
tucky, and purchased a 160-acre farm 
in 1819. The two brothers started a 
carding machine as their first ven- 
ture in Monroe county, on the lot 
where the old "Orchard House" was 
later erected, situated on Fourth 
street, just east of where the Monon 
passenger station now stands. 

In 1826, these progressive young 
men added the manufacture of lin- 
seed oil to their enterprise, although 
as a separate occupation, which they 
made a success, as did they every 
venture which tliey undertook. In 
1836, the Orchard brothers sold their 
wool carding business, and made the 
historic step for the growth of our 
present population. 

In 1827, the two Orchard brothers, 
erected what was named the "Temper- 
ance House," on what we know as 
College avenue, in Bloomington. This 
old tavern was the first hostelry in 

the history of the county's highways 
that did not have a bar or serve 
liquor to its guests, and gained a 
reputation for this fact among the 
earlv traveling public. 

About 1836, it seems as a part 
of the same plan, the Orchards start- 
ed a stage line from Indianapolis, Ind., 
to Leavenworth, Kas., and another 
stage line from Louisville to New 
Orleans, which required many changes 
of horses and relays of drivers; but it 
is evident that the business minds 
of these pioneer promoters were equal 
to ever\' emergency. 

It seems that in the partnership, 
Samuel M. Orchards was the leader, 
and in 1837, he began butchering live 
stock for the trade, and continued this 
individual enterprise successfully 
along with his many other projects 
for about twelve years. 

Built Orchard House. 

In about 1849-1850, the foresight 
of Samuel M. Orchard must have dic- 
tated the erection of the old "Orchard 
House" upon the ground which im- 
mediately faces the Monon station to- 
day. As we know, this was just be- 
foi-e the projected building of the 
"New Albany" railroad (the first rail- 
road through the county) and we find 
that the Orchard brothers not alone 
had erected their then up-to-date hos- 
telry in expectation of the new rail- 
road, but they gave liberally in sub- 
scriptions for stock in the new railroad 
enterprise which was to mean so much 
later on for our city's progress. Old 
records show that the parkage front- 
ing the east entrance to the present 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


modern Monon passenger station was 
deeded to the railroad by Samuel M. 
Orchard for a comparatively small 

In 1855, after the New Albany rail- 
road had been completed through 
Bloomington, Samuel M. Orchard pur- 
chased his brother John Orchard's 
interest in the Orchard house, which 
was by far the best hotel of its day 
between Indianapolis and Louisville. 

Samuel M. Orchard then having pur- 
chased a farm of sixty acres, along 
with extensive city holdings, raised 

produce on his faiin to supply the 
needs of his hotel dining room. 13oard 
was furnished for about $1.50 a week. 
In 1830, Samuel M. Orchard mar- 
ried Martha C. McPheeters, daughter 
of James McPheeters, of Washington 
County, Indiana, to whom nine child- 
ren were born, six of whom lived to 
maturity, as follows: Elizabeth, John, 
Emily, Baynard R., James and I. Sam- 
uel, the last named taking over his 
father's interest and the management 
of the Orchard House in later years 
and continuing the business until its 

destruction by fire November 6, 1888. 
The sons, James and John served in 
the Union army during the Civil war. 
Samuel M. Orchard, although bom 
in Boui'bon County, Kentucky, August 
11, 1802, the second son and fourth 
child of a family of eleven children, 
and educated and reared in Kentucky 
until sixteen years of age, may be well 
considered one of Monroe county's 
oldest settlers and pioneers, as he 
I'ightly deserves credit for the assist- 
ance he gave in building up the Bloom- 
ington we have today. 





. "' """ ■ 

FL ' S £s;.-«^B9l 

iw-r ——T'': -r. — ' — f-^r . noo—-, .. ■. ' 



Large Membership of City's Boosters May Enable Future as Well as Present 
Generations to Judge as to the Thriving and Metropolitan Propensities to 
Which Our Business Life Has Striven With Success of Attainment in 1921. 

The objects of this organization is 
to work for the prosperity of the 
City of Bloomington and Monroe 
county, through co-operation and har- 
monious methods, with unceasing ef- 
forts in boosting the town. 

Officers in the Bloomingon Chamber 
of Commerce for the year ending July, 
1922, are as follows: 

J. E. P. Holland, president; H. L. 
Smith, vice-president; Charles Rawles, 
treasurer; G. B. Woodward, secretary. 
Directors for the present terms of 
office are, A. M. Snvder, H. L. Smith, 
William Graham, u! S. Hanna, L. W. 
Hughes, Samuel Pfrimmer, W. Ed 
Showers, George Talbott, William 
Burrows, Wood Wiles, B. G. Hoadley, 
and W. F. Woodburn. 

Representative of 1921 Business. 

The large membership of the Bloom- 
ington Chamber of Commerce at the 
present writing, December 30, 1921, 
''ncludts the following, which may be 
(■: ;-s:d:'red as representative of lead- 
'ng townsmen of the present day. For 
further data, as to representative busi- 
ness concerns and professional men 
'3S6I '9uir> ^uasaad 8i(:> ^t; ssaujsnq ui 
in the City of Bloomington, we refer 

readers to advertisements in the last 
part of this book. 

List of Members. 
F. H. Austin, F. H. Batman, L C. 
Batman, A. H. Beldon, A. H. Berndt, 
L. Beeler, O. E. Bell, J. W. Blair, H. 
C. Black, W. T. Bowles, Carl Breeden, 
R. J. Bryant, W. L. Bryan, S. P. Bryan, 
Geo. Buskirk, Kearny Buskirk, Wm. 
Burrows, Allen Buskirk, Guy Burnett, 
Elmer Buskirk, Chas. Bender, Elmer 
Bender, Walter Bradfute, G. H. Bar- 
rett, Louis Becovitz, Noble Campbell, 
Logan Coombs, Edwin Corr, S. W. 
Collins, J. W. Cravens, Oscar Cravens, 
W. N. Culmer, Homer Carpenter, Mel. 
Curry, J. E. Darby, Geo. Daughrity, 
Q. A. East, Mrs. L. Endledow, Chester 
Evans, J. W. Farris, W. I. Fee, Paul 
Feltus, H. J. Feltus, J. B. Fields, Len 
Field, W. R. Fisher, D. B. Foster, R. 
M. Foster. 0. B. Fuller, Jesse Ful- 
wider, W. A. Fulwider, E. R. Fletcher, 
Friedman & Brown, Ray Fvffe, Wm. 
Graham, Alfred Grindle, P. C. Gilliatt, 
W. W. Hall, R. H. Harris, V. C. Has- 
kett, R. C. Hamilton, U. S. Hanna, 
C. E. Harris, L. M. Hanna, H. G. 
Harris, P. B. Hill, Geo. Henlev, N. U. 
Hill, J. E. P. Holland, G. F. Holland, 
Jesse Howe, W. E. Hottel, B. G. Hoad- 

ley, L. W. Hughes, Geo. Hunter, H. 
M. Hudelson, Alex Hirsch, 0. H. Jack- 
son, Ellis Johnson, Ward Johnson, F. 
L. Judah, Joe, Kadison, Fred Kahn, 
James Karsell, Thos. Karsell, Wm. 
Karsell, John Kerr, Jos. Kentling, 
Tom Kuluris, Edw. A. Lee, Jos. Let- 
telleir, Philip Lettelleir, A. Q. Lewis, 
F. O. Livingstone, T. J. Louden, W. 
M. Louden, B. F. Leonard, Glenn Mc- 
Daniel, J. R. McDaniels, W. A. Mc- 
Aninch, Cornelius McKinley, Fred 
Matthews, 'Everett May, Moore & 
Dunlap, R.G. Miller, John Millis, Mon- 
roe Co. Bank, B. D. Myers, Mrs. C. H. 
Marxson, Jos. M. Nurre, J. W. O'Har- 
row, Edgar O'Harrow, Samuel Pfrim- 
mer, Poolitzan Co., F. J. Prow, N. 
O. Pittenger, J. H. Radcliff, H. P. 
Radley, J. W. Raub, C. L. Rawles, 
J. F. Regester, H. M. Rhorer, R. C. 
Roe, R. C. Rogers, Ottto Rogers, Wal- 
ter Rogers, L. D. Rogers, Otto Rott, L. 
H. Robertson, J. M. Sappenfield, Moy 
Sam, Fred Seward, Austin Seward, L. 
E. Siebenthal, W. Ed Showers, Fred 
Shoemaker, C. G. Shaw, Rodnev Smith, 
U. H. Smith, H. L. Smith, C. C. Small- 
wood, A. M. Snyder, James Souders, 
Homer Strain, Joseph Strain, C. H. 
Stewart, W. A. Stoute, J. H. Stein- 
metz, Everett Sparks, C. C. Spencer, 
Geo. Talbot, F. M. Talbot, S. F. Teter, 
H. P. Tourner, W. A. Turner, C. H. 
Uland, F. B. VanValzah, J. C. Ver- 
milyea, Chas. Waldron, Rolla Walker, 
M. D. Wells, Ed Whetsell Co., L .W. 
Whetsell, G. M. Whitaker, J. B. Wil- 
son. H. L. Wilkev, Wood Wiles, J. W. 
Wiltshire. Louis Wingfield, Ed. Wil- 
liams, R. D. Wingert. Homer Woolery, 
J. T. Woodward^ Allan Wylie, Chas. 
Wylie, Walter Woodburn, Leonard 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


Activities in the City's Growth Shows Signs of Prosperity— People Encouraged 
To Erect New Residences and Remodel Old Structures by the Readjust- 
ment of Cost of Material and Labor. 

The spring months will see a de- 
cided boom in home-building as well 
as the erection and repair of business 
and industrial housing in Blooming- 
ton far beyond any that has taken 
place since the world war forced 
prices of all commodities to the top, 
maintained John L. Nichos, architect 
of Bloomington, as a bit of encourage- 
ment to the residents and prospective 
home owners of Monroe county. 

As conclusive evidence to back up 
his argument, Mr. Nichols is now pre- 
paring plans for a new colored church 
and social center for the Bethel con- 
gregation at Seventh and Rogers 
streets. It will be of stone and will 
cost $35,000. The building will be 
42x97 feet, two stories. The audi- 
torium will be 40x60 feet. There will 
be a pastor's study, kitchen, dining 
room, rest room, library, and in fact 
everything that goes with a strictly 
modern community house of worship. 

The Free Methodist church has the 
foundation in for a $25,000 church on 
First street between Walnut and Mor- 
ton streets to be built from plans 
furnished by Mr. Nichols. 

Building of stone veneer, one story 
and basement; size 48x56 feet. Large 
auditorium. Parlors, Sunday school 

rooms, rest room and other conveni- 

The Ward Johnson house, East 
Eighth street, size, 30x45 feet. Colo- 
nial. Brick veneer. Two stories. Ten 
rooms. Strictly modern. Almost 

The James Havens residence. N. 
Pai-k avenue; colonial, white frame, 
28x35 feet; two stories and basement; 
eight rooms; hard wood floors, enamel 
finish; mahogany doors. 

The J. B. Smallwood residence. East 
Eighth street: size 38x40 feet: Dutch 
colonial; brick veneer; ten rooms; 
hardwood finish; garage in connec- 
tion. Strictly modern in every de- 
tail. Foundation already in. 

Max Lade residence. Max Lade 
who purchased the old Hunter house 
at eleventh and Walnut streets, is 
making extensive alterations and ad- 
ditions, which include a large colonial 
porch; kitchen, sleeping porch and 
minor details. When completed it will 
be one of the most attractive homes in 
Bloomington. Work under way now. 

The H. C. McNeeley residence. East 
Seventh street. To be enlarged and 
improved by adding brick peazza, new 
rooms, porches, etc., making a mod- 

em 12-room house. 

Mr. Nichols has just completed the 
remodeling of the Charles Bivins resi- 
dence on South College avenue. Also 
the home of Wm. Johnson, North Wal- 
nut street, and he will soon receive 
bids on an 8-room modem house for 
Robert Hamilton, North Fess avenue, 
and a double 8-room apartment for 
James Wingert, on East Sixth street. 

At the present cost of labor and 
material, if one has an old house 
with a good frame, it pays to remodel. 
The cost of building in the spring will 
be practically the same as at present. 
No change in labor. Inside finishing 
has taken a 15 per cent rise. Doors 
and sashes — no change. Frame lum- 
ber slightly advanced. 

Many other new homes are under 
construction at present, or just being 
completed, as well as a new addition 
to the modern building of the Johnson 
Creamery company's plant, and a 
number of other industries in the city. 

As a whole, lumber and building 
concerns of the city also predict a 
bright future for the spring of 1922 
in Bloomington's new growth. 

B\oonnn§,\on Election, 1921 

The outstanding feature of the 
Bloomington city election, held in No- 
vember, 1921, was the election of John 
G. Harris by a Democratic majority 
of 30 votes over Wiliam W. Weaver, 
who had held the office during the pre- 

Scenes in the great stone quarries near Bloomington, from which fine building stone is sent to 
all parts of America, Europe and the whole world. 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


Bloomington City Hall, where Mayor Harris will serve his third 
term as executive of the city's business in 1922. 

ceding term, and was trying for re- 

Up to the very day of the election, 
the campaign was seemingly quiet, al- 
though the party workers had been 
endeavoring to win voters in secret lor 
both parties. But, on the election day 
both sides came out in the open and 
the race was seen to be very close and 
the result was in doubt until the last 
vote was counted that night. Party 
lines were in no way drawn in this 
election and voters of both old parties 
scratched their tickets. 

Elsworth Cooper was re-elected on 
the Republican ticket to serve his sec- 
ond term as City Clerk of Blooming- 
ton by 21 votes, and Samuel Pfrimmer, 
Republican, was re-elected City Treas- 
urer by 320 votes. 

Councilmen were elected from both 
Democratic and Republican parties as 
follows: Democrats — Lynn Lewis, 
Samuel Franklin, Alva Parks and 
Charles Suggs; Republican — William 
Karsell, N. O. Pittenger, Professor D. 
A. Rothrock and John L. Nichols. 

The new officials of Bloomington 
take their seat of office at high noon, 
January 3, 1922, to be in charge of 
the city's affairs for the coming four 

The split ticket, and the ability of 
the men elected to use sound judge- 
ment in times of need, assures the 
City of Bloomington a good-sense ad- 
ministration of its affairs for the fu- 
ture four years, as the newly elected 

councilmen of both parties are well- 
known Bloomington men. 

Mayor-elect John G. Harris has 
been quite successful in Democratic 
party endeavors in Monroe county in 
the past, having served twice before 
as Mayor of Bloomington. The first 
time he ran for office he defeated 
A. L. Donaldson (Republican) by 19 
votes, and the second time he was 
elected on the Democratic ticket over 
James G. BroviTiing (Republican) and 
S. C. Freese (Progressive). This 
makes the third term for which Mr. 
Harris has been chosen as executive of 
Bloomington's business affairs as 
mayor of the city. The actual vote 
cast for candidates, and the winning 
majorities in figures are as follows: 

Mayor— Harris, 2,586 ; Weaver, 2,656. Har- 
ris majority, 30. 

Clerk— Cooper. 2,534 : Beard, 2,513. Coop- 
er majority, 21. 

Treasurer— Pfrimmer. 2,683 : Burford, 2,363. 
Pfrimmer majority, 320. 

Councilmen-at-Larpe — Karsell, 2,558 : Hazel, 
2,648— Karsell majority, 90. Wells, 2,629 ; 
Lake., 2,363— Wells majority, 266. Pittenger, 
2,642 : Smallwood, 2,350 — Pittenger's major- 
ity. 292. 

Councilman First Ward — Lewis, 441 ; Fuller, 
399. Lewis majority, 42. 

Councilman Second Ward— ^Franklin, 417 : 
Beck, 301. Franklin majority. 116. 

Councilman Third Ward— Rothrock, 728 : 
Bittner, 698. Rothrock majority, 30. 

Councilman Fourth Ward — Nichols. 539 : 
Beldon. 329. Nichols majority, 210. 

Councilman Fifth Ward— Parks, 386 ; Baker, 
341. Parks majority, 45. 

Councilman Sixth Ward— Suggs, 283 ; Geig- 
er, 197. Suggs majority, 86. 


All down the centuries people's 
homes have conformed to their natural 
surroundings. In the earlist days, 
before there were either tools or fash- 
ions, necessity was the chooser of hab- 
itations. Cliff, cave and tree dwellers 
picked their abodes according to their 
ability to stand off animal and human 
enemies. Consequently, their dwel- 

lings not only conformed with the 
landscape but were the landscape. No 
doubt one thought twice in those days 
before "shinning" a tree or thrusting 
his head into a hole. Possession was 
ten-tenths of the law, and the thickest 
skull proved it, observes a writer in 
the Christian Science Monitor. 

As emotions calmed down and the 

inhabitants began to come out of their 
retreats and strut about safely in the 
open they found they could afford per- 
sonal tastes and traits in dress and 
customs. Their homes, however, re- 
mained uniform. They must utilize 
the natural resources at their doors, 
whether stone or mud or wood; utilize 
them in such a way as to keep out the 
weather, and in no larger quantities 
than conditions necessitated. Although 
perhaps our earliest ancestors had no 
idea of 'art' or beauty, still their shel- 
ters were both artistic and beautiful 
in other words, they merged quitely in- 
to the topography of the country, had 
a purpose in life and made no preten- 
sions to anything but what they were. 
Is that not a standard for all home 
builders to follow? 

Wherever folks are free to build ac- 
cording to their natural desires, wher- 
ever civilization, so called, has not 
twisted them awry, there you still find 
the siinplicity of habitation. Freder- 
ick O'Brien, "who spent a year in the 
south seas among a race only recently 
touched by the white man's ways, 
writes : 

"Here and there I saw a native 
house built of bamboo and matting, 
very simple shelters, with an open 
space for a doorway, but wholesome, 
clean and, to me, beautiful.'' and then 
he speaks feelingly of the modern 
huts, "painted bright blue and roofed 
with corrugated iron." 

Hopi Indian Cliff Dwellers. 
And look at the Hopi Indian ruins 
that still hang upon the painted cliffs 
of the Arizona desert, of which Ethel 
Rose says: 

"The Hopi houses were built of the 
earth into such perfect immitations of 
the strange square forms of the sur- 
rounding buttes that it was almost 
imnossible for even the keen eye of an 
Indian to tell houses from turreted 
hills. The Hopis, through the same in- 
stinct of protective security that mot- 
tles the breast of the thrush, that 
streaks the tawny tiger with stripes 
like the shadows of jungle reeds, have 
achieved one of the most perfect ex- 
amples of architectural fitness known 
to the world." 

Modern standards might not call 
such homes beautiful, but to the inhab- 
itants they were certain^ beautiful, 
for they were made in conformity with 
their religion, their customs and the 
bright, interminable deserts about 

A Simplicity That Charmes. 
Farther west, in California, the old 
Spanish mission buildings are as low 
and bare as the country, but as one 
commences to climb the mountains the 
architecture changes, cottages nestle 
into the foilage, rocks and beams from 
the hillside appear in the walls, cedar 
.shingles and slates in the roofs. In 
Switzerland are seen similar effects. 
There the weather beaten masses of 
timber jut out through the pines and 
firs like great moss covered bowers, 
and the peasants have rolled up the 
logs and beaten the natural earth and 
reared the rocks into fences until they 
are as close to nature within their 
homes as without them. 

About the bare pastures of Ireland 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

and the rocky coasts of Nova Scotia 
we find the cold, unpainted cottages 
outcropping like the surrounding 
bowlders from the hillside and weath- 
ered by wind and storm into close re- 
lationship with them. Economy is the 
architect and need the decorator, but 
neither college degrees nor gold could 
design anything more in harmony 
with land and sky. Build on low win- 
dows and balconies, inclose them with 
lattice work and formal gardens, and 
you would have incongruous blots on 
the landscape. Surely it is the thatch- 
ed cottages and barns of English ^^l- 
lages rather han the millionaire's pal- 
aces that create the atmosphere of 
charm and home-likeness that every 
\asitor appreciates; it is the white 
walls and pink roofs of the Neapolitan 
fisherman that the artist paints, rath- 
er than the great villa on the cliff 

Where in the northern wilderness 
will you find bricks or stucco? The 
big logging camps are built of the very 
ti-unks that were removed to give them 
room. Moss and bark still cling to 
the walls; saplings from the bunks, 
squared timbers, benches and tables. 
And when you come suddenly upon 
one of these camps at the end of a trail 
it is as if the trees had gathered them- 
selves together, lopped off their 
gi'eenery and formed themselves into 
a hostelry for your benefit. Even the 
forest folk, furred and feathered, 
accept these man dwellings as harm- 
less innovations, ranging through and 
over them as soon as they are vaca- 
ted. Indeed the porcupines, chipmunks 
and woodmice seem, to prefer them to 
the tangled swamps. 

A trapper or timber cruser can make 

himself a log shelter with no other 
tools than his trusty ax. Slabs of 
bark will shed the rain and moss and 
mud will forbid the wind. A fire rang- 
er, demanding something better, will 
square his timpers, put tar paper on 
his roof and tote in a cooking stove 
in sections. But when he is done, his 
home is so mhch a part of the wilder- 
ness that it disapears a few hundred 
yards away, and moose and deer come 
down to drink before his door. In 
winter, when the drifts pile to the 
eaves, blot out the fuel heap and the 
footworn paths, there is nothing left 
but a window and a stovepipe, scarcely 
more than is found about an Eskimo 

An igloo is perhaps the best example 
of a house that conforms to the sur- 
roundings to be found the wide world 
over. They say the igloo is rather 
cramped for room, but on the other 
hand the high cost of living can have 
little effect on the price of "building 
materials" within the artic circle. And 
to the explorer the glimpse of an ice 
hut through a gathering storm must 
seem more inspiring than a hundred 
boulevards to a city dweller. 

This brings us to the very antithesis 
of the tent and tepee, the modem sky- 
sci'aper apartment house It con- 

formes to nothing, unless it be the 
gray clouds that all but brush its fore- 
head. Its material are brought from 
great distances and are heaped one 
upon another without the slightest at- 
tempt to pattern anything in nature. It 
herds a mayriad who have had no 
hand in its building and feel no sense 
of possession. It may be beautiful in 
its way, but it is the beauty of the un- 

couth, the grotesque, and can never 

satisfy the home cravings in the 
human heart. 

Scattered throughout the Missis- 
sippi Valley and the heart of the 
North American Continent lie the si- 
lent monuments of a long buried and 
unknown race of humanity. 

Through the long vista of years that 
have gone over the graves of this 
ancient and forgotten people there 
comes no sound to tell us of the times 
that saw these tombs close darkly 

Mystery Of Mound Builders. 

The mystery that enshrouded this 
race of Mound Builders has hitherto 
baffled science and research until com- 
partively recent date, and still is only 
accounted for through theories of sci- 

Archaeologists have out run all clues 
in their seemingly vain efforts to pen- 
etrate the secrets that surround these 
dead inhabitants of the past. 

No recorded history, no curious and 
perplexing hierogliphics were left by 
the race who at some by-gone period 
inhabited what is known as Monroe 
County, Indiana. 

Beyond the fact that they existed, 
little else is known, as they left noth- 
ing which might span the abyss of 

The mounds and earth-works that 
were constructed by this people are 
numerous throughout the country, and 
some of them are of such magnitude 
that it is concluded "that they lived 
in towns and were governed by a 
despotic ruler whose will was law 

Where the finest building stone in the world is taken from the earth, near Bloomington. Ind. 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 



and whose commands received implicit 

For want of a better name that of 
Mound Builders has been given to this 
extinct race, since only by these 
mounds is it known. 

The date of construction of these 
mounds is beyond the centuries that 
have been required for the growth of 
the forests. 

What They Tell Us. 

"Not entirely voiceless, they tell of 
a people who once possessed the val- 
ley of the continent. 

"Peaceful and law-abiding, they 
were skilled in agriculture and the arts 
of the 'stone age,' and executed works 
that must have of necessity required 
the united and persistent efforts of 
thousands under the direction of a well 
matured design. 

"In the comparitive absence of war- 
like implements, we concluded that 
this must have been a harmonious peo- 
ple, that this work must have been 
a labor of love and not of fear; 
that it was inaugurated and directed 
by a Regal Priesthood. Modern 
scientists believe the Mound Builders 
were of the same race as the In- 
dians, but of more peaceful tempera- 

Three Kinds of Mounds. 

These mounds are of three kinds: 

Mounds of habitation, sepulchral 
and temple mounds. 

The first mentioned are supposed 
to have been made for the purpose of 
building the tents and dwellings upon. 

Sepulchral mounds are thought to 
have been constructed more as tombs 
for the burial of the dead, and when 
explored, are usually found to con- 

tain human bones and various orna- 
ments and implements of the race 
which flourished in the past ages. 

Then, too, there are mounds which 
are designatd by modern explorers as 
of ample mounder, explained in the 
name. These mounds were the places 
of religious worship. 

Besides these mounds mentioned 
above, we find that there has been dis- 
covered many mounds which have evi- 
dently acted as forts, walled enclos- 
ures and citadels. Probably, the 
Mound Builders used these places as 
a sort of retreat or place of refuge, 
when the encrochment of the later 
people of war-like tendencies were 
pressing them for the existence of 
their very lives as a race. 

Lawrancc County Mounds. 

While there are no mounds in the 
immediate vicinity of Bloomington, to 
which there has been discovered a con- 
nection with the prehistoric man, up 
to the present generation, Lawrance 
County, the neighboring county just 
south of Monroe county, furnished 
evidence that the Mound Builder in- 
habited all this part of the country 
at one time. 

Concerning the evidence of this pre- 
historic race in Lawrance County, 
Indiana, Mr. John Collett, in the Geo- 
logical Survey of Indiana, for 1873, 
says the following: 

"On the eastern slopes of the liill 
over Connelly's cave, two miles east of 
Huron, is & group of seven mounds, 
from two to four feet high, and an 
obscure winding way may be traced 
leading from the cave spring to the 
top of the hill. 

"On the summit are found frag- 

ments of sandstone, reddened by bum- 
ning, and shell heaps were found. 

"The mounds were probably habita- 

"From protruding pieces of stone 
seen on the sides of the mound, it is 
concluded that the internal construc- 
tion is of that material, instead of 
timber, as was usual in similar struc- 
tures found on the Wabash and Mis- 

"A central tumulus having a double 
circular wall was found, which was 
used for sepulchral purposes, in all 

"Old Palistine" Has Mound. 

A mound similar to the last men- 
tioned mound, is located at the site 
of the first county seat of Lawrence 
county, Palenstine, Indiana; or "Old 
Palistine," as the place has been called 
since Bedford was made the county 

"This mound was explored by 
Messrs. Newland, Dodd and Houston, 
in 1870. They found on the surface 
of the hill a confused mass of stones, 
such as a man could conveniently 
carry, indicating a circular wall 
twenty feet in diameter. 

"This was found to be a vaulted 
tomb. The first, or upper vault con- 
taining the bones of many women 
and children. 

"A layer of flat stones divided this 
from the second, which contained 
the bones of men. Then another 
layer of flag stones was found, and 
at the bottom, six feet below the sur- 
face, was found two skeletons, with 
their heads placed to the east and 
the faces turned to the north. 

"The last skeletons were of per- 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

sons, who had evidently been of mas- 
sive built and gi-eat size, probably 
not less than six and one-half feet 

"With the skeletons in the Pales- 
tine mound were found a quantity 
of flints, arrow-points, etc.; near the 
head of the largest individual a pair 
of hammered copper earrings and a 
globular 'war-whistle' were found. 
The keen noise of the latter may 
be compared to the sound of a po- 
liceman's whistle and could be heard 
for nearly a mile. 

"Stone axes and pieces of ancient 
pottery were also found scattered 
on the surface of the earth near this 

Succeeded by Fishermen. 

The immediate successors of the 
Mound Builders in this part of In- 
diana were evidently a race of fisher- 
men, who lived along the banks of 
streams and existed almost solely 
upon the food they obtained from the 

Along the western rivers there 
have been found many "shell heaps", 
where, it is supposed that these peo- 
ple made their home for a time per- 
manently. Monroe and Lawrence 
counties have shown traces of these 
riparian inhabitants. 

Many stone vaults and sepulchers 
intruded on the sides and tops of 
mounds along the fork of White 
river and on the high bluffs along 
the streams, have led to the con- 
clusion that this people adopted many 
of the habits and customs of the 
Mound Builders. 

But, they too, have long passed 
out of existence as a race of the 
earth's inhabitants, leaving almost 

naught to tell the curious of today 
about their life, their times or ambi- 

Barbarious Race Follows. 

Later there came a barbarious and 

wandering race of men, originating 

in ancient Scythia, and bringing with 

them the cruelties and characteristics 

of the inhabitants of that country. ' ' 

The tell-tale monuments along their 
rout from Northern Asia to the very 
center of America reveal the origin 
of the American Indians. 

In their turn, as a race, they will 
soon have been numbered among the 
perished races of the earth, along 
with those that passed before. 





First Known as Part of "New France," and Claimed by Iroquoise Indians — 
England Gets Control in 1713 — French Renew Claims — After French-Indian 
War Became Part of Province of Quebeck — Colony of Virginia Obtains 
Possession — General Clark Plays Part — Becomes Knox County in Great 
"Northwest Territory" — Vincennes Seat of Justice. 

How many residents of the State of 
Indiana at the present time have tak- 
en the trouble to trace the steps in 
progress that have transpired in mak- 
ing- the history of the temtory in 
which they live? 

Although many citizens of Monroe 
county and Bloomington have become 
quite familiar with early history of 
our United States, and even the local 
State of Indiana, and more minutely, 
with our own community, we find that 
no one seems to have ever taken the 
trouble to connect these old geograph- 
ical designations in cronological form 

as actual history of the land upon 
which we now immediately reside. 

After much effort in tracing false 
hints and piecing details of proven 
facts, we have gathered together what 
we believe to be a closely connected 
ihistory of what we may call "pre- 
Indiana" incidents. 

New France, First Designation. 

"New France," is probably the first 
geographical designation for any sub- 
division of the North American con- 
tinent including the present tract of 
Monroe County, Indiana. 

The Ohio and Indiana country was 
already claimed by the French in the 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hail 


eventeenth Century, as an mtegral 
art of their great North American 

By virtue of the discovery of the 
ihio river by France's brave explorer, 
Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle, and 
le earlier voyage in 1640 of the Jesuit 
athers Charenionot and Breboeuf, 
long the south shore of Lake Erie, 
ave France foundation for her claims. 
Iriquois Also Claim Territory. 

With the Iriquois Indians also 
laiming this great section of North 
.merica, the French were constantly 
t war, and the claims of the confed- 
rate tribes of Indians to the tern- 
ary weighed nothing with the ag- 
ressive leaders of the French in the 
lew World. 

When, some time in the first half 
f the Eighteenth Century, the French 
uilt a fort on the Iriquois lands near 
[iagara Falls, the Governor of Canada 
roclaimed their rights of encroach- 
lent, saying that the Five Nations 
rere not subjects of England, but 
ather of France, if subjects at all. 

But, on April 11, 1713, by the 
i-eaty of Utrecht, Louis XIV., Le 
Iraiid Monar(|ue, of France, renounced 
1 favor of England all rights to the 
riquoise country, reserving only the 
It. Lawrence and Mississippi valleys 

Boundaries were so vaguley defined, 
lowever, that disputes easily and fre- 

quently arose concerning the terri- 
tories owned by the respective powers. 
Ohio Land Company Formefl. 

In 1738 a concern known as The 
Ohio Land Company was formed in 
Virginia, by the Washingtons, Lee and 
others. This company was organized 
under a grant from George II., of 
England, to occupy a half-million 
acres of land west of the AUeghanies. 

The very year after the Ohio Land 
Company was formed, in 1740, De- 
Celeron, the French commandant, of 
Detroit, led an expedition to the Ohio, 
dispatched by the Marquis de la Gal- 
lissoniere, commander-in-chief of New 
France, and buried a leaden tablet "at 
the confluence of the Ohio and 
Tchadakoin,"( ?) "as a monument of 
the renewal of possession which we 
have taken of the said Ohio river, and 
of all those that therein fall, and of 
all lands on both sides as far as the 
source of said rivers" — truely a sweep- 
ing claim. 

English Traders Ordered Out. 

The French military officer ordered 
the English traders out of the country, 
and notified the Governor of Penn- 
sylvania that if they "should hereaf- 
ter make their appearance on the 
Beautiful river, they would be treated 
without any delicacy." 

The territorial squabble which then 
ensued finally led to the French and 

Indian war of 1755-62, which closed 
upon the cession to England, on the 
part of France, of Canada and all her 
American possessions east of the Mis- 
sissippi river, except some fishing 

In Province of Quebec. 

Thus, the region, at length passed 
into the undisputed possession of the 
English Crown. 

We find that there seems to be some 
difference as to dates when the British 
parliament insisted upon the Ohio 
river as the southwestern boundary, 
and the Mississippi river as the 
western boundary of the domin- 
ion of the British crown in that 
quarter. It is generally conceded that 
1766 was the date of this action, al- 
though Isaac Smucker, in the Ohio 
State Secretary of State's Report for 
1877 (100 years later), gives the date 
as 1774. 

By this measure the entire North- 
west, or so much of it as afterward 
became the Northwest Territory, was 
attached to the Province of Quebec, 
and the tract that now constitutes the 
State of Indiana was nominally under 
its local administration. 

In 1769, the Colony of Virginia, by 
an enactment of the House of Bur- 
gesses, attempted to extend its juris- 
diction over this same territory, north- 
west of the Ohio river, by virtue of 
its royal grants, and seems to have 

Rural scene in picturesque beauty spot in Monroe County, near Blooming-ton. 


Historic Treasur es, Compiled by Fore st Jd. "Pop" Hall 

literally "grabbed" the territory from 
Quebec, though both were still under 
the reign of one country's ruler. 
Botetourt County Set Up. 

By that act, the County of Botetourt 
was" erected and named in honor of 
Lord Botetourt, who was then Gov- 
ernor of the Colony of Virginia. 

This county was a vast country, 
about 700 miles long, with the Blue 
Ridge for its eastern, and for its west- 
ern boundary, the Mississipi river. 

The new country included large 
parts of the present states of West 
Virginia, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, 
and was the first county organization 
covering what is now Monroe County, 
Indiana. , 

In the settlement known as Fin- 
castle (the place is still the county 
seat of the gi-eatly reduced county 
of Botetourt) was made the seat of 
justice; but so distant from it were 
the western regions of this mammouth 
county, that the thoughtful Burgesses 
inserted the following pro\'iso in the 
creative act: 

"Whereas, The people situated on 
the Mississippi, in the said county of 
Botetourt, will be very remote from 
the court house, and must necessarily 
become a separate county as soon as 
their numbers become sufficient, which 
will probably happen in a short time, 
be it therefore enacted by the au- 
thority aforesaid, that the inhabitants 

of that part of said county of Bote- 
tourt which lies on said waters, shall 
be exempted from the payment of any 
leWes to be laid by the said county 
court for the purpose of building a 
court house and prison for said coun- 

Government was still nominal, so 
far as the county organization was 
concerned, between the Mississippi and 
Ohio rivers, and a few white settlers 
and Indians were entirely a law unto 
themselves. But, controversies arose 
between the Indians and settlers un- 
til it was not safe for white folk to 
stay in the great wooded territory, 
and this led to the famous invasion 
of the territory by General Clark and 
his little army in 1778. 

County of Illinois Created. 

After the conquest of the Indiana 
and Illinois country by General George 
Rogers Clarke in 1778, the county of 
Illinois was erected by the Virginia 
Legislature, in October of the same 

Illinois county was formed from a 
part of the great county of Botetourt, 
and included all the territory between 
the Pennsylvania line, the Ohio river, 
the Mississippi river and the Great 

Colonel John Todd was appointed 
first county lieutenant and civil com- 
mandant of Illinois county. He 
perished in the battle of Blue Licks, 

August 18, 1782. Timothy de Mont- 
brun was named as successor to Col- 
onel Todd. 

At this time there were no white 
men li\ang within the boundai'ies of 
what is known as the State of Indiana 
now, except a few Indian traders and 
a very few French settlers. 

The legislature of Virginia, at the 
time Illinois county was created, made 
provision for the protection of the 
country by reinforcements to General 
Clarke's little army. 

By another enactment, passed in 
May, 1780, the act of 1778 was con- 
firmed and somewhat amended, and 
further reinforcements were ordered 
sent into the wilderness. 

West Illinois county, however, does 
not seem to have been destined to 
make any large figure in history as 
it was originally set up. 

Conflicting Claims Filed. 

After the war of the United States 
for independence from England had 
been practically won by General Wash- 
ington's armies this part of the new 
Republic came in for its share of the 

At the preliminary negotiations lor 
peace, in Paris, France, in November, 
1782, between England and her re- 
volted, successful American colonies, 
both France and Spain, for similar 
reasons of discovery and partial oc- 
cupancy, filed their protests against 

Where one is tempted to linger in the shade. 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


the claim of either of the lately con- 
tending parties to "the Illinois 

It cannot be too often repeated, to 
the everlasting- honor of General 
Clarke, that it was his conquest in 
1778 that determined the controversy 
in Paris at this time in favor of the 
infant republic, and carried the lines 
of the new Nation to the Mississippi 
rivei' and the Great Lakes. 

Otherwise, the east bank of the Ohio 
river, or possibly, even the Alleghanies 
would, in all probability, have been 
the western boundary in part of the 
new Republic. 

The final convention, at Paris, 
September 3, 1783, confirmed the claim 
of the United Colonies as made good 
by the victories of General Clarke. 
Illinois County Wiped Out. 

On October 20, 1783, the Virginia 
Legislature, by solemn enactment, 
transferred all her rights and ritles 
to lands west of the Ohio river to tlie 
General Government. Illinois county 
was thus virtually wiped out. 

After the title "of the United States 
to the wide tract covere<l by Illinois 
county, acquired by the victories of 
the Revolution and the Paiis treaty, 
had been perfected by the cession 
of claims to it by Virginia and the 
other States and by Indian treaties, 
Congress took the next step toward 
the government of what is today In- 
diana, and Monroe county. 

This step was surely an impor- 
tant one in the civil organization of 
the country. 

Upon the date of July 13 (a month 
which has been largely ;issoci.ited 
with human liberty in many pges of 
history, it is believed, more than any 
other period in the calendar }'ear), in 
the year 1787, Congress passed the 
act which has had its bearing 
upon history of our commcnv/ealth. 

This date marks the passage of the 
celebrated act entitled "An onlinance 
for the government of the territory 
of the United States northwest of the 
river Ohio," by Congress. 

^ Remarks of Chief Justice Chase. 

By this great organic act — "the 
last gift," as Chief Justic Chase said, 
"of the Congress of the old Confedera- 
tion to tlie country, and it was a fit 
consummation of their glorious la- 
bors" — provision was made for var- 
ious forms of territorial government 
to be adopted in succession, in due 
order of advancement and development 
of the western country. 
— "When the settlers went into the 
wilderness," said Mr. Chase, "they 
found the law already there. It was 
impressed upon the soil itself, while it 
yet bore up nothing but the forest." 
Gen. Arthur St. Clair, Governor. 

This measure was succeeded, en 
October 5, of the same year, by the ap- 
pointment by Congress of General Ar- 
thur St. Clair as Governor, and Major 
Winthrop Sargent as Secretary, 
the first officers of the Northwest Ter- 
ritory, of the United States of 

Soon after these appointments, three 
ten-itorial judges were appointed — 
Samuel Holden Parsons, James Mitch- 
ell Varnum, and John Armstrong. In 
January, the last named man, not 

Scene on Indiana University Campus. 

having yet entered upon service, de- 
clined his appointment, which then 
fell to the Honorable John Cleves 
Symmes, the hero of the Miami Pur- 
chase, of which Cincinnati is now the 
chief city. 

The appointment of Mr. Symmes 
to this important office gave much 
offense at the time in some quarters, 
as it was supposed to add to his op- 
portunities of making a great fortune 
in the new country. 

It is a well known fact, even today, 
that Governor St. Clair's appoint nent 
to the Northwest Territory was ))ro- 
moted by his friends, in the hope that 
he would use his position to relieve 
himself of pecuniary embarrassments. 

But, be it said, there is no evidence 
obtainable, how^ever, that either the 
Governor or Judge Symmes prosti- 
tuted the privileges of their positions 
to such ends at any time in their 

All these appointments being mide 
under the Articles of Confederation, 
they expired upon the adoption and 
operation of the Federal Constitution. 

President Washington Reappoints. 

St. Clair and Sargent were reap- 
pointed to their respective places ijy 
President Washington, and confirmed 
by the United States Senate on Sep- 
tember 20, 1789. 

On the same day Parsons and 
Symmes were reappointed as judges. 

with William Burton as their asso- 

Meanwhile, on the date of July 9, 
1788, the Governor arrived at Mari- 
etta, and proceeded to organize the 

He and the judges, of whom \'ar- 
num and Parsons were present, con- 
stitutefl under the ordinance, the Ter- 
ritorial Legislature. 

Their first law was proclaimed July 
25, and on July 27, 1788, the first 
proclamation of Governor St. Clair 
was issued, establishing the county of 
Washington, to cover all the territory 
to which the Indian title had been ex- 
tinguished, between Lake Erie, the 
Ohio and Scioto rivers, and the Penn- 
sylvania line, being a large part of 
the present State of Ohio. 

Marietta, the capital of the Terri- 
tory, was made the seat of justice for 
Washington county. 

The next civil division proclaimed 
was Hamilton county, proclaimed on 
January 4, 1790, by the legislatui-e, 
thiough Governor St. Clair. 

Cincinnati Was Losantiville. 

With this proclamation Cincinnati 
was established under that name as 
the county seat of justice for Hamil- 
ton county. 

The place named Losanti\'iIle, situ- 
ated on the Ohio river, was, with this 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

proclamation renamed Cincinnati, and 
now, for the first time so-called. 

Hamilton county was an immense 
tract of land, of which but a small 
remnant is now left, territorially re- 
guarded, in the county of that name, 
at the southwestern corner of Ohio. 
It was named for Colonel Alexander 
Hamilton, the first secretary of the 
treasury of the United States. 

A few years afterward, two new 
counties were created in the North- 
west Territory, which were named 
Wayne county, now as reduced as 
Hamilton, but situated in what is now 
the State of Michigan; and Knox 
county, which is still as greatly re- 
duced, in Indiana. 

Knox County, Indiana Site. 

Knox county is the county of the 
Northwest Territory that interests re- 
sidents of Indiana, and especially Mon- 
roe county and Bloomington in the 
present day, as its formation was a 
direct step in the geneoiogy of our 
present city, county and state. 

The boundries of Knox county then 
contained all the land we.^t of Hamil- 
ton county, on a line drawn fi-oin Ft. 
Recovery, nearly on the present boun- 
dry line between Indiana and Ohio, 
to the mouth of the Kentucky river. 
It, of course, included what is now 
Monroe county, Indiana. 

Vincennes was the first county seat 
of this newly created Knox county, 

and may be said to be the first county 
seat situated in Indiana. 

The writer had the pleasure of 
visiting Ft. Recovery during the last 
year, and found many stories of his- 
toric incidents still easily talked of 
in a familiar manner by the residents 
of the Ohio town. 

Old Ft. Recovery. 

The old fort was destroyed, but the 
town erected a monument in meuioiy 
at the centennial celebration during 
the nineties of the last century. 

The old fort was situated on the 
Wabash river, which is not much more 
than a large creek at that point, and 
was first named Ft. St. Clair, in honor 
of the first Governor of the Northwest 
Territory, but later the name was 

In a famous battle with the Indians, 
the fort was captured by the savages, 
and many of the settlers murdered or 
scalped and left for dead. 

Then word reached General Wayne, 
who became famous in the early days 
as an Indian fighter, and was nick- 
named "Mad Anthony" for his seem- 
ing fearless and corageous ability as 
a leader in battle. 

General Wayne, with a small hand- • 
ful of his soldiers, reached the locality 
of the captured fort, and after scout- 
ing about for imformation, suprised 
the Indians and recaptured the old 
Fort St. Clair. And, after the garrison 
was once more established it was re- 

named Ft. Recovery in honor of this 
famous battle of Anthony Wayne. 
Reservations Made In Deed. 

When the Colony of Virginia gave 
the general government of the United 
Colonies a deed of cession of her lands 
in the Northwest Territory, a reserva- 
tion was made in the deed for a track 
of land not exceeding 150,000 acres, 
to be apportioned to General George 
Rodgers Clarke and the officers and 
soldiers of his regiment who were at 
the reduction of "Kerskaskias and St. 
Vincent's" (Kaskaskia and Vincennes) 
in 1778. 

This grant was known as the "Clarke 
Grant," and was made by the legisla- 
ture of the state January 2, 1781. A 
sword had previously (in September 
1779) been voted by Virginia to Gen- 
eral Clarke. 

In the same act of 1781 reserva- 
tion for land grants for her soldiers 
who served in the Continental line was 
made of the military district in Ohio, 
between the Sciota and the Little 
Miami rivers. 

Locate In Indiana. 

The Clarke Grant was to be laid off 
on the northwest side of the Ohio riv- 
er, in such place as the majority of 
the officers entitled to the land-bounty 
should choose. 

These men selected the tract of land 
adjacent to the rapids of the Ohio 
river, just across the river from where 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


the city of Louisville, Ky., now stands. 

After the second treaty of Ft. Stan- 
wix, October 22, 1784, and the treaty 
of Ft. Mcintosh, January, 21, 178.5, had 
been confirmed to the United States 
the Indian titles to the western lands 
congress provided, by ordinance, for 
their survey and sub-division. 

Tliis was the third ordinance of the 
kind reported to congress, and bears 
the date May 20, 1785, by which time 
Virginia, New York,, and Massachu- 
setts had ceded their several claims to 
the territoi'y northwest of the river 
Ohio to the United States. 

Divided Into Townships. 

Under this act, whose principles of 
survey are still substantially in vogue, 
the territory purchased from the In- 
dians was to be divided into townships. 

These townships were to be six 
miles square, by north and south lines 
crossed at right angles by others. The 
first north and south line was to begin 
on the Ohio river at a point due north 
of the termination of the southern 
boundary of Pennsylvania, and the 
first east and west line was to begin 
at the same point and extend through- 
out the territory. 

The ranges of townships thus 
formed were numbered from the Penn- 
sylvania line westward; townships 
themselves were numbered from the 
Ohio river northward. 

Each township was to be sub-divided 
into thirty-six parts or sections. Of 
course, each section was to be one mile 

One- Seventh To Goverment. 

When seven ranges of townships had 
been surveyed, the Geographer of the 
United States was to make a return 
of them to the Board of the Treasury, 
who were to take from them one- 
seventh part, by lot, for the use of the 
Continental army, and so on, every 
seven ranges as surveyed and re- 

The remaining six-sevenths of the 
township were to be drawn for by the 
several states, in the proportion of the 
last ret|usition made upon them, and 

they were to make public sale thereof 
in the following manner: 

Range first, township first, was to 
be sold entire, township second in sec- 
tions, and so on, alternately; while in 
range second, township first was to be 
sold in sections, and townships second 
entire, retaining throughout, both as 
to ranges and townships, the principle 
of alternation. 

The price for this land was to be 
at least $1 per acre in the specie, "loan 
office certificates reduced to specie 
value," or "certificates of liquidated 
debts of the United States. 

Five sections in each township were 
to be reserved, four for the United 
States and one section for schools. 

All sales thus made by the States 
weie to be returned to the Board of 
Treasury — a council of thr.e, who had 
jurisdiction over the public lands, 
which was subsequently, under the 
Consitution, vested in the secretary of 
the treasury, and finally in the General 
Land Office. 

Method of Dividing Soldiers' Land. 
This ordnance also supplied the meth- 
od of dividing among the Continental 
soldiers the lands set apart to them, 
reserved three townships for Canadian 
refugees, secured the Moravian Indi- 

ans their rigjhts, and excluded from 
sale the territory between the Little 
Miami and Scioto rivers, in accord- 
ance with the provisions made by Vii'- 
ginina in her deed of cession in favor 
of her own troops. 

Many points in this law were after- 
ward changed, but its great features 

Six land districts were established, 
\\-ith an office for registery and sale in 
each district. 

The Vincennes district had jurisdic- 
tion of all the public lands in the ter- 
ritory which is now known as Monroe 
County, Indiana, and all the early 
land entries of the county show that 
the first sale was made at that place, 
by the government. 

It is an interesting fact that the 
first ordinance reported. May 28, 1784, 
proposed townships of ten miles 
sciuare; the second, brought in April 
26, 1785, would have made the town- 
ship seven miles square. 

But, as has been proven, the above 
described ordinance seems to have 
been the most practical, as it has con- 
tinued as a basis for land measure- 
ments to the present. 

*Annals of the West, edition of 
1847, 269-70. 


Colonel Ketcham Built a Grist Mill in 1818 on Clear Creek— Taylors Sent First 
Fiat-Boat From Monroe County to New Orleans— Woman Who Baked First 
"Corn Pone" in County Lives to Great Age. 

The first settler in Monroe county, 
Indiana, according to old Colonel 
Ketcham (and passed on through oth- 
ers), who settled in the northwest cor- 
ner of what is now known as Clear 
Creek Township, m 1817, was David 

This man and his wife came to the 
township for permanent residence 
when the state was yet a territory, 
or in 1815. Colonel" Ketcham, who 

came in one year later, and was well 
acquainted with McHolland, often 
stated that the later was, no doubt, 
the first white settler in Monroe 

Of course, the territory now com- 
prising the county, had previously 
been invaded by white hunters and 
trappers, but, so far as is known, no 
white family, including wife and chil- 
dren, became residents until the Mc- 
Holland family arrived. 

McHolland was famous as a hunter, 
and his wife (who lived to a very old 
age) always boasted of having baked 
the first corn pone in Monroe county, 
and probably was justified in her 

The McHollands cultivated an acre 
or two of ground upon which they 
squatted, and after a few years went 
to the northwest part of the county, 
where they lived for many years. 

Colonel Ketcham built a grist mill 
on Clear Creek as early as 1818, 
which, for many years, was famous to 
all the surrounding country. 

The Taylors probably seiit the first 
flat-boat loaded with pork, grain, etc., 
down either Clear Creek or Salt 
Creek, from Monroe county. They 
built their own boats and knew how 
to manage them on their way to New 
Orleans and the Southern market. 

Colonel Ketcham and the Chamber 
brothers were also about as early 
shippers with their flat-boats, loaded 
with pork, grain and lumber. 

Later, Elias Bruner shipped cherry 
and other finer varieties of wood down 
the creeks to the outside world. 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

Honorable Thomas H. Blake Was President Judge, and Joseph Berry and Lewis 
Noel Were Associate Judges— Suit for Damages First Case to Come to 
Trial, "Teague vs. Nicholson" — Dudley C. Smith Attorney for Plaintiff: 
John F. Ross Represented Defendants. 

Old Court House or Monroe County, which Colonel Ketcham built> as it appeared before making place 
for the present building — The fish on the weather van was transferred to the new building. 


AT BLOOMINGTON, IN 1818— SESSION HELD the charge, and the following first 

„ ^_, . -„-»T-M-^■M-» »-.» A TT. petit jury was impaneled to try the 

IN HOUSE OF ABNER BLAIR case: Joseph Perisho, John M. Sadler, 

Isaiah Wright, James Thompson, 
George Parks Sr., Jonathan Gilbert, 
Granville Ward, John Wakefield, 

Solomon , David Scott, and 

John . 

Jury Returns Verdict. 

The evidence was heard and the 
jury returned a vei-dict as follows: 
"We of the jury do find the trans- 
verser guilty." 

Defendant's counsel moved an ar- 
rest of judgment, which was granted 
until the next day, upon which oc- 
casion the reasons for an arrest of 
judgement were filed. 

The court overruled the motion and 
rendered judgement as follows: "The 
defendant to pay to John W. Lee $30, 
to pay a fine of $30, to pay costs of 
prosecution, and to stand committed 
until sentence be complied with. 

The first court of the character of 
Probate Court in Monroe County was 
held at Bloomington, Indiana, on 
August 31, 1818, by Joseph Berry and 
Lewis Noel, Associate Judges. 

The first act was as foUowss: 
Orphan "Bound Out." 

On motion of Eli Lee, it was "or- 
dered that William Dorsey, infant 
son of Joseph Dorsey (deceased) and 
Sarah Dorsey, born January 24, 1811, 
be bound unto Eli Lee and Sarah Lee 
until he arrives at the age of 21 
years, to learn the art of agriculture: 

The first term of the Monroe 
County Circuit was held on the first 
Monday in June, 1818, at the house 
of Abner Blair, by Hon. Thomas H. 
Blake, President Judge, and Joseph 
Berry and Lewis Noel, Associate 

The first act of the court was the 
issuance of a writ of "ad quod dam- 
num" for the benefit of Robert Ham- 
ilton to ascertain what damages 
would be caused by his erection of a 
grist and saw mill and a dam on his 
land — on Sec. 24, Twp. 8 north, Range 
2 west, on Clear Creek. 

Nothing further than this case 
seems to have been done until the 
September term, at which the first 
case came to trial. 

The first case to come to trial in 
Monroe County was "David Teague 
vs. Leonard Nicholson, trespass on 
the case of words being spoken 
damages laid at $1,000. 

Before suit was begun, the defend- 
ant stated that if the plaintiff would 

desist from further prosecution he 
would pay all costs thus far; this 
proposition being accepted by the 
plaintiff, the defendant was dis- 

Attorney for the plaintiff was 
Dudley C. Smith, and for defendants 
John F. Ross. 

The court convened this term in the 
new log court house. 

Many of Names Now Familiar. 

The following men constituted the 
first grand jury in this court: Jona- 
than Nichols, William Anderson, Ed- 
ward Armstrong, John Treat, David 
McHollen, Thomas B. Clark, Abner 
Blair, Julius Dugger, John Tullen, 
James Ellege, John Storm, Joseph 
Cox, Joseph Baugh and Joseph Gil- 

This jury was sworn, sent out, and 
soon returned with the following 
"true bills": State of Indiana vs. 
James Green, larceny (stealing a 
rifled gun owned by John W. Lee.) 

John Law was Prosecuting Attoi- 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


whereupon the said Eli Lee and 
Sarah Lee, together with William 

, their security, entered into 

bond in the penal sum of $500, con- 
ditioned that the said Eli Lee and 
Sarah Lee learn (teach) him, the said 
William Dorsey, reading, writing and 
arithmetic as far as the rule of 
three; and also to find him a whole- 
some diet, washing, lodging and 
clothing, and to deal with him in all 
cases as an apprentice ought to be 
dealt with, and to find him unon be- 
coming of age, the sum of $10 and a 
good suit of clothes." 

At this time, also, Dorcas Dorsey, 
infant daughter of Joseph Dorsey, 
deceased, was bound out to George 

This was the only business per- 
formed at the first session of the 

In vacation, letters of administra- 
tion were granted to David Cham- 
bers upon the estate of James Shef- 
field, deceased. 

Inventory of Estate. 

At the March term, 1819, David 
Chambers, administrator of the es- 
tate of John Henson, deceased, re- 
turned the following inventory of 
sales of such estate, as shown on the 
old records of that date, along with 
other court business, and the list is 
given here to show what pei'sonal 
property our first settlers may have 

It may not bear close inspection 
under the critical and aristocratic 
eye of the present generation, but it 
is an honest record that speaks in 
volumes of self-denial of early times: 

"One kettle, 50c; one kettle, $.3; one 
kettle, $3; one pot, $2.75; one pot, 
$2,621/2; fire dogs, $2; one shovel, 
62%c; one plow (spelled plough), 
$4.40; leather, $1; one steel 
trap, $3; one plate, $1.25; three 
hoes, .50c; one basket, 31 -4 c; one 
churn, 6Vic; one cutting knife, 
$1.6614; smith tools, $5.87yo; one 
curry comb, 54c; one ladle, 12 '^c; 
one reeler, 21c; one pair of steel 
yards, $2.36%; two chairs, d-l'-^zc; 
three pair of cards vfor wool), f.Oc; 
sheep shears, 52c; fobaitoo, S2..->2; one 
keg, 48c; one barrc;!, 75<;; one note, 
$20.25; one note, $2.25; one hackle. 

$4; one reed and gears, $l.lS';,i ; one 
reed and gear, r,Oc. 

First Grand Jurors. 

The first Grand Ji;jors of Monroe 
County were .-^ele'yted as follows: 
Dudley Carl, William Chambers, 
David Chambers, Jjlin Scott, John 
Mercer, Thomas Grimes, John Berry, 
William Neweomb, Jesse Tarkington, 
Solomon Gre:rn, Jonathan Nielio!?, 
George Sharp, Sr., Coleman Pruitt, 
Eli Lee, Wiiru.ii Hardin and lltnry 

The Sheriff, in attendance, John W. 
Lee, was ordc'ed to notify the ab:,'\e 
named men to mc';t at the l,ou:e (f 
Abner Blair. 

The Traverse Jury wa.* then sclect- 
td as follows: William Matlock, John 
Thompson, Geoi'g'? Birdriclc, Samuel 
Scott, Thom--;.s Clark, Jonathan Koins, 
John Stoini Jr.. John Coucli, John 
Matlock, John Cutler, Joseph Pee- 
shaw, David Sear-, B^lijah Murgan, 

,'ames Wright and James MatlocI:. 

Jonathan Rogers, Robert Russell 
and Samuel Scott were appointed 
Road Supervisors for the new county 
of Monroe. 

First County Road. 

The first petition tor a county 
road came from William Hardin and 
"thers, and was t-> extend from 
Bloomington to Scoti.s' Ferry on Salt 
Creek, and thence to the Lawrence 
county line. Willip.m Jackson, John 
Scott and William Craig were ap- 
pointed viewers. This road was 
ordered built and was tha first con- 
structed wholly at the expense of the 
county. (The Ne*' Albany Railroad 
— "Monon" now — was built in the 
fifties to Martinsvilla — finished by 
Gen. Buxnside after the war.) 

Between 300 and 400 volcanoes are 
known to be active at the present 


Free Liquor Was. Kept on Counter.'^ by All .Merchants in Early Days — Taverns 
Sold "Spirits"— Orchards Started First "Temperance" Hostelry in Bloom- 
ington — Other interesting Facts Recalled. 

Citizens of the present day have 
seen the passing away of the legiti- 
mate manufacture, sale and use of 
whiskey in our gi'eat country, through 
the prohibitive enactments of our 

In the past fifty years, people al- 
lov.-ed the use of alcoholic liquors to 
take such hold upon them that the 
traffic became deplorable, and was 
looked upon as one of the causes of 
the lowest forms of degredation and 
crime in all walks of life. 

Was Not So In Early Days. 

When all the gTeat forest covered 
what is now Bloomington and Mon- 
roe county, Indiana, swamps and cli- 
matic conditions were considered the 
worst enemies to the pioneer settlers 
of the then new country, and whisky 


had a prominent part in the life of 
the early settlers. 

One of the most noteworthy fea- 
tures of the town of Bloomington in 
the early days was the liquor ti'affic. 
The most prominent merchants kept 
whisky on their counters free for 
their patrons, and a tavern or inn 
which did not keep it at the bar, was 
a rarity, probably unknown in the 
early history of the city. 

In those early times of hardship 
and endurance, whisky was considered 
a necessity among the pioneers, as all 
of this vast territory was ever pro- 
ducing perils to the settler's health, 
and each settler was his own physi- 

Had No Drug Stores. 

There were no "drug stores" and 
very few doctors in those days. 
Whisky was not alone used as a cure- 
all, but was taken as a preventative 
for anything which might be sus- 
pected of attack upon the human be- 
ing's health. 

Among the liquor sellers were some 
of the best citizens, morally and tem- 
perately. During the decade of the 
twenties the following men sold liquor: 
William Hardin, Clem Dickens, George 
Henry, John Borland, Notley Baker, 
in 1827; Robertson Graham, Isaac 
Brown, Albert Literal, in 1828; Jacob 
Kelley, W. D. McCulIough, John 
Owens, John H. Berry and Barton 
Byers, in the year 1829. 

A man named Jordan manufactured 
li(|Uor in Bloomington about this de- 
cade, although not very extensively. 
Mr. Thacker (mentioned elsewhere) 
;ilso distilled a good gi'ade of whisky 
.11(1 wild cherry bounce, if the judg- 
ment of old timers is to be credited. 
As some of these old timers were na- 
tives of Kentucky, no attempt can be 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

made to controvert their opinions. 

Tavern keepers during the early 
rears, in the twenties, wei'e: William 
Hardin, Dr. E. C. Moberly, William 
Noland, A. F. Morrison, John Sheets, 
George W. Hardin, Francis Taylor, 
Thomas Nesbitt and Mary Stockwell, 
J. 0. Howe, Hannah Sheets and W. 
D. McCullough. 

Orchards Start New Idea. 

The Orchards kept the "Temperance 
House," where, it is said, liquor was 
not "on tap." 

This old hotel business was a land 
mark in the city of Bloomington for 
many years, and is still remembered 
bv manv people now living. 

"During the decade of 1830-40, there 
arose a growing sentiment, wdiich 
gradually increased in strength, all 
over the" country, against the general 

use of liquor, and many merchants 
ceased to tolerate it on their counters. 

Among the liquor sellers of that 
period were: Notley Baker, George 
and John Hardesty, James Cochran, 
and among the tavein keepers were: 
Asher Labertew, Aquilla Rogers, Dan- 
iel Deckard, S. P. Seall and others. 

(This is the last date of which the 
writer cares to furnish data concern- 
ing liquor dealers, as the business be- 
came a moral issue from this date 
dow'n to the present). 

During the decade of the forties the 
temperance struggle in Bloomington 
and Monroe county was prosecuted 
with such relentless vigor that nearly 
all the liciuor dealers were induced to 
take up other lines of business or 
were driven from the town, mainly 
through pressure of public opinion. 




Campaigns Hotly Contested by Old-Tiitie Politicians, as Shown by Evidence 
Collected — Facts and Figures of Presidential and State Elections — Subjects 
of Interest at Present Touched Upon in Early Times. 

Unfortunately, owing to the fact 
that the election returns were not pre- 
served in the office of the County 
Clerk, the details of early elections 
cannot be given. But from private 
sources, such as old letters, books, and 
through inquiry we are able to com- 
pile a number of fairly substantiated 

One thing is certain, however, that 
the county was substantially Demo- 
cratic. If any innovation was made 
in this rule by any other party, such 
fact is no longer remembered. Ref- 
erence is made to the ticket in general. 

Occasionally, no doubt, a rival can- 
didate on an opposing party ticket 
sometimes steppetl in through some 
local sentiment or prejudice; but the 
Democratic ticket as a whole was in- 
variably elected. Little attention was 
paid to national political questions un- 
til the memorable Presidential cam- 
paign of 1840. 

West Becomes United. 

Indiana came forward with her 
idol, William Henry Harrison, and the 
new West united forces and means to 
elect him. An important feature of 
the election was the newly born preju- 
dice existing between the eastern and 
western portions of the country. 

Tlie log cabins and hard cider of 
"Indiana" were the butt for Eastern 
ridicule, but the friends of Mr. Harri- 
son accepting the terms, conducted the 
campaign with a rush that was never 
before known in the history of the 

At every political gathering the 
Whigs' barrels of hard cider and min- 
iature log cabins were the battle cries. 
Gen. Harrison's military record was 
the pride of his friends, and another 
battle cry was "Tippecanoe and Tyler. 

Famous Political Song. 

A famous political song of that 
campaign, set to the air of "Rosin the 

Bow," was sung on all occasions. One 
verse was as follows: 

"And if we get anyways thirsty, 

I'll tell you what we can all do: 
We'll bring down a keg of hard cider. 
And drink to 'Old Tippecanoe.' " 
The result of this election can be 
given of only three townships, but may 
be taken as a measuie in degree of the 
full vote. 

Democratic Whig 

(Van Buren (Harrison 
and and 

Johnson) Tyler) 

Bloomington 587 541 

Salt Creek 11 

Bean Blossom 117 50 

Totals 715 591 

Harrison Trumphant. 

Mr. Harrison was triumphantly 
elected and the East was for the first 
time compelled to bow to the Wild 
West. The county of Monroe did not 
cut much of a figure in the general 
results, but she fully e.^^tablished her- 
self with an unfailing Democratic ma- 

As the Presidential election of 1S44 
approached it became apparent that 
Texas, which had gained its indepen- 
dence of Mexico a few years before, 
would apply for admission to the 
Union. The South was gratified, as 
that meant an increase of slave terri- 
tory; but the North determined to pre- 
vent the admission, if possible, in or- 
der to limit the Domain of slavery. 

The Democrats put forward James 
K. Polk, and the Whigs, Henry Clay. 
Considerable activity was developed in 
Monroe county in this campaign, and 
the election resulted as follows: 
November, 1844. 

Democratic (Polk and Dallas), 
1,118; Whig (Clay and Frelinghuy- 

sen), 721. Polk's majority in the 
county, .397. 

Results of no other Presidential 
election can be given until 1856, at 
which the new Republican party ap- 
peared. The campaign in Monroe 
county was pretty warm, with the fol- 
lowing results: 

November, 1856. 

Democratic (Buchanan and Breck- 
enridge), 1,191; Republican (Fremont 
and Davton), 498; American (Fillmore 
and Doiialson), 392. 

During the next four years, people 
even in the North, were almost on the 
brink of open war. In 1858, the South 
began to make preparations to leave 
the Union. The result in 1860 of Mon- 
roe County's presidential \'ote was 

November, 1860. 

Northern Democracy (Douglas and 
Johnson), 716; Southern Democracy 
(Breckenridge and Lane), 395; Re- 
publican (Lincoln and Hamlin), 1,198; 
American (Bell and Everett), 64. 

This was a remarkable election. 
The noticeable feature was the heavy 
vote for the Southern Democratic 
ticket. The Democratic party in Mon- 
roe county was "all broke up." 
Vote For Governor. 
The Gubernatorial vote in the coun- 
ty the same fall (1860) was: Henry 
S. Lane (Rep.), 1,195; Thomas A. 
Hendricks (Dem.), 1,168. 

The vote for Governor of Indiana 
in 1856 had been: Oliver P. Morton 
(Rep.), 801; A. P. Willard (Dem.), 
1,133. The Democratic majority was 
broken down between 1856 and 1860, 
but it rallied again during the war. 
In 185S, the vote for representative in 
congress was, James Hughes (Dem.), 
964; W. M. Dunn (Rep.), 1,075. The 
vote for Secretary of State in 1862, 
was: W. A. Peele (Rep.), 1,021; J. S. 
Athon (Dem.), 1,333. It will be seen 
by this that the Democratic party of 
the county had recovered, but by 1864 
the Republican began to creep up 
again, the vote for Governor being: 
Morton (Rep.), 1,224; McDonald 
(Dem.), 1,220. (Rather close race in 
the county.) The Presidential vote 
was as follow's: 

November, 1864. 

Democratic (McClellan and Pendle- 
ton), 1,210; Republican (Lincoln and 
John.son), 1,202. 

Republicans Gain Control. 

In 1S66, Monroe county became Re- 
publican by a majority which had held 
supreme, with one or two exceptions, 
up to 1S84. In 1866 the vote for Rep- 
resentative in Congress was M. C. 
Hunter (Rep.), 1,589; H. W. Harring- 
ton (Dem.), 1,397. 

November, 1868. 

The result for Governor in 1868, 
was: Conrad Baker (Rep.), 1,484; 
Thomas A. Hendricks (Dem.), 1,402. 

In the presidential race, the same 
year, the figures show the vote cast 
in Monroe county as: 

Republican (Grant and Colfax), 
1,496; Democratic (Seymour and 
Blair), 1,369. . 

Democratic in 1870. 

In 1870 the county again went 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


slightly Democratic, according to the 
following- figures: 

Secretrv of State — Norman Eddv 
(Dem.), i,Jfi2; M. F. A. Hoffman 
(Rep.), 1,457. Representative in Con- 
gres.s — Vorhees (Dem.), 1,471; Dunn 
(Rep.), 1,442. 

Republicans Again Win in 1872. 

The Republicans again showed more 
strength than the Democrats in 1872, 
as shown in the following: 

For Governor — Thomas M. Brown 
(Rep.), 1,698; T. A. Hendricks 
(Dem.), 1,527. 

November, 1874 

The result in Monroe county of the 
Presidential contest of 1872 was as 
follows : 

Republican (Grant and Wilson), 
1,597; Democratic (Greely and 
Brown), 1,359; Bourbon Democratic, 5. 
November, 1876. 

The Presidential election of 1876 
resulted as follows: 

Republican (Hays and Wheeler), 
1,667; Democratic (Tilden and Hend- 
ricks), 1,559; Independent (Cooper 
and Gary), 125. 

Still Republican in 1878. 

The result for Secretary of State 

in 1878, follows: John G. Shanklin, 
(Rep.), 1,601; Isaac S. Moore (Dem.) 
1,560; "Henry James (Ind.), 288. 

In 1880, the result for Governor of 
Indiana, as cast in the county, was: 
Albert G. Porter (Rep.) 1,770; Frank- 
lin Landers (Dem.), 1,613; Richard 
Gregg (Ind.), 199. 

The Presidential election in this 
year resulted as follows: 
November, 1880. 

Republican (Garfield and Arthur), 
1,780; Democratic, Hancock and Eng- 
lish), 1,682; Independent (Weaver 
and Chambers), 165. 

Still Republican in 1882. 

In 18S2, the vote for Secretary of 
State was as follows: E. R. Hawn 
(Rep.), 1,751; William R. Myers, 
(Dem.), 1,625; H. B. Leonard (Ind.), 

Owing to the familiarity of the ma- 
jority of people living at the present 
time with conditions and happenings 
from 1880-1884 down to the present 
time (1922), the writer feels that it 
is not necessary to detail further, as 
the records and data are easy of ac- 
cess to all. 


Was Left an Orphan in Ireland, and "Put Out" as "Bound Boy" — Came To 
America Before 1774-75 — Served in Continental Army — Settled in Ken- 
tucky — Came to Monroe County With Son and Grandson, and Was 
Buried on Farm in Perry Township — Work of D. A. R. 

A man whose name was William 
Mathers, who was born in Ireland, 
and becoming an orphan — lived the 
life of a bound boy — came to America 
prior to the Revolutionary war of 
1775-76. He fought in the Continen- 
tal army against King George's 
armies in that war and is buried in 
the cemetery at Clear Creek. 

After the Constitution of the United 
States was firmly set up and the 
United States became a permanent 
fixture, this man settled in what was 
then the "wild west," Bourbon coun- 
ty, Kentucky. 

There, a son named James was born 
and reared, and this son married a 
maiden named Susana Nesbit, and 
this union bore forth ten children, to 
the home which James had established 
in Nicholas county, Kentucky. 
Grandson Weds. 

The fifth child of this family of the 
second generation was born in Nich- 
olas county, Kentucky, February 28, 
1821, and began doing for himself 
long before maturity, and in the year 
1841 this man, whose surname was 
Thomas N., married his own cousin. 
Miss Mary E., and they settled in 
Perry township, Monroe county, In- 
diana, and through economy and per- 
severance by the "sweat of the brow," 
this man managed to become quite in- 
fluential and financially comfortable, 
on his well-improved fai-m. 

To this unif n was bom nine chil- 
dren, who have become a part of the 
substantial citizenship of Monroe 

county and Bloomington at the pres- 
ent time. 

Come To Monroe. 

The grandfather, William Mathers, 
who first came from Ireland and was 
a revolutionary soldier of the Con- 
tinental army, and his son, James, 
came to Monroe county when the 
grandson and his bride, whose name 
was Thomas N. Mathers, settled in 
Perry township, and they died and 
were buried in Monroe county, as was 
the wife of Thomas N. Mathers, who 
gave up the ghost after a long Chris- 
tian life, in 1880. 

Mrs. J. L. Fowler of East Second 
street is a daughter of Thomas N. 
Mathers, and Prof. F. C. Mathers is 
a grandson. 

The above stated facts have been 
picked up and pieced together by the 
writer, in an endeavor to further es- 

tablish the fact that a soldier of the 
Revolution is actually buried in Mon- 
roe county. Descendants of Thomas 
N. and Mary E. Mathers, now living 
in Bloomington and Monroe county 
can probably further prove the facts 
above stated. 

In a conversation, Mrs. J. L. Fowler, 
the great-grandchild of William Math- 
ers, who is now 74 years of age, stated 
that the body of the Revolutionary 
soldier had been at first buried on 
the farm of Benjamin Mathers, her 
uncle, in Perry towTiship, Monroe 
county, south of Bloomington, and 
later the body was exhumed and 
placed in the Clear Creek cemetery 
beside that of her grandfather, James 
Mathers, and later the body of Thom- 
as N. and Mary E. Mathers, her grand- 
parents, were laid to rest in the same 

Marking Graves. 

The Bloomington D. A. R. chapter 
held its November 1921 meeting at 
the home of Mrs. John Nichols, East 
Fourth street. Mrs. H. C. Legge, Miss 
Alice Bowers, Mrs. Ward Johnson and 
Mrs. W. T. Breeden were the assist- 
ing hostesses. After the regular busi- 
ness Mrs. Fred Finley read a very 
interesting paper on the life of 
Johnny Appleseed. 

Miss Eura Sanders of Gosport was 
a visitor at the meeting and she 
brought to the attention of the mem- 
bers the work being done by the S. 
A. R. (Sons of Amer. Rev.) of the 
state, that of marking the graves in 
the state of all soldiers who served in 
the Revolutionary war. 

As this is one line of work the 
Bloomington chapter of D. A. R. has 
carried out in Monroe county, the 
members voted their hearty co-opera- 

The grave of Henry Sanders which 
is located a few miles west of towm 
has been selected by the S. A. R.'s as 
the first grave to be marked. D. A. R. 
will assist the S. A. R.'s in remarking 
those graves in the county, which they 
previously marked and give their aid 
in seeking out new ones. 

The following article was published 
in The Daily Telephone of Blooming- 
ton in response to a call for infor- 
mation of Revolutionary war soldiers 
buried in Monroe county. 

Liberty Cemetery. 

In the little cemetery, known as 
Liberty in the Mt. Tabor neighbor- 
hood, lies buried soldiers from the 
war of 1775 to the World War, 1914- 
18. Their names follow: 

Michael N. Weir 1775. 

John Burton— 1812. 

John Campbell— 1846. 

James Campbell— 1846. 

Isaac Van Buskirk— 1860. 

James Campbell — 1860. 

Capt. John Campbell— 1860. 

Frank Gable— World War. 

Also in the Arlington cemetery, bet- 
ter known to older residents as the 
Buskii'k cemetery, which is on the 
David Buskii-k farm, northeast of 
Stinesville, in Bean Blossom township 

Isaac Van Buskirk, Sr. — 1775. 

Isaac Van Buskirk, Jr. — 1812. 

Isaac Van Buskirk, No. 3—1846 and 

Capt. David Van Buskirk— 1860-65. 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


John Storm Was First Colonel of 20th Indiana, Followed by Colonel Ketcham 
— Muster Day Once a Year — Later Became Holiday as Danger From 
Indian Attacks Disappeared — Two Companies Sent to War With Mexico 
in 1846-1847— Four Local Men Lost Lives in Land of Montezumas. 

Although Monroe county, from the 
very first, has been more active than 
most counties of the State of Indiana 
in educational affairs, ever looking to 
the welfare of future generations 
still early history of the county shows 
a rather notable military record. 

While it is physically impossible at 
this late time to give a minute detail 
of each little incident, we have been 
enabled to find and piece together an 
account which may give a glimpse to 
the future generations of the very 
honorable military activities of our 
early citizens, of which we may be 
proud, indeed. 

First County Militia. 

Monroe County, Indiana, was no 
sooner organized than it was consti- 
tuted the district for the organization 
of the 20th Regiment of Indiana mil- 
itia, in 1819, and John Storm was com- 
missioned as first Colonel of the regi- 

This was soon after the war of 
1812-13, when the recollection of dan- 
ger from the savages was fresh in the 
minds of settlers, and when the appre- 
hension of danger from the same 
source was still a matter of daily con- 
cern, as the native Indians were yet 

a few miles north, in what we know 
as the New Purchase. 

The old habits of watchfulness on 
the frontier could not easily be aban- 
doned, and, accordingly, for several 
years the militia was mustered often 
and kept in readiness for any out- 
break of the Indians. 

After the removal by the Govern- 
ment of the Indians to western lands, 
the muster was still kept up for a 
number of years, although steadily 
lessening in concern, and at last, late 
in the twenties, became little better 
than a farce. 

Became Holiday. 

In truth, the system which had been 
so efficient during the Indian wars, 
now that danger from that or any 
other source seemed past, it degener- 
ated into a holiday, in which dram- 
drinking, horse-racing and athletic 
sports claimed the sole attention of 
a boisterous crowd. 

In 1822 John Ketcham succeeded 
John Storm as Colonel of the 20th 
Regiment of State Militia, at Bloom- 
ington, but after that time the regi- 
mental officers cannot be' ascertained 
for certainty. But, we do know that 
William Lowe was Brigadier-General 
of the Monroe County Battalion for 
a time. The only circumstances that 
aroused the militia was the war with 
Mexico in 1846-47. 




Monroe county furnished two full 
companies for the Mexican war. 

Soon after the call for volunteers, 
in May, 1846, the militia of the coun- 
ty met in Bloomington for regimental 
or battalion muster. 

The excitement over the war was 
great, a call was made, and a full 
company was raised and i-eady for ac- 
tion by the first of June. The offi- 
cers for this first company formed in 
Bloomington, were John M. Sluss, 
captain; John Eller, first lieutenant; 
Aquilla Rogers, second lieutenant. 
This company became A company of 
the ?.rd regiment, which rendezvoused 
at New Albany, Ind. They left 
Bloomington, June 15, 1846. 
Ladies Present Flag. 

A beautiful flag was presented to 
the boys at their departure by the 
ladies of Bloomington, Miss Sarah 
Markle making the presentation 

Campany A was in the famous bat- 
tle of Buena Vista, where four of 
Monroe county's brave boys were 
killed— Buskirk, Eller, Stout and 
Holland — and probably five oth- 
ers were wounded. The company was 

mustered out of service at the end of 
the year. 

Muster Roll of Capt. SIuss's Company. 

These old Muster rolls of the Monroe coun- 
ty men who went into the Mexican war in 
Captain SIuss's company, and took part in 
the battles of Beutia Vista, were preserved 
by Robert R. Strong. 209 East First street, a 
resident of Bloomington, whose father, Robert 
Strong, w-as in this company, and later when 
the War of 1862-65 came, this son and his 
father both went into the Rebellion on the 
side of the North, one as a drummer boy, and 
the other as a veteran of the Mexican 

Muster roll of Captain John M. SIuss's com- 
pany, in the 3d Regiment of Indiana Foot 
Volunteers, commanded by Colonel James L. 
V. Law. called to the ser\-ice of the United 
States, by the President, under the act of 
Congress, approved May 13. 1846. for the term 
of twelve months, from the 31st day of De- 
cember, 1846, when last mustered, to the 28th 
day of February, 1847 : 

John M. Sluss, captain ; Henry E. Seall, 
iirst lieutenant : Allen Crocker, second lieu- 
tenant : Thomas Rogers, second lieutenant : 
Isaac S. Buskirk, first sergeant : William C. 
Foster, Jr., James Frits, Edward I. Fallen, 
.sergeants : Richard Radclilf, Robert K. Nel- 
son, Daniel Iseminger, Dudley Rogers, cor- 

Privates, William B. Crocker, E. E. Harvey, 
Owen Adliins, Oliver Adkins, John M. Arm- 
.strong, W. G. Applegate, Morris L. Baker, 
George A. Buskirk, Benjamin Banner. Wil- 
liam Boyd, William Campbell, James A. Dale, 
James J. Davis, Christopher C. Flenner, Gar- 

lin F. Fleener, James Fleener, John B. Ginins. 
Robert W. Graham, William F. Harvey, Adam 
Hunter, William F. Hardesty, Samuel L. 
Jamison, William Johnson, John Knight, 
John B. Longwell, Isaac A. Leabo, James 
Little, William Lampkins, William I. Lake, 
John Martain, Elijah L. Morgan. Thomas Mc- 
Naught, Traydess Wize, James Matlock, John 
Nuckles, John Orsbono, Joseph W. Pullen, 
John Philips, William Roe, Randolph R. 
Sloan, Addison C. Smith, Sylvester Stonegar. 
Strather Stonegar, Robert Strong, Leoniedis P. 
Skirmin. Simpson S. Skircan, John F. Strain, 
L. R. Thompson, Suster Trenit, Samuel S. 
Taylor. Solon O. Whitson, Neosica M. Whit- 
son, Richard G. Walker.. 

Killed in Battle. 
William Holland, Isaac M. Buskirk, David 
I. Stout, James Eller. Aquilla Rogers re- 

Raise Second Company. 

In the year 1847, the United States 
Government made a call for three 
more regiments from Indiana, and 
Daniel Lunderman began the task of 
raising a company for one of these 
regiments from Monroe county. The 
company was soon completed and lat- 
er became company G of the 4th Regi- 

This company was given a public 
farewell by the citizens of Blooming- 
ton, who presented the company with 
a national banner. 

This Bloomington company was 
with General Scott on his historic 
march from Vera Cruz to the Mexi- 
can capital, and participated in near- 
ly all the battles on that memor- 
able and triumphant route. 

A number of Monroe county boys 
were killed during this march, but 
unfortunately, we are unable to get 
their names at this time. The com- 
pany returned to Bloomington about 
the end of 1847, honored and trium- 
phant. The citizens made their re- 
turn a happy one, although several 
of the company's members had been 
left in honored graves in the land of 
the Montezumas. 



When the New Albany railroad was 
established through Monroe county, 
Smithville sprang into existence, in 
1852-53. The tovni was laid out in 
November, 1851, by Mansfield Ben- 
nett and George Smith, on Section 3, 
in Clear Creek township. 

Thirty-eight lots were in the orig- 
inal plat of the village, and were 
situated on both sides of the railroad 

Mr. Smith probably opened the 
first stoi'e, and was soon joined by 
a blacksmith with a number of other 
families who located there. Davis & 
Humphries were also in business 
there about this time. 

Business was lively while the rail- 
road was being built. It is thought 
that the stores were started before 
the town was laid out. P., and J. 
Holland also were early storekeepers 
in Smithville. One or two stores 
have usually been kept in the village 
ever since. 

Palestine Now Deserted. 

Palestine was another early town 
of the county, founded by Alex- 
ander Sutherland, during the thir- 
ties. He was the first storekeeper, 
but later moved to Harrodsburg. 
Thomas Shipman probably succeeded 
Mr. Alexander. A man named Koons 
also sold goods at the place. 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 





Mass Meetings Held in Bloomington and Resolutions Adopted — Feeling Ran 
High — Opinion Was Divided on Slave Question, But Great Interest of 
Hoosiers Centered on "Keeping the Union" Intact. 

Just Drior to the actual outbreak of 
the war which meant the freeing of 
the slaves of Southern States, when 
the whole nation was at a hig'h pitch 
of mental excitement — during that cri- 
sis, when each state, every commun- 
ity, and even the individual citizen felt 
that soon the time would come when 
a firm decision must be made — citi- 
zens of Bloomington and Monroe 
County took upon their shoulders the 
responsibility of trying to choose just 
what was the right course for them m 
the national conflict which was sure 
to mean war. 

Before Fall of Ft. Sumter. 

February 2, 1860, pursuant to no- 
tice, the citizens of Bloomington and 
vicinity, irrespective of pai'ty, met at 
the Monroe County courthouse to take 
into consideration the state of the 

Judge G. A. Buskirk was made 
chairman of the meeting, and C. P. 
Tuley and J. B. Mulkv secretaries. M. 
C. Hunter, Benjamin "Wolfe, Dr. W. C. 
Foster, F. T. Butler and Elias Abel 
were appointed a committee to draft 
resolutions expressive of the sense of 
the meeting. 

Gov. Dunning Called Upon. 

While the committee was preparing 
its report for presentation to the 
meeting. Governor Dunning, of India- 
na, was called for by the people as- 
sembled, who insisted that the Gover- 
nor speak to them. 

In his speech. Governor Dunning 
stated that he was a member of no 
political party until the existino- diffi- 
culties between the two sections of 
the country were settled. 

Professor John Young then spoke 
against the "Crittenden CompromiLe," 
and said he stood firmly in favor of 
the United States Constitution as it 
stood, but said he was vdlling to ac- 
cept the "Border State Resolutions." 
The committee then presented the fol- 
lowing report: 

Resolutions Presented. 

"RESOLVED, That we, the people 
of Monroe Countv, are in favor of the 
resolutions known as the 'Border State 
Resolutions,' which are as follows: 

"1. Recommending the repeal of the 
Personal Liberty Bills. 

"2. That the Fugitive Slave Law be 
amended for the preventing of kidnap- 
ing, and so as to provide for the equal- 
ization of the Commisioner's fee, etc. 

"3. That the Constitution be so 
amended as to prohibit any interfer- 
ence with slavery in any of the States 
where it now exists. 

"4. That Congress shall not abolish 
slavery in the Southern dockyards, ar- 
senals, etc., nor in the District of Co- 
lumbia, without the consent of the in- 

habitants of the District, nor without 

".5. That Congress shall not inter- 
fere with the Intei'-state slave trade. 

"6. That there shall be a perpetual 
prohibition of the African slave trade. 

"7. That the line of 36 degrees, 30 
minutes shall be run through all the 
existing territory of the United 
States; that in all the north of that 
line slavery shall be pi'ohibited, and 
that south of that line neither Con- 
gress nor the Territorial Legislature 
shall hereafter pass any law abolish- 
ing, prohibiting, or in any manner in- 
terfering with African slavery; and 
that when any Territory containing 
sufficient population for one Member 
of Congress in any area of 60,000 
square miles shall apply for admis- 
sion as a State it shall be admitted, 
vnth or without slavery, as its Consti- 
tution may determine." 

Report on Crittenden Compromise. 

The committee of the meeting also 
reported the fifth resolution of the 
"Crittenden Compromise," which 

"5. Congi-ess shall have power by 
law to pay an owner, who shall apply, 
the full value of a fugitive slave in all 
cases when the Marshal is prevented 
from discharging his duty by force of 
rescue made after arrest. In all cases, 
the owner shall have power to rue the 
county in which such violence or res- 
cue was made, and the county shall 
have the right to sue individuals 
who committed the wrong in the same 
mpnner as the owner could sue." 

Before these resolutions could be 
passed upon by the meeting, Dr. Fos- 
ter reported the following additional 

"RESOLVED, That 'while the lamp 
holds out to burn, the vilest sinner 
mav return.' That in view of this 
Bible doctrine, we hold that all concili- 
atory measures should be adopted to 
prevent a collision between the South 
and the North, and when all the argu- 
ments are exhaiisted, and a concilia- 
tion i-ejected. then we advise coercive 
measures to be pursued to prevent the 
desecration and dissolution of the 
Union. The Union must be preserved 
at all hazards. 

Warm Discussion Follows. 

After a warm discussion, the Border 
State Resolutions were unanimously 
adopted. The fifth resolution of th^ 
Crittenden Compromise met with 
greater opposition, but was finally 
passed by a fair majority. 

The resolution presented by Dr. 
Foster was handled severely, and fi- 
nally rejected by a majority vote. In 
the discussion on this resolution, vio- 
lent and eloquent speeches were made 
against the adoption of any measure 
of coercion with the seceded States. 

Dr. J. G. McPheeters then offered the 

"RESOLVED, That the citizens of 
Monroe County, always loyal to the 
Union and the Constitution, in view of 
existing difficulties which threaten 
the existence of our glorious confed- 
eracy, would tender the foregoing 
(meaning the Border State Resolu- 
tion) compromise as a basis of settle- 
ment; but in the event of rejection, 
are ready to declare for the Union as 
it is, the Constitution as it is, and the 
enforcement of the laws." 

Resolution Adopted. 

This resolution al^o met with fiery 
opposition. A motion to table it was 
lost. Messrs. Marlin, Wolfe, B. F. 
Williams and David Sheeks denounced 
the resolution as coercive in meaning; 
but after a sharp war of words and 
passions, the resolution was finally 
adopted, and the meeting of Bloom- 
ington and Monroe County citizens 

Prominent Men Present. 

The meeting was largely attended, 
the court room being crowded to its 
utmost capacity; among those present 
were: Governor Dunning, Dr. W. S. 
Foster, Judge G. A. Buskirk, S. H. 
Buskirk, C. P. Tuley, J. B. Mulky, 
Isaac Adkins, Isaac Cox, Abraham 
Smith, M. C. Hunter, Benjamin Wolfe, 
F. T. Butler, Elias Abel, Professor 
John Young, P. L. D. Mitchell, Hugh 
Marlin, Johnson McCulloch, Dr. J. G. 
McPheeters and David Sheeks. 

Various political sentiments mani- 
fested at this meeting illustrate the 
feeling in the county at the time, just 
before the war of the Rebellion of 

The most noticeable featur" of the 
meeting was the strong sentiment 
publicly and ardently manifested not 
to use coercive measures in case the 
South rejected all overtures. 

On the other hand, a few citizens 
who attended the meeting, warmly 
advanced views of the Abolitionists. 


Washington Township, in Monroe 
County, Indiana, can boast of but two 
villages, the first being Wayport. 
This village was laid out in sections 
28 and 33, in April, 1851, by Isaac 
Gillaspy, Thomas Gillaspy and G. W. 
Smith, proprietors, and James Wash- 
burn, surveyor. Sixteen lots were 
laid out, and one store, a blacksmith 
shop, post office, etc., sum up the 
history of the place. 

Hindostan Not As Old. 

The village kno\vn as Hindostan is 
not as old as Wayport, as it was not 
laid out until 1853, in the month of 
June, by Charles G. Corr, proprietor, 
and James Woodburn, surveyor. The 
site of the town plat was situated' on 
the northeast quarter of the northeast 
quarter of Section 14, in Washington 
township, where twelve lots were laid 
out on the Martinsville and Blooming- 
ton state road (now the Dixey High- 
way), just north of the Columbus and 
Gosport State road. One store, a few 
shops and little offices sums up the 
importance of this little hamlet. 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 




Bloomington and Monroe County Citizens Lay Down Political Prejudices and 
Try to Consider Matter With Reason — Ablest Speakers Called Upon to 
Direct Thoughts Clearly — First Company Under Captain Kelley Organized 
and Depart "For the War."— Pathetic Scenes at Parting. 

— "Fort Sumter has fallen!" 

It is hard for people of today to 
realize what those four words meant 
to people living in Monroe county and 
the whole nation on the historic day, 
Monday, April 15, 1861. 

When the news was received in 
Bloomington that Fort Sumter had 
been surrendered to the rebels, great 
excitement was manifested by all poli- 
tical parties in Monroe county's seat. 
The news spread like a prairie fire 
throughout the surrounding country, 
and soon a large crowd of bewildered 
and anxious citizens had assembled to 
counsel as to what was best to be done 
in the awful emergency which they 
faced, as did citizens of the whole 

Many Frightened Badly. 
Many people were frightened so 
badly that their senses and judgement 
refused to act with usual accuracy, 
and their first panic-stricken impulse 
was to fly for Canada or the Pacific 

A large public meeting was held in 
the Monroe County Courthouse, in 
Bloomington in the pvening of April 
15, pursuant to a call, to sound the 
sentiments of the citizens in this dark 
hour. Unfortunately, a detailed ac- 
count of this meeting cannot be dis- 
covered at this time, but we can give 
the following as true: 

Some five or six of the ablest citi- 
zens made speeches, men whose judg- 
ment the assemblage was anxious to 
have, and whom the people were will- 
ing to trust, were called unon to dircet 
the general mind throup'h the gloom 
and panic of approaching war to some 
definite and speedy action. 

Speeches For and Against War. 
Prominent men spoke passionately 
for an immediate organization of 
troops to crush the life out of the van- 
dals who had shamefully outraged the 
national honor. 

Others, with less fire and loyalty, 
suggested conciliatory measures, and 
spoke doubtfully of the right of the 
Government to adopt coercive mea- 
sures with the rebellious states who 
were attempting to secede from the 

One man spoke severely against the 
North, especially the Abolitionists, 
warmly declaring that they were the 
cause of this fratricidal war; main- 
tained with great intensity that coer- 
cive measures were unconstitutional 
and unjust, and publiclv announced 
that if he fought at all it would be on 
the Southern side of the conflict. 
Majority Favor Union. 
As the meeting progressed it be- 
came apparent that the majority of 
citizens were in favor of ciuellin" the 
rebellion at all hazards, vnthout a mo- 

ment's unnecessary delay. A long se- 
i-ies of patriotic resolutions was adopt- 
ed, declaring as the sense of the meet ' 
ing that the Union must be main- 
tained, if need be, by an appeal to 
arms. Several persons present ear- 
nestly opposed the adoption of one or 
more of the resolutions presented. 

First Volunteers Organize. 

A few days later, another big meet- 
ing of equal, or even greater, fervor 
and loyalty was held at the courthouse 
in Bloomington, on which occasion 
steps were taken to organized a com- 
pany of volunteers. 

The enlistment was continued rather 
zealously, and on April 20, only five 
days after the fall of Fort Sumter, 
the organization was completed, and 
the company officers elected, then 
commissioned on April 22. 

This company began drilling regu- 
larly every day, awaiting, in the mean- 
time for orders to report for muster 
into the three-months' sei-vice, or even 
into the State service for one year — 
or, if nothing better could be done, 
they contemplated entering in the 
three-years' service — anvthing, just so 
thev were taken into the service of 
their beloved Union, that they might 
fight for what they held sacred, their 

Off for the War. 

On May 10, 1861, the day that was 
finally set for the departure of Bloom- 
ington's first companv to enter the 
war, for Camp Vigo, situated at Terre 
Haute, Ind., found a large assemblage 
of relatives and friends of the boys 
gathered in Bloomington to present 
them with a flag and see them off 
with cheers and encouragement. 

This was at a time when the senti- 
ments of patriotism were fresh and 
strong, and when the noveltv of mili- 
tary prenarations by this first com- 
pany of Blooomington's bi-ave boys to 
offer for ser\nce in the great war 
which was to follow fired peonle's 
blood with the vehement loyalty of 
the hour. 

A fine banner was presented, it is 
said, bv Miss Mitchell, on behalf of 
the ladies of Bloomington, in a brief 
sneech, which was responded to by 
Lieutenant Black. 

.A.t the conclusion of this beautiful 
ceremony, the company marched down 
to the railway station, accomnanied by 
the whole town and most of the coun- 
ty's population, v\-ho had gathered for 
the occasion. 

Veterans of Other Wars Present. 

Old men, who had served their coun- 
try on the fields of battle in the land 
of the Montezumas during the previ- 
ous Mexican war, or even veterans of 

the war of 1812, were present, giving 
the boys a kind word of advice or a 
pat on the shoulder at parting. 

Parents were present, who saw their 
sons for the last time on earth when 
they parted with them at the staion. 

Wives and mothers who had never 
known the anguish of separation from 
their dear ones, at the stern call of a 
nation at war, stood with pale faces 
and streaming eyes, tightly clasping 
the loved forms and regretting, at the 
last moment, to have them go into that 
unknown confUct. But, it was here 
that the true bravery, the bravery of 
a breaking heart, was manifested as 
these people sent their sons away with 
cheers and smiles of assurance, lest 
they falter when duty was calling 
them to sacrafice their man'nood for 
their country's honor. 

At last, the train came into the sta- 
tion, fond good-byes were spoken with 
pale lips, and as the train pulled out 
of the station great cheers burst forth 
as the citizens of Bloomington realized 
that her boys were off for the war. 

Company Divided at Camp. 

Upon reaching Terre Haute, it was 
found impossible for these Blooming- 
ton men to enter the three-month ser- 
vice, or even the one year service, and 
the company went into camp of in- 

Considerable dissatisfaction seems 
to have existed over the selection of 
the company's officers, which finally 
resulted in the division of the com- 
pany. This division formed the basis 
for two company's after the split. 

About two-thirds of the Monroe 
County company remained at Terre 
Haute under Captain Kelley, while the 
other one-third of the men was trans- 
ferred to Indianapolis, under the com- 
mand of Captain W. S. Charles. Both 
of these incomplete companies sent 
their captains and lieutenants back to 
Bloomington to recruit their numbers 
to the lawful strength. This was late 
in May and early in June of 1861. 

Cap. Kelly's Company First. 

Captain Kelly succeeded in raising 
enough men in a short while, and com- 
pleted his company, which was mus- 
tered into service for three years on 
June 7, 1861, becomine Company K of 
the 14th Regiment. This really gave 
Company K, 14th Regiment the dis- 
tinction of being Bloomington and 
Monroe County, Indiana's first body of 
men to enter the war of the rebellion. 
The regiment moved to Virginia on 
July ,5. 1861. Milton L. McCullough 
was First Lieutenant, and Paul E. 
Slocum, Second Lieutenant. 

Captain Charles was able to increase 
the number of enlistments in his com- 
pany to only about fifty from Monroe 
county, while the rest of the comnany 
was made up from various localities. 
This organization became Company H 
of the 18th Regiment, three years' 
service, and was mustered into service 
August 16, 1861, and on the following 
day was transferred to St. Louis, Mo. 
James S. Black, of Indianapolis, was 
First Lieutenant, and Hiram W. Rook- 
er, Noblesville, Second. 

Sumter's First Gun. 
In Erie, Pa., lived a veteran who 
claimed to have fired the first Union 
gun of the Rebellion, at Fort Sumter; 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


one James Gibbons, a laborer. From 
him was procured the following in- 
teresting history of the memorable 

"It was confidently expected by the 
garrison of Fort Sumter that the reb- 
els would open fire upon the Union 
I flag. In December, after it became 
known that Lincoln had been elected 
I President, Captain Doubleday said, 
I 'There will surely be war,' and the 
company expected it from that time. 
Every day for weeks the rebels were 
making preparations in plain sight 
of the fort. Then the Star of the 
West had been fired upon. 

"The feelings and sensations of the 
men on that momentuous day were 
none but the usual sensations among 
men. There was no excitement. Four 
men were playing at poker when a 
shell came screaming over the para- 
pet and burst, one-half striking the 
wall alongside, and the burning pow- 
der singeing the beard of one of the 
men, so near was it to him. The only 
effect it produced, beyond the momen- 
tary start, was to set the men swear- 
ing as they got up and dragged their 
outfit further under a bomb proof. 

"On that memorable day, the 12th 
of April, 1861, the first gun was fired 
from Fort Johnson at about 5 o'clock 
in the morning. It was expected, for 
word to that effect had been communi- 
cated to them. Soon the first boom 
and roar was succeeded by another, 
from Fort Moutrie, and then the shot 
and shell came thick and fast until 
360 shots had been fired at them. For 
two hours Sumter was silent. The 
ports were not opened until 7 o'clock. 

Captain Doubleday's company rammed 
two guns on the lower floor of the 
fort and aimed toward Cummings 
point. He was a member of the party 
in charge of gun No. 1, a 42-pounder, 
and Gibbons himself was No. 3 of the 
gun squad. His duty was to pull the 
lanyard. The gun was sighted by 
Captain Doubleday, and when every- 
thing was in readiness, the captain; 
standing about two feet behind him, 
issued the command 'Fire!' Gibbons 
pulled the lanyard and Fort Sumter 
and the Union broke silence. Defi- 
ance had been hurled back at the 
rebel crew. In two seconds more gun 
No. 2 spoke and then the music was 
kept up from the Union fort in reply 
to the bombardment from nearly 
every side. 

"Many were the brave deeds wit- 
nessed that day. A laborer, Carroll 
by name, picked up a burning bomb 
as it was rolling down the steps after 
him, and cooly threw it into the ditch 
outside and extinguished the smoking 
fuse; a few moments more and half 
the garrison would have doubtless 
been killed by the explosion. 

"The halyard of the flagstaff had 
become so knotted that it prevented 
the raising of the flag and another 
laborer named Donohue, mounted to 
the topmast and repaired it, regardless 
of the fact that he was the target for 
every rebel battery. Norman J. Hall, 
of Detroit, replaced a broken flag- 
staf at great risk of his life. 

"There was 69 soldiers who sur- 
vived the bombardment (two were 
killed while firing the national salute 
at the time the fort was evacuated) 
beside the laborers, who were really 
the first volunteers of the war." 




Bugle Was To Be Heard on Every Breeze — Small Boys Organize "Infantry" 
Company — Drill to Fife and Drum — Ladies Show "Cold-Shoulder" to 
Huskies in Civilian Clothes — Record of Organization of Companies During 
First Years of Great Conflict. 

In the days that followed the out- 
jreak of the civil war, and as time 
vent on, news of the actual war that 
.vas going on in our southern states 
vas eagerly watched for, while feei- 
ng became more and more alert to 
he natural emotions of patriotism, 
imong the people of Monroe county 
ind Bloomington. 

The bugle was heard on every 
)reeze, from all directions. Small boys 
if Bloomington had organized an "In- 
antry" company that was ai^med 
vith wooden swords, tin-pans, and 
■ther weapons of equal celebrity. 

It was popular then, to be a volun- 
eer. It meant a thirst for blood, 
jadies smiled like the morning upon 
he blue uniforms, but gave a frown 
nd cold-shoulder to stalwart forms in 
ivilian garb. 

Predict Quick Defeat of Enemy. 

Companies of enlisted men drilled 
Imost daily, in Bloomington, and at- 
racted large crowds of fond and ad- 

miring friends, who saw no escape for 
the rebel cowards when the field of 
battle was reached. 

Every one predicted that the rebels 
would be "licked out of their boots in 
a few months." 

We herewith reprint a number of 
clippings from Bloomington newspa- 
pers of the perilous times, which will 
give a reader of the present day a 
fair idea of how our people felt and 
acted under the great stress of that 
awful war. In the issue of the "Re- 
publican" of July 13, appeared the 
following editorial: 

Capt. Lunderman's Company. 

"Another company of volunteers 
for the United States service left 
here on Tuesday last for Madison, 
Ind., where the regiment is to be 
formed. The company is under the 
command of Captain Daniel Lunder- 
man, of this place, who has had con- 
sidei-able experience as an officer in 
the recent war vnth Mexico, and we 

have no doubt he will faithfully at- 
tend to the interests and welfare of 
the company while they are under his 

"Dr. J. 0. McCullough was elected 
First Lieutenant and Andrew R. Ra- 
venscroft. Second Lieutenant, whom, 
we have no doubt, will be equally 
faithful to their trust. 

"As many of the volunteers were 
from the surrounding country, a large 
concourse of people from different 
parts of the county were present to 
see them take their departure and to 
bid their friends farewell. 

"The volunteers were escorted to 
the train by Captain Mulky's company 
of infantry, and took their departure 
amid a deafening salute of musketry. 
The Bloomington Cornet Band accom- 
panied them to Madison. 

"We learn that Camp Noble,- to 
which they are assigned, is beautifully 
situated at North Madison, on the 
Ohio river." 

In the same issue, the 13th, also 
appeared the following: 

Grenadiers Organized. 

"Recruiting — Peter Kop and several 
other gentlemen of the place are rais- 
ing a company of grenadiers for the 
United States service. They admit no 
recruits under five feet ten inches, 
and equally stout and able-bodied. 

"We pity the rebel upon whose neck 
the foot of 'Big Pete' shall come dovm 
with a vengeance. There will be no 
chance for him to even say his pray- 
ers before his life is crushed out of 

"Some of the others engaged in 
raising the company are amon" our 
most athletic citizens. Their recruit- 
ing office, we believe, is at Williams 
& Sluss' livery stables." 

The company under Captain Lun- 
derman became Company I, of the 
22nd Regiment, and was mustered 
into service on August 15, at Camp 
Noble. About thirty men of this com- 
pany were from around White Hall, 
and the rest from Monroe county. 
Colonel Jefferson C. Davis was in 
command of the regiment. On Au- 
gust 17, the regiment was taken to 
Missouri, where the boys first saw 
actual service in the war. 

The company raised by Captain 
Kop and others became Company F 
of the 27th Regiment and was mus- 
tei'ed into service for three years, at 
Camp Morton, Indianapolis, on Sep- 
tember 12, 1861. 

Bloomington's Zouaves. 

Late in August and September, 
1861, a company of Zouaves was or- 
ganized at Bloomington. Early in 
July, the ladies of Bloomington gath- 
ered a large box of blankets, towels 
and other useful artices, and sent 
them to the company of Captain Lun- 
derman, at Madison. 

In September and October, Captain 
Isaac S. Dains, Lieutenants Samuel 
A. Harrah, Albert Adams and others 
recruited Company D, of the 5th Regi- 
ment, in Monroe and Owen counties. 
The regiment was organized at Sey- 
mour, Ind., on October 25, and left 
for New Albany, mai'ching through 
the country, and obtaining a large 
number of recruits as it went. On 
December 25, this regiment moved to 
Bardstown, Ky., where it \yent into 



Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

camp of instruction. The following, 
concerning this company was pub- 
lish in the "Republican" of the 14th 
of September: 

"Off for the War." 

"Captain I. S. Dain's company left 
here for Camp Morton, Indianapolis, 
on Thursday last. This company was 
raised mostly in this and Owen coun- 
ties—a number of them being from 
the yicinity of White Hall. 

"While they were waiting for the 
train, a beautiful flag was presented 
to the company from the ladies of 
White Hall. Goyernor Dunning, on 
behalf of the ladies, made a suitable 
address on the presentation of the 
flag, which was responded to by Cap- 
tain Dains in a short address and by 
three cheers by the soldiers for their 
beautiful flag. 

"This makes the seventh company 
which has been raised principally in 
this county, and left here for the war. 
One or two other companies are now 
raising. Monroe county will be fully 
represented in the contest." 

EUettsville's Company. 

The company of Captain Secrest 
was raised almost wholly in the vi- 
cinity of EUettsville, during the 
months of August and September, by 
Captain James Secrest and Lieuten- 
ants G. K. Perry and James McCor- 

When this company left Ellettsyille, 
they were given a fine dinner, at the 
conclusion of which a fine banner was 
presented them with appropriate re- 
marks, to which the captain feelingly 

It must not be understood that the 
seven companies above mentioned 
were the only ones then in service 
which contained men from Monroe 

county. About half a dozen men had 
left the northern part of the county 
for Indianapolis at the earliest stages 
of the war, and had succeeded in get- 
ting into the 12th regiment in the 
three months' service, though they 
were credited to other counties. So 
far as is now known, these were the 
only men from the county in the three 
months' service during the war. 
Men from Monroe. 
In the 11th Reigment saw Chap- 
lain H. B. Hibben, from Monroe coun- 
ty; in the 21st Regiment, which after- 
wards became the First Heavy Artil- 
lery, were about ten men from the 
county; four members of the Regi- 
mental band were credited to Bloom- 
ington. A small squad from the north- 
ern part of the county entered the 
23rd Regiment and were credited to 
Morgan county. 

Taking into consideration these 
facts, and also the fact that several 
of the companies mentioned above 
were only partly from Monroe county, 
it may be safely concluded that by 
the middle of September, 1861, the 
county had furnished as many as six 
full companies. This was a splenaid 

Cavalry Company. 
The cavalry company recruited by 
Captain Nutt contained onlv about 
fifteen men from Monroe county, the 
remainder being obtained mostly from 
Brazil and Delphi, Ind. The Monroe 
boys left about the middle of Septem- 
ber for Indianapolis, where they were 
joined by recruits from other places 
and completed the organization which 
became Company K, Second Cavalry 
(41st Regiment), and was mustered 
in on December 24. Jephtha M. El- 
lington, of EUettsville, became captain 
of this company. 




Loyal Mass Meetings Held— Judge Hughes Makes Great Speech for Union- 
Wallace Hight Takes Brass Cannon Made in Bloomington Foundry Into 
Service— New Companies Formed — County's Showing Good in First Years 
of Rebellion. 

In the month of September, 1861, 
the authorities of the State of Indiana 
ordered that in each county of the 
state a thorough organization of the 
militia should be effected, and the 
Governor appointed James B. Mulkey 
as Colonel of the Monroe County Mili- 
tia, with instructions to proceed at 
once with the organization of a 

Ten Companies During War. 
Under these orders, ten militia com- 
panies were organized in Monroe 
county, during the civil war, as 

The Hoosier Grays, Morton C. Hun- 
ter, captain, organized in the fall of 
1861; the EUettsville Clippers, Barton 
Acuff, captain, organized in the fall 
of 1861; the Monroe Zouaves, Daniel 
Shrader, captain, organized in the fall 
of 1861; the Richland Mountaineers. 
B. W. Rice, captain, organized in the 

fall of 1861; the Hoosier Guards, H. 
T. Campbell, captain, organized in 
1862; the Harrodsburg Guards, John 
M. Anderson, captain, organized in 
the fall of 1861; the Richland Ran- 
gers, John Wylie, captain, organized 
during the summer of 1863; the 
Hughes Guards, James Mathers, 
captain, organized in the fall of 1863 
the Monroe Guards, Isaac S. Buskirk, 
capta'n, organized in the fal of 1863; 
the Bean Blossom Ran^^rs, Thomas 
M. Gaskin, captain, organized in the 
fall of 1863. 

Every one of the companies thus or- 
ganized under the State order, saw 
active service during the terible war 
of 1861-1864, as they each afterward 
enlisted in the United States serv'ee. 
Loyal Mass Meeting Held. 

On October 12, 1861, a large Union 
mass meeting was held at the court- 

house in Bloomington, to consider the 
state of the country at that time. 

The first speaker on the program 
was the honorable Paris C. Dunning, 
who delivered an address of gi-eat 
power and loyalty. He spoke eloquent- 
ly in favor of pushing the war with all 
the energy of the North, and favored 
measures of greater activity and ef- 
fectivenes in securing volunteers. His 
remarks were roundly applauded. 

The second speaker was Judge 
James Hughes, whose remarks took 
on a bitterly sarcastic trend. His 
language ran in a caustic vein, cut- 
ting like a sword at the heart of the 

Judge Hughes's spendid eloquence, 
effectiv eimagery, fierce satire and 
impetuous logic seemed to carry his 
audience before him like a torrent. As 
he delivered thrust after thrust of 
wit and irony, and pungent mockeryi 
he was frequently interrupted with 
outbursts of cheer'ng. 

His speech was conceded at the 
time to have been the best Union 
speech ever delivered in Bloomington. 
"The sense of loyalty expressed in the 
meeing was very decidedly marked, 
and had an effect upon all who were 

Brass Canon Made Here. 
About the date of November 1, 
1861, Walace Hight, who had super- 
intended the manufacture of a canon 
at the Seward Foundry, in Blooming- 
ton, left for Indianapolis with the 
piece of ordnance, drawn by six heavy 

The gun was a six-pounder, made of 
burnished brass, and was an excellent 
specimen of workmanship .-^nd design. 
Hight, and his squad of Bloomington 
boys were later attached to the Ninth 

Recriuting Let LTp. 
About this time, the attenion of the 
loyal people was especially directed 
to the movement of the armies, and to 
the wants of the boys in the fields and 
hospitals, and the comfort of soldiers' 
families at home more than to the 
enlistment of fresh men. 

Late in October, however. Dr. J. G. 
McPheeters, surgeon in the 23rd regi- 
ment, came to Bloomington, on a fur- 
lough, and enlisted a few men for his 
regiment. Outside of this, not much 
was done in recruiting of Monroe 
county men, until the following Febru- 
ary, 1862, when William McCullough 
began recruiting men for the 53rd 
Regiment, and Lieutenant Francis Ot- 
well opened an enlistment office at 
Fee's store in Bloomington for re- 
cruits for the 27th Regiment, in 
which Captain Kop's company was en- 
listed. He obtained about fifteen men 
at this time. 

During the months of November 
and December, 1861, and January and 
February, 1862, Captain Thomas T. 
Graves and Lieutenants Alexander 
Jones and John Pillips recruited 
about two-thirds of a company for 
the 59th Regiment, which rendez- 
voused at Gosport, beginning in Oc- 
tober, 1861. 

About the middle of February, 1862, 
the regiment went South over the 
New Albany railroad for the seat of 
war in Kentucky. This company be- 
come Company I, of the 59th Regi- 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


nent, under Captain Graves, and was 
Qustered into service February 11, 
862. Jesse I. Alexander, of Gosport, 
ifas Colonel of this regiment. 
Sent Money Home. 

During the later part of March, 
862, M. P. Burns recruited six or 
ight men for the 61st Regiment, 
I'hich was located at Tere Haute. 
Carly in April of that year Lieuten- 
nt Johnson, of Captain Lunderman's 
ompany of the 22nd Regiment, opened 

recruiting office in Bloomington. 

In May, 1862, members of Captain 
[elley's company, the 14th Regiment, 
ent $2,000 home to their friends in 
lonroe county. 
Captain Kelley's Body Returned. 

About this time, in May, 1862, 
iloomington and Monroe county peo- 
(le were cast into a spell of gloom by 
he actual bringing home to them of 
ne of their own gallant soldier:;, '.vho 
lad given his life in the cause of the 

The body of Captain Kelley — pap- 
ain of the first company of Monroe 
ounty's volunteers to see active ser- 
ice in the great war of rebellion, and 
he first to be reurned to his home 
,s an example of the greatest sacra- 
ice a man can offer — was returred to 
iloomington, and buried. 

Captain Kelley was mortally wound- 
d in the hotly contested battle of 
Vinchester, and after lingerint^ for 
everal weeks in Cincinnati, where his 
aithful wife had taken him for medi- 
al treatment, had finally died from 
lis wounds. 

The death of Captain Kelley cast 
I gloom of sorrow over the whole 
ommunity, which could only be felt 
ind is beyond our power of de- 

During the spring months of 1862, 
he columns of the "Republican" were 
ull of letters from Bloomington ?nd 
tlonroe county men who were in the 
irmy, and while some were rather dry, 
nany were extermely interesting ^r.d 
old strange stories of the battle fields 
md camp I'fe. One of these letters, 
ve herewith reprint from the old 
Jlooniington newspaper mentioned 
ibove: the battle referred to was that 
if Pittsburg landing; 

Capt. McCalla's Letter. 

"33rd Regiment, 
"Indiana Volunteers, 
"Pittsburg, Tenn., 

April 8, 1862. 

"Dear Brother — This is Tuesday, 
ind I take this chance to tell vou that 
m awful battle has been fought, com- 
nencing on Sunday morning at 7:30 
I'clock, and lasing until night, and 
lontinued again Monday. 

"Grimes and I are safe. The com- 
)any did nobly. The 31st will now 
ret its due meed of praise, I think. 

"We lost Orderly Sergeant James 
^. Fullbright and Rolley Franklin, 
)oth shot in the head; and seven of 
lur boys were wounded, three of them 
everely; Joseph Lucas, in the hand, 
;evei-ely: Joseph Lucas, in the hand, 
!errell, in chin, slightly; John Camp- 
>ell, in the hand; Josenh Woolery, in 
he hip, severely; Wesley Polley, in 
he shoulder; Joseph Gaither, iii the 
ace, the ball entering the brridge of 

his nose and coming out under the 
ear, cutting the tip of the ear. 

"Many more were grazed. I had a 
bullet through the top of my hat. John 
McPhetridge had his leg grazed, and 
Grimes was scratched on the knee. 
We will feel the loss of Fullbright. 
He was the bravest man in the regi- 
ment — so modest, and so faithful. 
We buried our old companions with 
the honors of war, and marked their 
graves with neat head-boards. 

"I met Brother Sam on the field of 
battle for the time since he was 
in the service. Thompson's battery, 
\vith which Hight and other Blooming- 
ton boys are connected, were in the 
fight all Monday. They fired 1,200 
shots. Our regiment (belonging to 
Hurlburt's brigade) fired forty rounds 
in one place, repulsed two attacks on 
the center. Grimes and I furnished 
our men with th'rty rounds more as 
they were lying down, and these were 
all expended by night. 

"The carnage was frightful. David 
Iseminger (formerly of Bloomington), 
captain in an Iowa regiment, was 
killed. Our major, Frederick Arn, 
was killed; our Colonel was wounded 
in two places, Adjutant Rose was 
wounded; Captain Harvey was killed. 
and other officers were wounded, all 
of our regiment. 

"Joe Roddy bore the colors through 
all the two days' fight, onward, never 
faltering, the foremost in the advance, 

the hindmost in the retreat. The field 
of battle covers almost six miles. 

"The day of battle was my t'ir>.t 
out-doors service for three weeks, 
having been sick ever since we came 
to this place. 

New Companies Formed. 

In May, 1862, the .54th Regimeni 
was organized, and a company was 
raised in Monroe county by Captain 
Daniel Shrader and Lieuenants W. J. 
Allen and I. S. Buskirk, which be- 
came Company A of this regiment 
when mustei-ed in at Indianapolis, as 
three months' service for Camp Mor- 
ton, and in August was transferred 
to Kentucky, where it stayed until the 
time of its service expired. This regi- 
ment was afterward reorganized and 
mustered in for one year i n-"ic.^, but 
contained no company Trom Monroe 
county. Captain Shrader euteied the 
regiment, however as a Ma.ior and 
was afterward promoted to Lieuten- 

On June 11, 1862, James B. Mulkey, 
of Bloomington, was commissioned 
Major of the 55th Regiment, three 
month's service. Frank A. Rose, of 
Bloomington, was commissicrifd Adju- 
tant of this regiment. These regi- 
ments were organized especially for 
guard duty at Camp Morton, where 
a large number of rebel prisoners 
were confined. 


September 19 Found County Lacking But Few — By Date Set All But One Man 
of Needed Number Made I'p — Salt Creek Township Man Only Persoi! 
Drafted in County at Time. 

When the government found itself 
sorely pressed for men to feed the 
gaping, ever eating jaws of war, and 
the quota of many townships, espe- 
cially in the rural district were slow 
in making, it was decided to make 
a draft and conscript men where the 
volunteers were lacking. 

Monroe county and Bloomington 
were working hard to avoid just such 
a thing coming to pass, as the loyal 
citizens felt that such an act would 
be a disgrace to their name, in the 
fact that such measures were nec- 

The first draft had been announced 
to take place in the state on Septem- 
ber 15, 1862; but at the last moment, 
to give all counties behind abundant 
opportunity to redeem themselves, the 
date of conscription was moved up to 
October 6, 1862, at which time it oc- 
curred throughout all Indiana. 

The draft commissioner appointed 
for Monroe county was Ira Bi'owning; 
the marshal, W. J. Alexander, and the 
examining surgeon was J. D. Maxwell. 
On September 19, 1862, the following 
facts were reported by the enrolling 
commissioner for the county of Mon- 
roe to the Adjutant-General of 

Total militia, 1,828; total volun- 

teers, 1,039; total exempts, 298; total 
conscientiously opposed to bearing 
arms, 3; total volunteers in service, 
840; total subject to draft, 1,527. 

At this date, September 19, 1862, 
Monroe county lacked just twenty-two 
men of having enough enrollments 
to fill the quota called for, as follows, 
by townships: 

Benton township lacked 1; Salt 
Creek, 4; Polk, 12; Clear Creek, 3; 
Indian Creek, 2. 

This number was reduced to one 
man by October 6, and this deficiency 
was in Salt Creek township. A man 
was drafted there, and in a few min- 
utes after the draft was made, a vol- 
unteer was reported from that town- 
ship, and accepted, thus clearing the 
record of Monroe county from the 
draft of October, 1862. 

In September, Captain Daniel Shra- 
der, who had taken one company into 
the three-months' service of 1862, the 
same being Co. A, 54th Regiment, was 
commissioned to raise another com- 
pany for the same regiment, reor- 
ganized for one year's service. For 
some reason, he did not continue, but 
was soon appointed Major (mentioned 
elsewhere by the writer) of this 54th 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

CALL FOR 300,000 MEN 

LSSUED JULY 1, 1862 

What at first was believed would 
be a short and quick job for the 
United States Government, the whip- 
ping of the rebels of the Southland, 
began to look like a gigantic task. 
President Lincoln found that his first 
call for men, while responded to lib- 
erally, was inadequate to carry the 
armies of the North to a success- 
ful termination of the terrible con- 
flict in the first year's struggles. 

On July 1, 1862, President Lincoln 
called for 300,000 additional volun- 
teers, and the quota of Indiana was 
fixed at eleven regiments. The fol- 
lowing is a clipping from the Bloom- 
ington "Republican" of July 12, 1862: 
"More Troops Wanted." 

"It will be seen by reference to 
another part of the paper that eleven 
more regiments are to be raised in 
our state in addition to those already 
forming, one from each Congressional 

"This, in our district, will be about 
12.5 men from each county, as an 

"We trust that old Monroe will 
promptly furnish her quota, as she 
has done on all former calls. She has 

now nine companies in the service, 
besides a number of persons scat- 
tered in companies made up else- 
where — infantry, cavalry and artil- 

"Now that harvest is past and our 
>oung men more at leisure, we think 
that there will be no difficulty in 
raising this additional quota of troops 
in Monroe county. 

"The regiment for this district will 
rendezvous at Madison, and we notice 
that in some of the adjoining counties 
companies are already forming to fill 
up the regiment. Let not Monroe be 

But the beginning of the actual 
work of enlistment was delayed. The 
paper came out in stirring appeals 
to sustain the honor of the county by 
voluntary enlistments, threatening 
that the draft would be resorted to 
soon if the quota was not filled. 

Influential citizens of the county 
began to stir themselves, recruiting 
officers appeared, and soon war meet- 
ings were held with a frequency and 
intensity unknown in the history of 
the county. 

Late in July, Lieutenant F. Otwell 
was commissioned to recruit a com- 
pany for the 67th Regiment, and 
opened offices in Bloomington. Cap- 
tain Charles, of the 18th Regiment, 

came home to recruit his company. 
Lieutenant W. J. Allen, of the 20th 
Battery, called for recruits. James 
L. Winfrey, of Bloomington, was also 
commissioned to raise a company for 
the 93rd Regiment, which was being 
rendezvoused at Madison. Lieutenant 
Otwell and others raised about twenty 
men, who become Company B, of the 
67th Regiment, with Samuel Denny, 
of Madison as captain. 

Hunter Raises Company. 
An entire company was raised by 
Morton C. Hunter, for the 82nd Regi- 
ment, of which he became colonel, 
with the assistance of Paul E. Slocum, 
Alfred G. Hunter, Samuel McWillie, 
John McKinney, Samuel Guy, and 

This company became Company F, 
82nd Regiment, with Samuel McWil- 
lie, captain; John McKinney, first 
lieutenant; Samuel Guy, second lieu- 
tenant. The men were mustered into 
service on August 30, 1862, at Madi- 

A portion of Company I, 82nd Regi- 
ment was raised in Monroe county 
by William F. Neill, who became the 
captain. There were probably not 
more than ten men in the company 
from Monroe county, although Neill 
was assisted in recruiting by Lieu- 
tenant H. E. Lundy and others. 
Monroe Furnishes OflScers. 
There were more regimental officers 
in the 82nd from Monroe county than 
in any other regiment: Colonel Hun- 
ter, Major, and afterward Lieutenant- 
Colonel Slocum, Adjutants A. G. Hun- 
ter and M. E. Bunger; Quartermaster, 
J. C. Allenworth; Chaplain, M. M. 
Campbell; Surgeon, W. H. Lemon; 
Assistant Surgeons, W. B. Harris and 
R. H. Campbell. On September 1, 
1862, the regiment moved to Louis- 
ville, Ky. 

About thirty men of Company F, 
of the 93rd Regiment, were recruited 
by J. L. Winfrey and others, and were 
mustered in at Madison from August 
1.5 to August 23, 1862. 

These efforts on the part of the 
recruiting officers and the more 
prominent and loyal citizens of Mon- 
roe county and Bloomington came 
within a close figure of relieving the 
county from the draft. 

The county was really ahead of her 
(|uota, but some of the townships were 
behind. The draft was intended to 
bring the "stay-at-homes" to the 

On Saturday, September 6, 1862, 
the citizens of the county assembled 
at the court house in Bloomington 
and listened to a long and able ad- 
dress on the state of the country from 
the Honorable Joseph A. Wright, ex- 
Governor of Indiana. This speech 
was a fine specimen of oratory, and 
was loyal to the core. 

On the following Monday, the citi- 
zens again assembled to hear the 
Honorable Joseph E. McDonald, who 
<lelivered an address of great power. 
He strongly favored a cessation of 
hostilities, which would have meant 
that the North was giving up the 
cause for which the terrible war was 
being waged. 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 



During the terrible war, and just 
prior thereto, there was much disloyal 
feeling- manifested throughout the 
whole North, and although Monroe 
county proved in the great majority 
as loyal to the Union, of course, there 
was bound to be some citizens whose 
sense of right told them their sympa- 
thies should go to the South. Al- 
though these facts are facts, we feel 
at this time that the least said con- 
cerning them is the better policy, con- 
sequently, only a general outline will 
be touched upon. 

When the rebellious states seceded, 
they claimed that they were doing 
what they had a right to do under 
the Constiution. That they I'eally 
acted in good faith in this particular 
can no longer be doubted. 

They were protecting the instituion 
of slavery, which had been their chief 
source of wealth and revenue since 
the formation of the United States 
Government. That slavery, of itself, 
was a great wrong, has nothing to do 
with what the South considered her 
right under the Constitution. 
State Sovereignty. 

The South believed in State sover- 
ignty, in nullification and in slavery. 
She thought the Union could be 
broken by any State whose soverign 
rights were being trampled upon. But, 
it is itow doubtful, even with this opin- 
ion, if she would have seceded had she 
not felt that slavery would otherwise 
receive its death blow. 

With these thoughts, is it any won- 
der to us that she seceded? 

The North took an opposite posi- 
tion on all these particulars, and was, 
of course, as we all know, right. The 
point is: Did the South act in good 
faith? If she did her mistake must 
be overlooked, and, from what the 
late wars of our United States with 
foreign enemies has proven, we must 
concede at this time our belief that 
the South was undoubtedly acting in 
good faith toward what her people 
considered right. 

Many From South. 

It was true of Monroe county in 
that troublous war period, that, as 
many of her citizens had come from 
the South to Indiana, and had friends 
and relatives there, a strong sym- 
pathy was felt for the old home. 

During the winter of 18G0-G1, as 
the Southern States seceded, many of 
our most intelligent and prominent 
citizens publicly expressed their grat- 
ification and when the news was re- 
ceived that Ft. Sumter had been cap- 
tured, openly rejoiced at the event. 
They were honest in what they did 
and believed that they were right. 
One man declared in a public meet- 
ing that if he fought it would be on 
the side of the South. 

As the summer and fall of 1861 
passed, many fist fights and savage 
encounters took place in Bloomington 
and throughout Monroe county over 
the war issues, in some instances in- 

volving women and whole neighbor- 

Used Club on Disloyal. 

In one incident, a man who had 
been reviling the North with foul 
words, was knocked down right on the 
public street in Bloomington. On 
another occasion, a man who had 
cheered for Jeff Davis was compelled 
to leave town in a hurry, in order to 
avoid being hung by a crowd of ex- 
cited Bloomington men who quickly 
gathered with a rope to avenge the 

Then, in other portions of the coun- 
ty, as all over the state, the sympa- 
thizers of the South would be in ma- 
joritj' in some certain neighborhood, 
and the Union sympathizers in their 
midst was speedily silenced or run 
out. Several communities were nick- 
named "Secessia," so strong was the 
Southern sentiment expressed. 

The year of 1863 was the dark- 
est for the Union cause, and many of 
the stauchest supporters of the North 
despaired of ever seeing a restoration 
of the Union. During this year the 
contrary element grew bold, audacious 
and outspoken. The enlistment of 
men in the North was openly discour- 
aged, and secret treasonable organi- 
zations, such as "Knights of the Gold- 
en Circle," held nightly orgies and 
massed and drilled their forces, pre- 
paratory for — what? 

Propaganda Used. 

Letters were written by some cit- 
izens to Monroe county men in the 
Northern army, urging them to desert, 
promising secretion and protection 
from arrest. Several of these letters 
were published in the "Republication" 
at Bloomington. 

During the early part of 1863, a 
number of disloyal meetings were 
held in public at Bloomington, which 
had a discouraging effect upon the 
enlistment of men for our army. The 
effect of these disloyalists was soon 
overshadowed by the monster mass 
meetings of loyal Union sympathizers 
held in the court house at Blooming- 

There was organized, in March, 
1863, "The National Union Associa- 
tion of Monroe and Brown Counties," 
by loyal citizens, as a further means 
of encouragement of the Union cause. 

David D. Griffin was elected pi'esi- 
dent and John C. Headly, secretary. 
The following were included in the 
association's declaration of principles: 

"Forgetting all past political differ- 
ences and placing the salvation of the 
Union above all party and other predi- 
lections, we are for the maintenance 
of the Federal Government against all 
enemies at home and abroad. 

"We will sustain the Federal Gov- 
ernment in all its measures for put- 
ting down the rebellion and call for 
a vigorous prosecution of the war, 
until the glorious Union of our fathers 
ha firmly established all over our 

Late in March, 1863, as a train 
loaded with hundreds of rebel pris- 
oners on their way to Camp Morton, 
at Indianapolis, passed through 
Bloomington in the night, several dis- 
loyal Monroe county citizens boarded 
it and offered to hide and feed the 
prisoners if they would make a break 
for liberty; but the Southerners re- 
fused to "break." 

News of the outbreak of disloyal 
citizens in Brown county in April, 
1863, caused much excitement in Mon- 
roe county and Bloomington, which 
led to the organization of a company 
of men as a home guard, to be held in 
readiness for any emergency which 
might arise. This made the disloyal 
element rejoice, as they took it that 
the loyal element were afraid of the 
strength of the Southern sympathiz- 
ers. In June, 1863, the resistance to 
the conscript enrollment occurred, 
which is given in, another article. 

New provisions of the revenue act 
of 1921 of especial interest are those 
relating to personal exemptions of 
married persons and to the returns on 
gross incomes of more than $5,000 a 
year, according to M. Bert Thurman, 
collector of internal revenue. 

Under the new act a married per- 
son, living with husband or wife 
whose net income for 1921 was 
$5,000 or less, fehall be allowed 
a personal exemption of $2,500. If 
the net income of such person was 
more than $5,000, the exemption is 
$2,000. Under the revenue act of 
1918 the personal exemption allowed 
a married person was $2,000 regard- 
less of the amount of net income. 
The norma! tax rate remains un- 
changed, being 4 per cent, on the 
first $4,000 of net income above the 
exemptions and 8 per cent, on the re- 
maining net income. 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 




As an outcome of the discourag- 
ments and set backs of the army of 
the North during that gloomy winter 
and spring months of 1863, when 
practically no enlistments were made 
for service by volunteers, the Federal 
Goverament, through State authori- 
ties began preparations for forceful 
draft of men fit for military duty, as 
had been done in 1862. 

In June, of this year, the enrollment 
of men subject to call for military 
duty in Monroe county was begun in 
the various townships of the county. 
The members of the enrolling board 
for the Third Congressional District, 
in which this county was situated, 
were: Simon Stansifer, provost mar- 
shal; John R. B. Glasscock, commis- 
sioner; Albert G. Collier, surgeon (in 
April 1865, James B. Mulkey suc- 
ceeded Mr. Stansifer as provost mar- 
shal for the district). Colonel John 
McCrea was appointed provost mar- 
.shal for Monroe county in June, 1863. 
Resist Military Law. 

In one portion of Monroe county 
the enrolling officers met with force- 
ful opposition to the listing of men 
for military ser\-ice. 

On Friday, June 19, an armed 
force of probably eighty men sur- 
rounded W. F. Hensley, enrolling offi- 
cer of Indian Creek Township, while 
he was discharging his duty, and 
compelled him to give up his enrol- 
ling papers, threatening him with 
death if he revealed the names of any 
men present at the party. 

Mr. Hensley, regardless of the 
threats against his life, promptly in- 
formed the authorities at Blooming- 
ton of what had been done in Indian 
Creek Township; and the wrath of 
the "Butternuts" (as this element was 
known) was so great that his neigh- 
bors placed a body guard about him 
night and day. 

Arrests Follow. 

On the following Wednesday, Col- 
onel Biddle with about 600 members 
of the 71st Regiment and a company 
of the 3rd Cavalry arrived at Bloom- 
ington, and pitched camp just north 
of town. 

Colonel McCrea, with several as- 
sistants and the cavalry company 
started for Indian Creek Township, 
where he arrested about sixteen per- 
sons who were supposed to have been 
leaders of the outrage against the 
enrollment officer, and recovered the 
enrollment papers. 

The persons arrested were sent to 
Indianapolis to be examined by the 
United States District Court, and no 
further trouble was encountered in 
this district. 

About June 26, a section of the 
23rd Artillery, with two 12-pounder 
brass guns arrived in Blooniington 
and encamped. Before this the "But- 
ternuts" (organized sympathizers of 
the South) had been arming and dril- 
ling in one or more portions of Mon- 
roe county, but all this display of 
force completely subdued them and 

checked further resistance to the en- 
rollment or enlistment activities. 
Six-Month Men Called. 

On June 15, 1863, a call from the 
President of the United States came 
asking for 100,000 men to volunteer 
for six months' service, and imme- 
diate steps were taken to raise a com- 
pany in Bloomington. An enlistment 
office was opened over Fee's store 
(now Breeden's) at the northwest 
corner of the public square. 

Those who were especially active in 
obtaining volunteers were: W. B. 

Hughes, J. Rutledge, W. C. Smith, , 
Michael Gabbert, H. C. Gabbert and • 
J. H. Miller, and by July 31 the com- 
pany numbered about seventy-five > 
men, when they were ordered to re- 
port at Indianapolis. This company 
remained at Indianapolis until Aug- 15, in the meantime recruiting 
from Monroe county enough men to 
bring their ranks up to the lawful 
requirement, when they were mus- 
tered into Federal service and sent to 
Kentucky the same day. This com- 
pany from Monroe county became i 
Company I, 117th Regiment, six 
months' men, and were officered as i 
follows: H. B. Hughes, captain; I 
Jhonias Rutledge, first lieutenant, and 
James H. Miller, second lieutenant. 


All Indiana and Ohio were on edge, 
and both North and South were gasp- 
ing. During the late spring months 
of 1863, the whole North was worked 
up by the raids of the famous rebel. 
General Morgan, in territory north of 
the Ohio river; and, although citizens 
of Monroe county had never thought 
of the dreadful war being carried to 
their own door, they were ever ready 
to accept any rumor at first hand. 

On Monday, June 22, 1863, the news 
was received in Bloomington that the 
terrible rebel. General Morgan, with 
a large force of men, had penetrated 
Indiana from Kentucky, and was ad- 
vancing upon Paoli, in Orange county. 
"Minutemen" Organize. 

All the bells in Bloomington were 
hastily rung, and soon a great crowd 
of excited citizens gathered at the 
courthouse, where wild rumors were 
spread, creating horror and arousing 
the people to immediate action. 

A company of over 100 "minute- 
men" was speedily formed in Bloom- 
ington that day, and organized under 
the command of Captain I. S Buskirk. 
These men tendered their service to 
the Governor of Indiana by telegraph. 
But, no answer was received from the 
Governor until late that night, when 
it was learned that their service was 
not immediately needed, and the com- 
pany disbanded. 

The continued threatening charac- 
ter of the news of the invasion of In- 
diana by General Morgan, however, 
soon gave new impetus to the orga- 
nization of militia companies. 

Captain Buskirk's company was 
again organized and mustered, and on 
July 9, 1863, left for Mitchell, Indiana. 
A company of cavalry, commanded by 
Captain Wylie, left Bloomington the 
next day for the same point; and a 
militia company of infantry, under the 
command of Captain Marion Blair, 
left for Indianapolis. 

Another full company left Elletts- 
ville for Indianapolis at the same 
time, and two other companies were 
almost completed in the rural vicini- 
ties near Bloomington. 

Excitement Runs High. 

At no other time during the whole 
civil war did the local excitement run 
higher than at this period. The 

wildest rumors were circulated, and 
business in all lines seemed to be par- i 
alyzed and almost completely sus- 
pended The streets of Bloomington 
were alive with military preparations, 
and large crowds of people from the ; 
lural districts came to town daily to 
learn what was to be done. 

One week was all that this excite- 
ment required to subside, when Gen- 
eral Morgan was turned back just 
outside of North Vernon. 

The Bloomington company, of which 
Marion Blair was captain, was mus- 
tered into service at Indianapoli.-? on ' 
July 10, and mustered out on July 15, 
without having left that city; this 
company was tor five days Company 
D. 110th Regiment minutemen. The 
Ellettsville company, of which Barton 
Acuff was captain, was mustei-ed into 
service as Company G, 111th Regi- 
ment minutemen on the same date as , 
Captain Blair's company, and mus- 1 
tered out at the same time, without 
having left Indianapolis. 

At North Vernon. 

The company from Bloomington un- 
der Captain Hughes (which later en- 
tered the six months' service) moved 
to Mitchell, Indiana, where it was 
mustered in as Company A, 112th 
Regiment minutemen, on July 9. The 
company saw slight service as this 
regiment was moved to North Vernon, 
where it assisted that town in holding 
against General Morgan, who ap- 
proached within a few miles of the 
town. I. S. Buskirk was made a Ma- 
jor in this regiment, which was mus- 
tered out on July 17, after eight 
days in service. 

The 113th. Regiment, minutemen, 
whose Company A was made up of 
Monroe county men under the com- 
mand of Captain Henry L. McCalla, 
also participated in the defense of 
North Vernon, and was mustered into 
service on July 11, and with five days' 
ser\nce was mustered out on July 
16, 1863. 

Gave Four Companies. 

It will be seen that within about one 
week Monroe county furnished and 
sent into the service four full com- 
panies, and had three or four com- 
panies organized and ready. The wis- 
dom of the organization of the coun- 

Historic Treasures, Compiled bij Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


ty militia in 1861 was demonstrated. 

A fine company of militia cavalry 
was organized in Monroe county; 
mostly in Pen-y township, about the 

month of September, 1863, under the 
command of Captain J. E. Mathers. 

One of the companies mentioned in 
this article was commanded by Cap- 
tain David Sheeks. 


.Monroe County Citizen.s Resent Actions of Southern Sympathizers and Take 
.Measures to Prevent Treasonable Deeds — Mass .Meetings Held in Bloom- 
ingfon by Both Sides. 

Blooniing'ton and Monroe county 
will never again know such strife as 
was manifested in the community life 
during the dark days of 1863, when 
the armies of the North were going 
through the direst discouragement of 
the war, on which we look back now 
and recall the old saying that it is 
always darkest before dawn. 

In the month of January, 1863, a 
large meeting of the disloyal eleinent 
of Monroe county's citizens was held 
in the court house at Bloomington, 
on which occasion Judge Eckles, of 
Greencastle, Ind., was the piincipal 
speaker. The Judge was considered 
a very able speaker, and delivered a 
fiery speech, taking an ultra position 
in opposing a further continuance of 
the terrible war, and was enthusiasti- 
cally applauded by his hearers. 
Disloyal Speech of Kckles. 

Judge Eckles denounced the admin- 
istration of President Abraham Lin- 
coln in the severest terms at his 
command, heaping the responsibility 
of the war upon the Republican party, 
especially the Abolitionist wing; de- 
clared the "people of the South were 
justified in their course, in view of 
the danger of their favorite institu- 
tion — slavery — and insisted that not 
another man nor another dollar should 
be furnished to continue the unneces- 
sary and wicked war." 

A number of resolutions were 
adopted by the meeting, embodying 
the substance of this speech, and the 
crowd dispersed, a number cheevir.g 
for Jeff Davis and cursing "Old 

The "State Sentinel," publishe<l at 
Indianapolis, spoke highly of the 
"spirit and determination of this 
meeting" in its following issue. 

Several savage personal fights 
occurred in Bloomington during the 
day following this disloyal mass 

Great Loyal .Meeting Called. 

An enormous Union mass meeting 
of loyal citizens of Bloomington and 
Monroe county was held four weeks 
later in the court house in Blooming- 
ton. Captain Capps, of eastern Ten- 
nessee, and Colonel Hawkins were 
the principal speakers upon this mem- 
orable occasion, and both men seemed 
to excel in their loyal addresses of 
patriotism. Jacob B. Lowe was chair- 
man of this meeting, and Major James 
B. Mulky acted as secretary. The 
following preambles and resolutions- 
were unanimously adopted by the 

patriotic supporters of the Union at 
this meeting: 

"Whereas, We are now engaged in 
a deadly struggle in defense of anrl 
for the perpetuity of every right dear 
to us as American citizens, and which 
requires the united efforts of all gootl 
and loyal men. And, 

"Whereas, We have beheld, with 
deep regret and abhorrence, the mal- 
ignant partisan spirit in our State, 
the tendency of which is to paralyze 
and frustrate the measures of the 
Federal and State authorities in their 
patriotic endeavors to suppress the 
infamous rebellion; to create and dif- 

fuse secession and treasonable senti- 
ments among the people; and finally, 
precipitate them out of the Union, 
and into the league with the Southern 
Confedracy, and into an entangling 
alliance with France, or other foreign 
powers. Therefore, 

"1. Resolved, That we tender to 
Governor Morton our warmest thanks 
for his untiring zeal in organizing, 
arming and equipping the gallant 
army which Indiana has sent to the 
tented field, and for his timely and 
tender attention to the wants of our 
sick and wounde<l soldiers, and assure 
him of our unswerving support in his 
efforts to maintain for Indiana her 
present proud position for the pre- 
eminent loyalty, and the high char- 
acter of her citizen soldiery 

"2. Resolved, That we hold in utter 
detestation, and e.xecrate any man, or 
class of men, who in this struggle 
for our national existence, are found 
fomenting' and making factions, and 
malignant partisan opposition to 
either the Federal or State authori- 
ties, in their efforts and measures for 
the vigorous prosecution of the war, 
for the suppression of this causeless, 
wanton, and Godless rebellion. 

"3. Resolved, That we unqualifiedly 
repudiate and denounce any and all 
propositions for an armistice with the 
traitors, other than those uniformly 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

offered to them by the proper authori- 
ties of the Federal Government, ^■iz.: 
That they ground the arms of their 
rebellion, return into the Union, and 
be obedient, law-abiding citizens to 
the government of our fathers, as 
they made it and consecrated it ^vith 
their precious blood, and as their 
duty to preserve and defend it, and 
transmit it unimpaired to our pos- 

"4. Resolved, That cowardly and 
traitorous demagogues at home shall 
never precipitate us into the attitude 
of requiring the noblest army of free- 
dom the world has ever seen to 
ground their arms in front of the 
most perfidious, inhuman and redemp- 
tionless army of traitors and outlaws 
that ever disgraced the annals of the 

"5. Resolved, That this rebellion 
must and shall be effectually and for- 
ever crushed out, leavina; a lesson 
upon the pages of our historv which, 
as long as it shall continue to 1,'e read, 
will over-awe and deter rebellious and 
wicked spirits and Lhe eneii'ies of 
freedoin aid the human race from 
ever again attempting to deiuj-e v/itii 
the precioos blood of oui brothers 
and sons t''is otherwise prosperous, 
free and hnipy land." 

Had Good Effect. 
This meeting and the resolutions 
adopted had a most excellent effect 
upon the people of Monroe county, 
and greatly encouraged the loyal citi- 
zens of Bloomington and the sur- 
rounding country during that gloom- 
iest year of the terrible civil war- — 

One week later, a second Union 
Mass meeting of even greater pro- 
portion and equal enthusiasm was 
held in Monroe county's court house. 
The speakers on this eventful occasion 
were General Kimball, the Honorable 
J. A. Matson, Colonel McCrea, and 
the Rev. Mr. Hopkins, the Rev. Mr. 
Farmer and the Rev. Mr. Hearb, pas- 
tors of Bloomington churches. 

Several of the speakers at this loyal 
mass meeting were Democrats, but 
all spoke earnestly in favor of con- 
tinuing the war until the ultimate de- 
feat and surrender of the rebel 
armies. This was one of the largest 
assemblages ever held in Blooming- 

Disloyalties Prevented. 
In the month of April, 1863, news 
came to Bloomington of an outbreak 
among disloyal citizens in Brown 
county, whose depredations committed 
against loyal Union sympathizers 
near Georgetown shocked the whole 
community into action. 

This led to another public meeting 
of citizens in the court house at 
Blooming-ton, in which a long series 
of resolutions were adopted condemn- 
ing such treasonable riots, and prep- 
arations were made to organize a 
militia company as the "home 
guards" to be held in readiness in 
case a like outbreak should occur in 
Monroe county. 

About the same time, we learn, the 
citizens of Van Buren township held 
a similar loyal meeting at Schoolhouse 
No. 3, and organized a similar militia 
company. John Koons was chairman 
of this meeting, and W. M. Crossfield 
was secretary. 


People Filled With Unrestrained Joy Make Demonstration on Public Square — 
Build Large Bonfire and Hear Speeches — Hold Jubilee Far Into Night of 
July 7, 1863 — Wild Rejoincing Over Defeat of Gen. Lee at Gettysburg and 
Gen. Grant's Capture of Vicksburg. 

"Lee is whipped!" and "Vicksburg 
has sui-rendered." were the cries that 
rang through the whole country in 
early July, 1863. 

People felt instinctively that a 
brighter day had been heralded. 
Great crowds of Monroe county citi- 
zens assembled in the public square 
of Bloomington on the night of July 7, 
1863, where they mingled in rejoicing 
and jubilee. An enormous bonfire 
was lighted on the street, hundreds 
of guns were brought forth, rockets 
were sent into the sky, fire-crackers 
exploding resounded with abandon, 
while buildings of the town were il- 
luminated from cellar to garret — and 
the wild populace shouted themselves 
hoarse, in their happy rejoicing. 

Turning Point of War. 

On July 4, 1863, the news came to 
Bloomington of the defeat of General 
Lee at Gettysburg, which caused uni- 
versal and continued rejoicing. It 
was then demonstrated that the Army 
of the Patomac was stronger than the 
Army of Northern Virginia. 

The following Tuesday, July 7, 1863, 
when the news came of the surrender 

of Vicksburg to General Grant, the 
joy of the Hoosier people seemed to 
know no bounds The two great vic- 
tories coming after the long string of 
discouragements previously experi- 
enced by the Northern forces, seemed 
too great an occasion to pass without 
a public demonstration of joy. 
Speeches Ring True. 
The Honorable G. A. Buskirk was 
called out, and in the light of the 
gigantic bonfire, delivered a brilliant 
speech, followed by F. T. Butler, 
whose speech was filled with extraor- 
dinary fire of loyalty and power of 
expression in beautiful and brilliant 
sallies of wit and pathos, bringing 
for the spontaneous loud acclamations. 
Thundering cheers came from the 
crowd of listeners, as he remorselessly 
poured hot scorn and invictive words 
upon the heads of all traitors, bewild- 
ering the great throng with delight. 
Colonel Charles, although weakened 
from illness, sick and scarcely able 
to stand alone, rallied sufficient 
strength under the stimulating news 
to deliver a rousing speech that night. 
"The jubilee lasted far into the night. 




Rebellion Seen Pottering in 186.5— Quota of 161 Men Sent From Monroe County 
— Summary of Men Furnished To Armies of North During Whole War 
Reflects Honor Shown in Patriotism of People. 

When the call for 300,000 additional 
men was made on December 19, 1864, 
Monroe county was about drained dry, 
as was both the North and the South, 
as far as furnishing new material 
was concerned. The county newspa- 
pers all over the North published edi- 
torials offering large bounties and 
called upon every one to assist in fil- 
ling the quotas required of their com- 
munities. This proved to be the last 
call for men during the war. 

Monroe county papers were full of 
bounty offex's and stirring articles 
urging men to support the cause, and 
about the middle of January, 1865, 
Ira Browning, deputy provost mar- 
shal, called a meeting in each town- 
ship to correct the enrollment lists. 
$1,143 Bounty Offered. 

Early in January, 1865, Captain S. 
W. Bonsall opened an enlistment of- 
fice for veteran recruits for the First 
Veteran Army Corps, offering Gov- 
ernment bounties of $400, $500, and 
$600, for one, two and three years, 
respectively to Bloomington and Mon- 
roe county men. 

Then his offer of $1,143 bounty 

for one year was tempting, indeed, 
and when a large offer of local bounty 
was made the recruits began to take 

The county board appropriated $500 
for each volunteer in Monroe county 
under this call. Townships began to 
offer several hundred dollars as boun- 
ty to their recruits. 

Rebellion Seen Tottering. 

Men felt encouraged to enlist, for 
besides the bounties offered, it was 
pretty well known by this time that 
the rebellion was seen to be tottering 
on the verge of its "last ditch." 

Major James B. Mulkey, of Monroe 
county, was appointed general re- 
cruiting officer for the Third District, 
with headquarters at Coumbus, Ind. 
He called for a company from Monroe 
county, whose quota was 161 men. 

Lieuenants N. E. Mathers and J. F. 
Douglas began recruiting these men 
about the middle of January, 1865. 
John T. Eller, James H. Miller, Ren 
C. Smith and others also enlisted 
men for service in Monroe county. 
Within a comparatively short time 
nearly a whole company was enlisted 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


in Monroe, and the remainder of about 
fifteen men were raised in Brown 

Tliis company became Company E, 
145th Regiment, one year's service, 
when mustered into Federal service 
at Indianapolis, February 4 and 5, 
1865, and on February 18 left for 
Nashville, Tenn. The officers of this 
company from Monroe county were: 
John F. Douglas, captain; James H. 
Miller, first lieutenant, and Ren C. 
Smith, second lieutenant. 

Captain Douglas Promoted. 

About half of Company I, of the 
same regiment was raised in Monroe 
county immediately after the boys 
had left, and were mustered in on 
February 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. The officers 
of this company were: John P. Crav- 
ens (of Madison), captain; Newton E. 
Mathers (of Bloomington), lieu- 
tenant, and William M. Crossfleld (of 
Smithville), second lieutenant. The 
other half of the company came from 

On February 18, 1865, Captain 
Douglas, of Company E, was promo- 
ted to Lieutenant Colonel of the regi- 
ment, and on the same day John T. 
Eller, of Monroe county, was com- 
missioned quartermaster. 

A few recruits were furnished from 
Monroe county to the 145th Regiment, 
during the month of March, but it 
seems that after April 14, 1865, all 
efforts to raise troops in Bloomington 
and the county were abandoned. The 
draft had been fixed for January 6 
at first, but was postponed until Feb- 
ruary 15; then to the latter part of 
March. In the meantime the recruit- 
ing was slowly continuing under the 
call of Lieutenant Eller. 

Monroe county did not quite escape 
this draft, however, which took place 
in Polk and Salt Creek townships 
during the last week of March, 1865. 
Four or five men only were drafted, 
one of whom entered the service. 
Summary of County's Troops. 

On September 19, 1862, Monroe 
county was credited with having fur- 
nished 1,039 volunteers for the vjivu 

Under the six months' call of 1863, 
she supplied a full company of about 
100 men. 

The quota under the call of October, 
1863 was 143 men for the county. 

Under the four calls of 1864, Mon- 
roe county's quotas were, 277, 111, 
287 and 161 men, respectively. 

All these quotas were filled by Mon- 
roe county, and a close estimate of 
the number of men sent into the ter- 
' rible conflict in the Union army may 
be made, as follows: at the close of 
the war Monroe county had a surplus 
of ten men to her credit; taking the 
sum of 1,039, 100, 143, 277, 111, 287, 
161 and 10, gives a grand total of 
2,128 men — equal to more than two 
full regiments. 

As the total enrollment of Monroe 
county militia in 1861 was 1,727 men, 
it will be seen how thoroughly the 
strength of the county was exhausted. 
This estimate does not include the 
four companies of "minute men" that 
were mustered into state service for 
the Morgan campaign — probably 400 
men. But, as they were actually in 

the service, they should properly be 
included in the above estimate, which 
would raise the number of troops 
Monroe furnished to 2,528. 

"Old Monroe" may well be proud of 
this showing. 



President Lincoln again called for 
300,000 added men for the armies of 
the Union, to continue the di'eadful 
conflict, on October 17, 1863. The call 
was for men for three-year service. 
Monroe county's quota for this call 
was 143 men, and Colonel McCrea, 
Captain Buskirk and Henry Eller 
were commissioned to recruit volun- 

Offices for recruiting were estab- 
lished in Bloomington and in several 
rui'al localities, but volunteers seemed 
slow to respond at first; and on Nov- 
ember 28 a war meeting was held in 
the court house at Bloomington where 
quite a large squad was raised. They 
were sent to Columbus, Ind., for in- 
struction while the rest of the com- 
pany was being recruited. 

Recruiting Continues. 

The company was so nearly filled 
by December 18 that Colonel McCrea 
left Bloomington for Columbus, and 
on January 14, 1864, these Monroe 
county men were mustered into t'etl- 
eral service, at Camp Shank.^, iiear 
Indianapolis. In the meantime re- 
cruits continued to be enrolled in 
Monroe county to the number of aitout 
twenty men, who were mustered into 
service on January 24, Marcli 2, and 
some in April, of 1864. 

This company of Mon]'oe county 
men became Company i, 10th Cav- 
alry (125th Regiment), and Isaac S. 
Buskirk was captain; James E. 
Mathers, first lieutenant, and G. P. 
Bailey second lieutenant. A squad of 
men was raised for this comoany at 
EUettsville. The regiment did nut 
leave the State of Indiana until May, 
1864, when it was moved to Nash- 
ville, Te'in. 

In December, 1863, and January, 
1864, about fifteen Monroe county 

men were sent as recruits to Company 
K, 21st Regiment (First Heavy Ar- 
tillery,) and about ten more to the 
22nd Regiment; also a small num- 
ber were sent to recruit the 27th 
Regiment from Bloomington. 

Sergeant J. Frank Fee recruited 
about twenty men in Bloomington for 
Company G, 21st Regiment during the 
month of February, 1864. In Decem- 
ber, 1863, and in January and Febru- 
ary, 1864, about fifteen recriuts were 
sent from Monroe county to Company 
G, 38th Regiment, being mostly El- 
lettsville boys. About half a dozen 
recruits were sent to Company F, 82nd 
Regiment from Monroe county, and a 
few men went to other regiments. 

One Hundred Days' Men. 

A large war meeting was held in 
Bloomington on the evening of April 
27, 1864, to take steps toward raising 
a company in Monroe county for ser- 
vice in the fi3ld, under th'- call for 
100 days' men, issued in April, U^(."4. 

Governor Dunninj? adressed the au- 
dience at this meeting, and explained 
the nature of this call for volunteers, 
and the enlistment roll was circulated 
in the crowd. About a dozen names 
were secured at this time After pas- 
sing a resolution, asking Monroe coun- 
ty's commissioners to offer a bounty 
of $30 for volunteers, the meeting ad- 
journed. Active measures were con- 
tinued to complete the company, and 
by May 3 the company, though partly 
raised in Clay county, was completed. 
The officers for this company were: 
Jechonias Rutledge, captain; A. B. 
Wheeler, first lieutenant; W. R. Cl-ess, 
second lieutenant. 

About three-fifths of the company 
was from Monroe county, including its 
captain. The men became Company 
K, 123rd Regiment, 100 days' service 
when mustered in at Indianapolis on 
May 17, when they were sent at once 
to Tennessee. 

Heavy Call of 1864. 

The call of President Lincoln on 
July 18, 1804, for 500,000 more men 
for one, two and three years' service 
staggered the people of Monroe coun- 
ty as it staggered the citizens of the 
whole North, and at first little was 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

done toward raising' volunteers to fill 
the county's quota of 287 men. 

On Aug'ust 6, 1864, volunteers had 
cut down the number of men to be 
furnished by Monroe county to 179, a 
few recruits were sent to the old regi- 
ments in the field, but no attempt was 
made to I'aise a full company. 

A draft was threatened, but the citi- 
zens seemed to fold their hands with 
philosophic indifference, and quietly 
awaited events. Bloomington, Richland 
and Clear Creek townships had fur- 
nished an excess. Perry raised her 
eleven men, Bean Blossom furnished 
five, Benton one, and Van Buren 
three; but the other townships from 
which men were due, Indian Creek, 
Polk, Salt Creek, Washington and 
Marion, did not produce a solitary 

On September 2.j, 1864, the draft 
came off at Columbus, Indiana, with 

the following result for Monroe coun- 
ty townships: Bean Blossom must 
furnish 37 men; Washington, 25; 
Marion, 14; Benton, 9; Van Buren, 6; 
Salt Creek, 19; Polk, 17; Indian Creek, 
32; total, 159 for Moni'oe county. 
Double this number weie drafted to 
make allowance for those unfit for 
service, and by December 31, 1S64, the 
records of the Adjutant-General's of- 
fice showed that each township in 
Monroe county had furnished her quo- 
ta, either in recruits or substitutes or 
conscripts, and the Monroe county as 
a whole by reason of eight townships 
having furnished a surplus, was 
ahead of all calls for men (except the 
late call of December 19, 1864 — which 
was the last in the great war) to the 
number of 86 men. 

This report shows that the county 
had a record which citizens of the 
present day may well be proud of. 


Monroe County Citizens Go Mad With Joy When Good News Comes Tellins 
People the Horrible Conflict Was At Last Over With Victory for the 
Union — President's Death Casts Undescribable Gloom Over Nation — Por- 
trait of Dead Leader Painted by .Marion Blair in Striking Likeness. 

The news reached Bloomington on 
Tuesday, April 4, 1865, that Richmond 
had been evacuated, and that the 
Army of Northern Virginia, under 
General Lee, shattered and depleted, 
was flying before the army of General 
Grant. i 

This glorious news seemed to kindle 
a degree of universal joy that hatl 
been hei'etofore unknown in Monroe 
county during the four awful years of 
the Civil War. A large crowd gath- 
ered on the public scjuare in Bloom- 
ington that night to testify the 
people's unbounded gratification. Ev- 
erything in the old town that would 
make a noise was brought into use, 
and a great bonfire was kept alive 
until aftei' midnight. Every man, 
woman and child seemed to have come 
out on the streets, and all was chaos. 

Volleys of musketry were fired, 
ringing- out into the night; bands and 
glee clubs rendered patriotic music, 
which was appreciated as it had never 
been appreciated before. Long pro- 
cessions of men and boys with torch- 
lights marched gaily from point to 
point, led by bands playing martial 
music. All buildings were lighted, 
some with candles. 

Eloquent speeches were delivered 
by Governor Dunning, Judge Butler 
and the Rev. Mr. Bain, who were loud- 
ly cheered by the throngs. 
Jubilee Continued. 

On the following Friday, April 7, 
1865, news came of the surrender of 
General Lee, and the jubilee w-as 
again taken up where it had been 
left off the preceding Tuesday night. 

That Friday evening was probably 
the most brilliant ever witnessed by 
Monroe's county seat. Old men who 

had learned to love their country, and 
had been constantly praying for its 
success and peace with national 
honor, were overcome witli joy at the 
glorious news, and acted like mad 
men. Tears of joy, which they could 
not repress, and cared not to conceal, 
trickled down their furrowed cheeks 
as they clasped each other by the 
hand and thanked God for the nation- 
al preservation. 

"Glory enough for one day!" ex- 
claimed the Bloomington "Republi- 
can" in its account of the celebration 
of victory. 

President Lincoln Shot. 

One week later, while the people 
of Bloomington were still rejoicing, 
the news came that President Abra- 
ham Lincoln had been assassinated at 
Ford's theater, in Washington, D. C. 
So terrible was the sensation pro- 
duced that people at first refused to 
believe this horrible deed could have 
been committed, and waited- anxiously 
for more details. When the drea<iful 
truth became confirmed on April 15, 
1865, the deepest gloom of horror and 
despair seized every heart. 

Men had no heart to think of any 
subject but the national calamity. 
Crepe was instinctively hung on 
dwellings and all public buildings in 

IMemorial Services Held. 

On Sunday, memoi-ial services were 
held in all the churches of the town 
and Monroe county, in honor of the 
beloved President who lay cold in 
death, and on Monday, April 17, 1865, 
pursuant to a call, a large crowd of 
sorrowing citizens assembled at the 
court house in Bloomington to give 

public expression to the sentiments 
agonizing all. 

A large portrait of the dead Presi- 
dent was hung and draped in black 
crepe, the Rev. William Turner was 
chosen chairman of the meeting, and 
John H. Louden, secretary. Dr. E. 
H. Sabino, Governor Dunning, the 
Rev. T. M. Hopkins, William F. 
Browning, Esq., and the Rev. S. T. 
Gillett were appointed a committee to 
prepare suitable resolutions. 

^^"hile these men were preparing 
resolutions, the president of Indiana 
University, Dr. Nutt, delivered a brief 
address of great pathos, and when 
he ceased speaking there was hardly 
a dry eye in the vast audience. 
Painted Picture of Lincoln. 

When President Lincoln's body was 
placed in the State House at Indiana- 
polis, where it lay in .state for the 
public to view, en route from Wash- 
ington to Springfield, great lines of 
Indiana people stood day and night in 
line to get a last glimpse of the be- 
loved hero of all time. 

A Monroe county man, who had 
graduated from Indiana University, 
and who had won some fame as an 
artist by painting a portrait of Gov- 
ernor Oliver P. Morton which was 
hung in the Indiana State House, was 
one of those who stood in line to view 
the honored remains. 

This man was Captain Marion 
Blair, who had been stationed at Indi- 
anapolis while in service. He man- 
aged to get in the line and pass Presi- 
dent Lincoln's bier three difl"erent 
times and so impressed the features 
of the martyr in his memory that he 
was enabled to keep and refresh them 
after he reached his home in Indian 
Creek township, where he painted one 
of the most striking likenesses of 
Abraham Lincoln that was ever pro- 
duced by a portrait painter. (In later 
years this man Marion Blair became 
a recluse and when asked to go to 
Indianapolis to retouch his painting of 
Governor Morton, refused on the pre- 
text that it was too much bother to 
dress up). 

This excellent picture of President 
Lincoln is now in the possession of a 
nephew of Marion Blair, Dr. Rodney 
Smith, of Bloomington, who treasures 
it very highly as an artistic as well 
as memorial treasure. 

Rebellion Closes. 

Thursday, June 1, the day set apart 
by President Johnson as one of humil- 
iation and prayer on account of the 
assassination of President Lincoln, 
was duly observed in Bloomington 
and throughout the county. 

The people gradually recovered 
from the shock of President Lincoln's 
death. They joyfully saw the Rebel- 
lion close, and made preparations to 
publicly receive the returning soldiers. 

The news of the capture of Jeff 
Davis, while endeavoring to escape in 
woman's attire, createrl much amuse- 
ment, and the "Republican" said: 
"Hang him like Haman between 
Heaven and earth as being fit for 

Hifttonc Treaa^ires, Compilecl by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 





The Confederate army in size and 
in accomplishments completely over- 
shadowed the south's little naval es- 
tablishment, and the feats of the sea- 
men have received tardy recognition 
at home and elsewhere, except per- 
haps at he hands of the Geneva tri- 
bunal, which awarded damages of 
$15,500,000 against Great Britain in 
connection with the depredations of 
Confederate cruisers upon United 
States commerce. 

A former superintendent of the 
United States naval records has given 
the Confederate navy credit for de- 
veloping ironclads, creating the iron- 
clad ram, creating the best and most 
effective gun of the war, the Brooks 
rifle, creating and extending the toi'- 
pedo service, and operating the first 
successful submarine torpedo boat. It 
was an army officer, George E. Dixon, 
of the 21st Alabama, though, that 
commanded the historic little subma- 
rine when it finally achieved its ill- 
fated victory by sinking the U.S.S. 
Housatonic and going to a watery 
grave beside it. 

Shut off from home ports by a vigi- 
lant blockade, without adequate means 
of communicating with Richmond, and 
thrown constantly on their own re- 
sources, the officers of the Confeder- 
ate navy upon the high seas were 
very largely independent of higher 

Semmes a Great Commander. 

Raphael Semmes, who received the 
rank of rear-admiral in the Confed- 
erate navy in recognition of his serv- 
ices aboard the Alabama, captured 
sixty odd United States vessels and 
sank one in action, the Hatteras, with 
that vessel. He captured eighteen 
others while commanding the Sump- 
ter, a converted packet boat. Though 
commonly referred to about Washing- 
ton in the sixties as a "pirate," he has 
come to be recognized as one of the 
most exact exponents of law that the 
seas has ever known. 

He "never, even in the bitterest 
time of the civil war, sank a ship 
without providing for the safety of 
its passengers," Theodore Roosevelt 
said in 1918 in a speech at St. Paul. 
Roosevelt's uncle. Commander James 
D. Bulloch, C.S.N., was present at the 
christening of the Alabama, off the 

But Semmes was more by a good 
deal than a "sea lawyer." He was an 
extraordinary seaman, eluding cap- 
ture by the United States vessels sent 
in search of him for three years, twice 
escaping from the island of Martin- 
que, once in the Sumpter and later 
in the Alabama, while superior United 
States vessels lay outside prepared to 
sink him when he came out. He was 
also a wonderful commander. From 
the day he hoisted the flag of the 
Sumpter to the breezes of the gulf, 
June 30, 1861, till the flag of the sink- 
ing Alabama was hauled down off 
Cherbourg, June 19, 1864, he never 

lost a 

man from disease on either 


Running the Blockade. 

only Confederate flag to re- 
ceive the salute of a foreign power 
was the flag of the Confederate cruis- 
er Florida. It was saluted by Eng- 
lish guns at St. George, Bermuda 
Islands, July 16, 1863. The career of 
the Florida was picturesque. One of 

the most daring feats of the war is 
credited to her. In the open daylight, 
on the afternoon of September 4, 
1862, she dashed into Mobile bay, her 
guns not in commission, her crew 
short-handed, and an epedemic of yel- 
low fever aboard, the guns of the 
Onedia, the Winona and the Rachel 
Seaman meanwhile playing upon her 
at close range with heavy shell and 
shrapnel. For allown-T the Florida to 
break the 'blockade, Comamnder H. 
Preble, of the Onedia, ranking officer 
present, was summarily dismissed 
from the United States navy, but Lin- 
coln five months later reappointed 
him. The Florida's passage of the 
blockade was made the subject of an 
investigation by a naval court of in- 
quiry in 1872 and John Newland Maf- 
fitt, late commander of the Florida, 
was one of the important witnesses 
called by Preeble. Maffit, one of the 
notable officers in the Confederate 
navy, was born at sea. His father, a 
preacher, helped to launch at Nash- 
ville the predecessor of the Christian 
Advocate, the organ of the Southern 
Methodist church. The son's career in 
the Confederate navy was full of 
thrills, his final assignment being as 
commander of a blockade runner. 
New York City in Panic. 
A youngster who was assigned to 
the Florida while it lay in Mobile bay, 
being repaired, was Chai-les W. Read, 
of Mississippi, then only twenty-two 
years of age, but a veteran of the 
fight with Farragut below New Or- 
leans, and of the dash of the ram 

Arkansas out of the Yazoo river 
through Farragut's fleet to the wharf 
at Vicksburg, July 15, 1862. His 
cruise up the Atlantic coast in the 
captured brig Clarence, in the Ta- 
cony, another pirze, and the Archer, 
still another prize, to the hai-bor of 
Portland, Me., where he cut out the 
revenue cutter, Caleb Gushing, cnly 
to be captured while geting away 
with the vessel, was one of the most 
successful commerce raids that a 
handful of men (he had but twenty) 
ever engaged in. Read's raid lasted 
from May 6, 1863, to June 27, in the 
course of which he captured twenty 
vessels, one an ocean liner of New 
York and another an immigrant ship 
off Boston, though twenty United 
States warships and as many more 
chartered vessels were sent out to 
capture him. New York city for the 
moment was even in a state of panic 
lest the raider attack it. The lad con- 
cluded his Confederate naval career by 
a desperate attempt to take the ram 
William H. Webb out of the Red river, 
down the Mississippi and into the gulf. 
Fired Last Confederate Gun. 

The final chapter of Confederate 
•history was written by the navy, by 
the cruiser Shenandoah. James L. 
Waddell was its commander. 

"Tlie Shenandoah," her commander 
wrote, "was actually cruising after the 
enemy's property but eight months 
during which time she made thirty- 
tight captures, more than four a 
month. She released six on bond and 
destroyed thirty-two. 

"She visited every ocean e.xeept the 

"She was the only vessel which car- 
ried the flag around the world and 
she carried it six months after the 
overthrow of the south. 

"She was surrendered to the Brit- 
ish nation November 6, 1865. The 
last gun in defense of the south was 
fired from her deck June 22, 1865, in 
the Arctic ocean. 

"She ran a distance of 58,000 statue 
miles and met with no serious injury 
during a cruise of thirteen months. 

"She never lost a chase, and was 
second only to the celebrated Ala- 
bama." — Kansas City Star. 


Mrs. Martha E. Adams, Widow of Three Civii War Soldiers. Tells of Grand- 
father, William Alexander, and Pioneer Days — Lafc Widow of "Squire 
Bill" Adams Relates Interesting Incidents in Bloomington's Life. 

"A strange coincident happened," 
said Mrs. Martha E. Adams, 80 years 
of age, of East Cottage Grove avenue, 
Bloomington, "in connection with the 
land upon which Indiana University 
new Men's Gymnasium now stands. 

"On the day that college boys cut 
down the old Dunn orchard in what 

is now a part of Indiana University's 
land, the man who sold this old Dunn 
farm to the State authorities for the 
college, in 1883-1884, was also cut 
down by death. 

As the boys laid the old fruit trees 
to the earth — the old trees which the 
pioneer founder of the Dunn home- 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

stead had planted — Moses Dunn, the 
last descendant to own the land, lay a 
corpse in Bedford, Indiana, where he 
had parted this life on that very day. 
Erroneous Story Told. 

"A story has been told and printed 
to the effect that when work was in 
progress in grading the new Indiana 
University campus, in 1884, or there- 
abouts, a man named Dunn, who had 
owned this land and sold it to the Uni- 
versity, had dropped dead suddenly 
while working on this grading of the 

"This story is not true!" contnued 
Mrs. Adams. 

"Moses Dunn, the man told of in 
this story, is the man to whom I re- 
ferred above. One reason I am so 
sure that my memory is correct in 
this instance is the fact that at the 
time my late husband. Squire William 
Adams, who died September 10, 1914, 
at the age of 84 years, was living, and 
he and I talked of the strange coinci- 
dence of the death of Mr. Dunn and 
the felling of the old family orchard. 
How Story Was Confused. 

"However, there was a man who 
died suddenly of heart failure at the 
time of the grading work on the Uni- 
versity campus was being done. But 
his name was Small, and not Moses 

"It seems that the man named Small 
had been merely watching workmen 
building Third street pike, and had 
drawn a little apart from the other 
men, in order to do some little thing. 
After a while, the other men noted his 
absence from the work, and some per- 
son went into the surrounding bushes 
to investigate, where he discovered 
Mr. Small's body in a sitting posture. 

"A great deal of excitement was 
manifested as people soon gathered to 
discuss the strange incident. The 
doctors found upon examination of the 
body, that a sudden attack of heart 
trouble was responsible for the man's 

"I feel that this story should be 
straightened out, because so much of 
the old happenings of Bloomington are 
being forgotten as mere hearsay, 
merely because no one will take the 
trouble to look up the facts. 

Grandfather a Pioneer. 

"My grandfather, William Alexan- 
der, was one of the old pioneer set- 
tlers in Bloomington, and built the old 
log house that stood at what is now 
Eighth and Grant street, where the 
old brick Alexander homestead was 
later erected (it stands, although re- 
modeled into a modern apartment). 

"William D. Alexander was my 
father, and I remember of hearing him 
tell many exciting anjj interesting 
tales of his boyhood days in and 
around what is now Bloomington. 
Played With Indians. 

"Father used to tell of playing with 
the Indians when he was a boy — they 
would play up and down Spanker's 
branch ( what we know as "The River 
Jordan" at the present time) day after 
day. The Indian children were quite 
friendly at that time. 

"I do wish you could have talked 
with my husband, Squire William 
Adams, who was 84 years of age when 

he passed away. He was considered 
one of the best-informed men of 
Bloomington, on the old history of the 
town and Monroe county. 

"My grandfather ran a tannery in 
the pioneer days of the county, and 
my father was a stock buyer and quite 
well known over the county. My 
mother's name was Elizabeth Shirley 
before her marriage to my father. 
Memory Is Good. 

"I remember the old, old Indiana 
College campus well — there was a 
great main building, the one that 
burned down in 1853, and two smaller 
brick buildings, one on the northwest 
corner of the old campus which faced 
the south, long-wise, and the other 
situated at the southeast corner of the 
grounds and faced east broad-wise; 
the latter was destroyed by fire, as 
was the big building, but not at the 
same time. The first mentioned small 
building was used as a sort of mu- 
seum, for I remember of going there 
to see the 'funny-lookng' things, as 
we children put it. 

"My father took our family to Mis- 
souri when I was a girl where I was 
first married to Wm. Ring and during 
the war of the rebellion, my first hus- 
band lost his life. We lived in what 
was then a wild west part of Missouri, 
and were in the thick of the gorrilla 
warfare, which was carried on so ex- 
tensively in that state. 

Had Three Soldier Husbands. 

"I have been the wife, and am now 
the widow of three men who were 
soldiers of the Union army in that 
great Civil War, and I am proud of 
each" one's record while in the service 
of his country. 

"At a National Encampment of G. 
A. R., a number of years ago, which 
I attended with my late husband, Wil- 
liam Adams, who was a charter mem- 
ber of the Slocum Post, of Blooming- 
ton, I attended the Woman's Relief 
Corps National meeting. When the 
question was asked that all women 
present who had been married when 

the war of rebellion broke out I was 
the only one present to stand up. 

"I understand that Mrs. Molly 
Stuart of Bloomington had the same 
experience only last year — I know she 
is also entitled to that honor, as she 
is about my age, or a little older — I 
did not go to the National Encamp- 
ment this year or last year, or we 
both would have stood up when that 
question was asked." 

With the exception of that part of 
her life spent in the West in early 
years, Mrs. Adams has lived in 
Bloomington all her life. She is still 
in active health, and, at 80 years, she 
takes great delight in working about 
her house and yard. 



Boys in Blue Honored by Procession 

Representing All Townships 

in County. 

The most significant Fourth of July 
parade in Bloomington's history took 
place in 186.5 in honor of the boys in 
blue who had just returned from the 
war. General Jacob B. Lowe was pre- 
sident of the day; Major Mulkey was 
marshal, assisted by Colonel McCrea 
and Captain Cookerly. 

Early in the morning of this sultry 
day wagons and carriages loaded with 
country folk began arriving through 
dusty streets. Many townships orga- 
nized processions, with martial music 
and banners. 

The parade was formed on and near 
the public square, and the march to 
the College Campus (the old site of 
Indiana University) was begun in the 
following order: 

1. The Bloomington Silver Band. 

2. Officers of the Day, orator, reader, 
chaplain and distinguished guests. 

3. Soldiers of the war of 1812. 4. Thir- 
teen small girls dressed in white, with 
badges, representing the thirteen ori- 
ginal states. 5. Soldiers of the late 
war (the Civil war). 6. The Goddess 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


of Liberty, bearing the national flag, 
and thirty-six young ladies, dressed 
in white, representing all the states of 
the Union. 7. Citizens generally, 
men, women and children. 

The reception speech, one of unus- 
ual fervor and eloquence, was deliv- 
ered by the Rev. S. T. Gillett, and was 

were short, being followed by 
that of Colonel W. C. L. Taylor, of 
the 20th Regiment, who was orator of 
the day. 



Soldiers' Monument at Rose Hill Cemetery. 

responded to by Colonel N. C. Hunter, 
of the 82nd Regiment. The latter 
gave several graphic descriptions of 
experiences on the battle field, espe- 
cially on that of bloody Chickmauga, 
where over one-half of his regiment 
fell, killed or wounded. The addresse.'^ 

Late in the thirties, Jesse Tarking- 
ton laid out the little village of Stan- 
ford, in Van Buren township, Monroe 
county, Indiana, and soon after James 
Crane established a store there in 
about 1839. Kembel, Klein & Co., are 
said also to have established a store 
in the village about 1842. 

Zachariah Catron opened a store 
about 1845, and kept a general stock 
worth about $2,000. Sylvester Dory 
started in business about the same 

Nicholas Dillinger and Victor Dory 
formed a partnership in 1848, and be- 
gan a general merchandies business 
under the firm name of Dillinger & 
Dory. Sylvester Dory and Zachariah 
Carton were still in business and in 
the next year (1849) Odell & Walker 
began business in the village. 
Population 1.50 in 1852. 

Elmore Walker established a store, 
and in 1852 Dudley & Adams and 
Street, Cox & Sons started in business 
about the same time. There were four 
general stores, two or three black- 
smith shops, a saw mill and about 150 
inhabitants in the village at this time. 

In about 1883 the population was 
probably 200, and A. J. Ritchey, F. M. 
Holder & Co., had general stores. 
Carmichael & Fields, Young & Smith 
and Baker Bros., as well as Sparks 
Bros., were in business in Stanfoi'd. 
The village had a tri-weekly mail serv- 
ice from Bloomington at this time, 
and Drs. Cook and Gaston sold drugs, 
and James Gaston was postmaster. 
Joseph Green was the village black- 


History of Bloomington's Sons During the Conflict of 1898 — Names of Officers 
and Men as Shown in State Records — Many Citizens May Recall Stirring 
Times of the Generation at the Century's Close in Reading Accounts. 

The fact that Monroe county's boys 
who volunteered for service at the 
call of the United States for volun- 
teers to fight Spain, in 1898, never 
were taken into actual battle against 
the enemy does not in any sense di- 
minish the honor one must feel for 
these brave soldiers, who offered their 
lives to their country. 

We feel, at this time that due re- 

spect must be shown the volunteers 
of 1898, for their effort, and without 
just such men America could never 
have so completely whipped the enemy 
in such quick and business-like style. 
The following sketch is quite self-ex- 
planatory to the younger generation. 
Declaration of War with Spain. 
.4n act declaring that war existed 
between the United States of America 



<By Miles O'Reilly) 
There are bonds of all sorts in this world of 

Fetters of friendship and ties of flowers, 

And true lovers* knots, I ween. 
The boys and girls are bound by a kiss. 
But there's never a bond, old friend, like 
We have drunk from the same canteen. 

The same canteen, my soldier friend, 

The same canteen. 
There's never a bond like this: 

We have drunk from the same canteen. 

It was sometimes water and sometimes milk. 
Sometimes applejack ; line as silk : 

But whatever the tipple has been, 
We shared it together in bane or in bliss. 
And I warm to you, friend, when I think of 
this : 

Wo have drunk from the same canteen. 

We've shared our blankets and tents together. 
And marched and fought, in all kinds of 
weather ; 
And hungry and full we've been ; 
Had days of battle and days of rest. 
But this memory I cling to and love the 
best : 
We have drunk from the same canteen. 

For when wounded I lay on the outer slope. 
With my blood flowing fast, and but little 
On which my faint spirit might lean : 
O ! then I remember you crawled to my side. 
And bleeding so fast, it seemed both must 
have died. 
We have drunk from the same canteen. 

and the Kingdom of Spain. 

"Be it enacted by the Senate and 
House of Representatives of the Uni- 
ted States of America in Congress 
assembled; First, That war be, and 
the same is hereby declared to exist, 
and that war has existed since the 
twenty-first day of April, Anno-Dom- 
ini eighteen hundred and ninety-eight 
including said day, between the Uni- 
ted States of America and the King- 
dom of Spain. 

"Second, That the President of the 
United States be, and he hereby is, 
directed and empowered to use the en- 
tire land and naval forces of the Uni- 
ted States, and to call into the actual 
service of the United States, the mili- 
tia of the several states, to such an 
extent as may be necessary to carry 
this act into effect. 

"Approved, April 25, 1898." 

At 6:15 p.m., on April 25, the fol- 
lowing telegram was received from 
the Secretary of War: 

"Washington, D. C, April 25, 1898. 
"To the Governor of Indiana, India- 
napolis, Ind.: 

"The number of troops from your 
State under the call of the President 
dated April 23, 1898, will be four (4) 
regiments of infantry and two (2) 
light batteries of artillery. It is the 
wish of he President that the regi- 
ments of the National Guard or State 
militia shall be used as far as their 
members will permit, for the reasons 
that they are armed and drilled. 
Please wire as early as possible what 
equipments, ammunition, arms, blan- 
kets, tents, etc., you will require. 

"Please also state when troops will 
be ready for muster into United 
States service. Details to follow by 

"R. A. ALGER, 

"Secretary of War." 

As soon as the above message was 
received there was issued by Gover- 


Historic Treasures, Comjnled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

occupation of Porto Rico, virtually 
ended the war, and on July 2, Spain 
made ovei-tures of peace to the United 
States government. 

159th Indiana Volunteers 

Bloomington and Monroe county 
were found well prepared when the 
government issued its call for volun- 
teers, as the local company of militia 
had been organized since May 20, 
1891, and was assigned as Company 
H, 1st Regiment, Indiana National 
Guard, which became the 159th Regi- 
men Indiana Volunteers when mus- 
tered into Federal service, as the 
numbering of regiments for this war 
was taken up where they were left 
off at the close of the war of 1861-64. 

Although Bloomington and Monroe 
county furnished this competent com- 
pany, fully equipped and well drilled, 
the town and county was also repre- 
sented in the field, staff and non-com- 
missioned staff officers of the 1.59th, 
which regiment was organized June 
12, 1882, as the 1st Veteran Regiment, 
Indiana Legion. Bloomington men 
who served as officers of the 159th 
were : 

Major Theodore J. Louden; Charles 
L. Rawles, battalion adjutant; Bert 
A. Cole, sergeant major; Robert H. 
Campbell, quartermaster sergeant. 
Bloomington's Company H. 

Company H, of Bloomington, Mon- 
roe county, Indiana, was mustered 
into Federal service for war against 
Spain, April 26, 1898, and mustered 
out of Federal service November 2.3, 
1898. The roll is a follows: 

William M. Louden, captain; Will- 
iam Hutchings, first lieutenant; Ed- 
gar A. Binford, second lieutenant; 
Newton A. Jeffries, first sergeant un- 
til Aug. 18; Harry J. Feltus, appoint- 
ed first sergeant Aug. 29. 1898, to 
fill the place which Jeffries had filled; 
John Misner, quartermaster sergeant; 
sergeants, Samuel Webb, Charles E. 
Rhorer, Calaway E. Meffoi'd, Wilburn 

nor James A. Mount the following 
proclamation to the people of the 
State of Indiana: 

Gov. Mount Issues Call. 
"To the People of Indiana: 

"Whereas, In the progress of 
events, war has been inaugurated be- 
tween the government of the United 
Sates and the government of Spain, 

"Whereas, The Pi-esident of the Uni- 
ted States, in pursuance of an act of 
Congress, has issued a proclamation 
calling for 125,000 volunteers, of 
which number four regiments, ap- 
proximating 1,000 men each, and two 
batteries, have been appoi'tioned to 
the State of Indiana. 

"Now, therefore, I, James A. Mount, 
Governor of Indiana, acting on the 
authority vested in me by the Consti- 
tution, do hereby call for the enlist- 
ment and mustering into the United 
States service of the number of men 
above stated who are qualified for 
military duty. 

"In conformity with this call the In- 
diana National Guard is hereby direc- 
ted and commanded to report without 
delay to Brigadier-General McKee, at 
the Fair Grounds of the State Board 
of Agriculture, near Indianapolis, a 
designated camp, where they will be 
mobilized and mustered into the ser- 
vice of the United States government, 
in accordance with the provisions of 
the proclamation issued by the Presi- 

"All vacancies that exist or may 
occur in regiments, companies or bat- 
teries will be immedfately filled by 
the acceptance of volunteers to the 
limit of the State's quota, as desig- 
nated by the authorities of the Federal 

"Inasmuch as the number of men 
who are at this time tendering their 
service is far in excess of require- 
ments, I deem it timely to announce 
in this connection that there will be 
no compulsion upon any member of 

the Indiana National Guard whoselUO. Peterson, Bert Cole; corporals, 
business affairs would be jeopardized|j||Harry J. Feltus (later appointed ser- 

" geant, then first sergeant), Winnie A. 

or whose domestic relations would 
subject his family to inconvenience 
and hardship, will be permitted to 
stand aside honorably and without 

"in Witness Whereof I have hereinto 
set my hand and caused to be affixed 
the great seal of the State, at the city 
of Indianapolis, this twenty-fifth day 
of April, one thousand eight hundred 
and ninety-eight, the eighty-second 
year of the State, and of the indepen- 
dence of the United States the one 
hundred and twentv-second. 

"Bv the Governor, 

"Secretary of State." 
Procamaion of Prc.<--. McKinley. 

On May 25 another pioclamation 
was issued by President William Mc- 
Kinlev through Secretary of State, 
William R. Day, calling" for 75,000 
additional volunteer's, in which call 
Indiana was asked to furnish two ex- 
tra companies of infantry and a new 
regiment of infantry. 

The destruction of the Spanish fleet 
at Santiago on July 3, 1898, followed 
by the surrender of all the Spanish 
troops in and about Santiago, and the 

Sutphin, Parley A. Miller, Walter E. 
Edmondson, Dudley O. McGovney, 
Charles G. Strong: musicians, Joseph 
A. Neill. Robert T. Berry; artificer, 
William B. Allen; wagoner, Robert 
J. Lane (later appointed artificer). 
List of Privates. 

Charles O. • Alltop, George M. An- 
derson, Joshua D. Badlev, Samuel C. 
Binklcv, Dwight Caldwell, Edgar H. 
Campbell. Samuel P. Cardwell, Ule 
Clai'k (later appointed wagoner), Wil- 
iam H. Colegrove (later appointed 
corporal), Melvin Creech, James H. 
Cullen (later corporal), Fred Demar- 
cus, William R. Dickson, William B. 
Dunn (later corporal), Charles Dou- 
thitt, Morton East, Ravmond H. Eller, 
Lewis Everly, Martin L. Finley. Char- 
les T. Frye, Romie C. Goss, William 
Gillaspy, Alfred B. Goodbody (trans- 
ferred to Hospital corps). 

Lsaac Goodman, Charles E. Guthrie, 
John Hedriok. Chai'les Hanson, Alva 
Hickman, William Hodges, Eber E. 
Infield, Charles I. Kerr. Georee Knis- 
sel (appointed cook), James H. Lake, 
(transferred to Hospital corns), John 
P. Langely, George Lyne, John Mc- 
Cabe, Frank H. Masters, Winston 

Menzies (discharged July 6 and com- 
missioned captain in IGlst Ind. Vols.), 
Clarence W. Miller (appointed musi- 
cian), Reverdy J. Miller (appointed 
corporal, later transferred to Co. I, 

Oscar E. Moore, John W. Payne, 
Frank Pauley (dishonorably dis- 
charged Sept. 18, 1898), Aug-ust Pe- 
terson, Allan Pierson, Alfred Pruitt, 
Rodolphus, Wesley M. Ray (trans- 
ferred to Co. D, 161st), Lewis O. Rush, 
William Shaw, Karl Slageter (trans- 
ferred to Co. M, 161st), Bert Sparks, 
Everet Sparks (appointed corporal), 
William G. Sparks, George Sullivan, 
Edward D. Talbott, Gerald Talbott 
(transferred to Co. H, 161st), Fran- 
cis E. Van Dyke, James M. Vint, Em- 
mett O. Wampler, Jesse M. Webb (ap- 
pointed coi'poral). These men were 
the original formation of the company 
on April 26, 1898. 

Recruits for Company. 

Charles W. Brownscombe (appoin- 
ted musician, later ti-ansferred to Co. 
D, 161st), Edward Burns, Frank Clin- 
ton, Alphonsus L. Carrico, Scott Da- 
vis, William Z. Delap, Charles H. 
Drake, John H. Fedder (later trans- 
ferred to Co. H, 161st), Emmet Gil- 
laspy, Newton Goodman, Henry R. 
Hawkins, Samuel P. Howard, Orrin 
C. Jones, Patrick H. Kerr (later ap- 
pointed corporal. 

Elmer Litz, Henry G. Lotridge 
(transferred to Co. L, 161st), Chris- 
topher C. Meadows, Michael H. Mes- 
sick, John W. Magennis, James E. Ma- 
gennis, Wilbur Ryman, Arthur E. 
Sager, Mark M. Sanderson, Moses 
Stump, Benjamin R. Smith, Ward A. 
Siebenthal, Harry Sthair (transferred 
to Co. D, 161st), "Frank P. Woodward, 
Walter G. Young. 

These recruits were all signed up 
in the month of June, 1898. The 
whole company was mustered out on 
November 23, 1898. 

Colored Volunteers. 

In July, 1898, when the government 
ordered two colored companies raised 
at Indianapolis, a number of Bloom- 
ington colored men went to the State 
capital and enlisted in Company B, 
Colored, whom we are able to give 
at this time as follows: 

Willis 0. Tj-ler, corporal; Samuel 
T. Evans, corporal; privates, Charles 
W. Bradley (deserted Oct. 26 ,1898), 
Richard Halford, Charles R. Dunham, 
William H. Eagleson. These men 
were not mustered out of service 
until January 20, 1899. 

Actions of Regiment. 

The 169th Regiment Indiana Vol- 
unteers was formed of the 1st Regi- 
ment of Infantry, Indiana National 
Guard, and was composed of compa- 
nies from Vincennes (2), Terre Haute, 
New Albany, Washington, Evansville 
(2), Roachdale and Madison, Browns- 
town, Bloomington, Greencastle, and 
Princeton, Indiana. 

The regiment arrived at Camp 
Mount, April 26, 1898, under orders 
from the Governor, for the purpose 
of being mustered into the service of 
the United States. The same care 
was used in the physical examination 
of this regiment as obtained in the 
other regiments, and they were mus- 
tered into the volunteer service of the 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


United States on May 12, 1898. 

The regiment left Camp Mount on 
May 22, and arrived at Camp R. A. 
Alger, Dunn Loring, Virginia, on May 
24. It broke camp at Camp Alger 
on August 3, and marched by easy 
stages to Thoroughfare Gap, Virginia, 
a distance of forty-nine miles. Left 
Thoroughfare Gap on August 28, and 
moved by rail to Camp Meade, near 
Middletown, Pennsylvania, where they 
arrived on August 29. 

Under orders for muster out of 
the regiment, they left Camp Meade 
on September 11, arrived at Camp 
Mount on September 13, and on the 
date of September 18, the regiment 
was furloughed for thirty days, which 
was extended to include November 10 
by telegraphic instructions from the 
War Department. 

The 159th Regiment was finally 
mustered out and discharged on No- 
vember 23, 1898. 




Away back, through the years of 
modern invention, to the time when a 
man's worth was judged by the 
amount of physical energy he was 
capable of putting forth, we come to 
the days of the whipsaw. In apply- 
ing their strength and endurance in 
the use of this saw, two men could 
probably turn out 400 feet of rough 
lumber in a twelve-hour day. Al- 
though this device may seem crude 
to us now, we must remember that 
the whip-saw was a great time-saver 
over the process of hueing logs to 
desired shapes. 

The old James S. Gentry home- 
stead, which was erected in 1837, in 
Bean Blossom township by this pioneer 
settler, was a lasting "example of the 
work that could be done with the 
whip-saw. Mr. Gentry, in 1883, proud- 
ly told of having sawed the lumber. 

for this structure with his own hands 
from logs. 

Sturdy Pioneer. 

This man was. of the truely sturdy, 
enduring frontier type, which was so 
e.-^sential in the clearing and cultivation 
of that then wild growth of native 
limber which covered all of Monroe 
county. He told of having worked 
with a whip-saw for a month at a 
stretch, in the early times, for 50 
cents a day, and considered this good 
pay. In more than forty years James 
S. Gentry had not lost three days 
from .his occupation through personal 

From the early days down to the 
building of the New Albany Railroad 
through Monroe county in about 1852, 
this pioneer woodsman built rafts of 
native timber at old Mt. Tabor, and in 
the spring floods, transported this 

timber to the outside markets, which 
proved a profitable enterprise in that 
early day. He gave much credit to his 
life in the outdoors for his wonderful 

In later years he took up stock-rais- 
ing and farming with added intensity, 
and through the years kept adding to 
the original eighty-acre tract of land 
he had entered about 1838 or 1837, 
until he had completed a good farm of 
25.'! acres all cultivated and furnished 
with correct out-buildings for his 

Born in 1813. 

James S. Gentry was born January 
9, 1813, in the State of Kentucky, and 
was the second of three children born 
to Elijah and Elizabeth (Ware) Gen- 
try, natives of Tennessee and Vir- 
ginia, and of Scotch and Irish origin, 
respectively. The parents brought 
James S. Gentry as a boy to Indiana 
in 181(3, and settled in Harrison coun- 
ty, and the boy got to attend school 
in Indiana about eleven months, where 
he learned to read and cipher. 

The father died about 1817, and the 
mother and children moved, first to 
Lost River, Orange County, in 1822, 
and then to Morgan county, Indiana; 
then James S., becoming a mature 
youth, entered the land we have men- 
tioned. On February 8, 1838, James S. 
Gentry married Eliza Campbell, 
daughter of Joseph and Mai-y (Gra- 
ham) Campbell, pioner settlers of the 
county, who came to the county in 
1818. Mrs. Campbell, the mother of the 
bride, was awarded a silver medal on 
/Vugust 9, 1883, for having been the 
oldest settler represented at the Old 



Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

Settlers' meeting, held in the county. 

The following children were born to 

bless this union: William C, Lemuel 

K., Norman J., Mary J., (Cosner), 

Joseph P., James M., David D., and 
Thomas H., two of these sons, William 
C, and Lemuel K., Gentry served in 
the Noi-thern army during the Civil 




Virginia Iron Works Was Heaviest Tax Payer — Shipped Product by Wagon to 
River Ports — Incorporated for $20,000 in 1839 — Finally Abandoned Through 
Outside Causes. 

It may surprise some of the young- 
er residents of Bloomington and Mon- 
roe County, Indiana, to learn that at 
one time the county gave promise ot 
becoming a great industrial center, as 
Gary, with its steel and iron interests 
has now become. 

How many today know that away 
back in 1839 crude iron was mined 
from the hillff in Indian Creek town- 
ship of Monroe county? , . .v„ 

Who can tell, if we ask, about the 
big (considered "big" in that decade) 
iron foundry established by Randolph 

Ross "^ 

It may surprise many persons to 
know that this man mined crude iron 
ore which contained about 20 per cent 
of good iron, from the side of a hill 
in Section 7, Indian Creek Township. 
The story of this "promising" in- 
dustry, as we have been able to piece 
together is as follows: 

The Virginia Iron Works. 
In the way of industry, the most 
notable of any effort up to the pres- 
ent, in Indian Creek township was the 
establishment of an iron furnace about 
1839, by Randolph Ross, a Virginian, 
who had been engaged in the same 
occupation in his native state. He 
erected buildings necessary for the en- 
action of his business in the north- 
east quarter of Section 7, which lies 
in the northwestern part of the town- 

Mr. Ross brought with him several 
experienced men from Virginia, and 
began mining crude iron ore from the 
side of the hill situated in that sec- 
tion. The ore seemed to be of good 
paying quality and plenty for all de- 
mand, assaying about 20 per cent good 

Records show that in 1841 the taxes 
of Randolph Ross was $52.26 more 
than that of any other man in Mon- 
roe county. In 1842 his taxes were 
$100.49 more than any other indi- 
vidual tax assessment. 

Ross owned 156 acres of land, 
valued at $468, and improvements 
worth $6,.360, ai)d personal property 
assessed at $1,600, making total of 
taxables worth $8,428. 

Mr. Ross, with his son, Randolph 
Ross, Jr., under the name of Randolph 
Ross & Son's Virginia Iron Work. 
within a year after starting, had in 
their employ more than twenty men 
engaged in mining iron ore from the 
hill, carting it to the furnace, where 
the iron was run off and cast into 
bars and then shipped by wagon to 
Louisville, Ky., and Vincennes, Ind. 

The company was incorporated for 

$20,000, and was to continue for a 
period of ten years, with power to 
renew the continuance for an addi- 
tional ten years, at the option of the 

If any other persons besides the 
Ross family held stock in the concern 

it cannot be learned who they were, 
but it is now hinted by some 
persons who remember "of" this en- 
terprise, that eastern capital was in- 
terested in the enterprise. 

Besides manufacturing pig iron 
from the crude ore, for shipment, the 
company began the general manufac- 
ture of iron castings for the local 
trade, such as kettles, spiders, and 
irons, pots and machinery castings and 
rude hoes, and a few mould-boards for 
plows. liius, most of the iron mined 
was made into articles of domestic 

After proving successful for about 
five years, the company became in- 
volved in some manner, and was 
forced to suspend operations. It 
seems that outside losses and not 
failure of this project was responsible 
for the failure of the company, as 
the iron furnace in Indian Creek town- 
ship had proven highly successful for 
an industry of its time. 




Jesse Brandon Moved Print Shop from Corydon and Established "The Bloom- 
ington Republican" as First Newspaper in the Town — Later Started "The 
Far West" — Struggles of Early Day Editors Seen. 

It is conceded that Jesse Brandon 
published the first newspaper in 
Bloomington, beginning about the 
year 1R26, having come from Cory- 
don with his material, at which place 
(then the capital of Indiana) he had 
been state printer. J. B. Lowe soon 
became his associate. The paper was 
called the "Bloomington Republican," 
and the issue did not continue after 

About Januarv 1, 1830, W. D. 
McCullough & Co. began issuing a 
small sheet called "The Independent 
Whig." Its motto was "Measures, 
Not Men." This paper became de- 
funct in 1831. 

On September 15, 1832, Jesse Bran- 
don and Maixus L. Dean issued the 
first number of "The Far West," a 
Whig pnbliontion with "Willing to 
Praise. But Not Afraid To Blame" as 
its motto. D. R. Eckles was its nub- 
blisher. This paper survived about 
two years. 

In lookiiie throufrh some of the old 
naners mibHshed in BloominfH:on in 
the days of the pioneer settler, we 
find manv little writinfifs that brintr 
forth a feelins- of good humor and, 
not being "hogish," we herewith pass 
them along. 

With much pleasure we nuote 
these little stories, which mav bring 
a =milp when we consider that nearly 
100 rears has passed since they were 
printed. Then, too, we get a slight 
glimnse of the "human interest" .side 
of life in that day. 

We Take a Hint. 

We find a business suggestion in 
the following, which the editors of 

"The Far West," Brandon and Deal, 
printed as a reminder to their sub- 


"We would be thankful to those of 
our subscribers who promised to pay 
their subscriptions either in FLOUR 
or CORN MEAL if they would now 

"We can not, or will not, subsist 
much longer on PROMISES! 

"It is much better to pay two dol- 
lars in such articles as above named 
now, than to pay three dollars in cash 
at the expiration of the volume, which 
they certainly will have to do ac- 
cording to our terms, if they fail 
to take this opportunity.— EDITORS." 

During the summer of 1832 Mr. 
Deal began the publication of "The 
Literary Register," a semi-monthly 
paper, devoted to the interests of 
what was then Indiana College (later 
Indiaan Unviersity) ; but upon the 
publication of "The Far West," this 
proiect was abandoned. 

We think this one in the old paper 
may be appreciated today: 


"A 'professed bonesetter' adver- 
tises in a western paper that "his 
method of treating patients is plea- 
sant, and his success so certain, that 
many persons who have applied to 
him for relief, have aftei-ward dis- 
jointed and even broken their limbs 
purposely, in order that thev might 
enjov the LLTXURY of undergoing 
another operation at his hands!' 
Verily, he is the most impudent 
fellow we ever heard of; but we hope 
he will gain believers, so far as to in- 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


duce some one to break the head of 
the bonesetter that he may enjoy the 
'luxury' attendant upon repairing the 

The "Medics" of the future might 
profit by the "voices" from the past, 
think we prospectus. The following 
appeal's in another column: 


"For Sea-Sickness — Stay on shore. 

"For Drunkeness — Drink cold wa- 
ter and repeat the prescription until 
you obtain relief. 
! "For Gout — Board with the printer. 

"To Keep Out of Jail— Get out, .ind 
keep out of debt. 

"To Please Everybody — Mind your 
own business. 

"To Allay Hungei- — Eat a pound of 
beef steak and a quartern loaf. 

"To Preserve Your Appetite — Keep 
out of the kitchen." 

This item sounds more familiar to- 
day than it could have sounded in 
1833: "The brig 'Temperance' has ar- 
rived at Campobello, from the West 
Indies, with a cargo of rum." 
"The Gazette and Advocate." 

A rather creditable newspaper was 
published in 1835, by Jesse Brandon 
as editor, and named "The Gazette 
and Literary Advocate." We were 
fortunate in finding a copy of this old 
issue, from which we quote. 

The following poem is reprinted 
from another old paper, the "Indiana 
Gazette," Vol. 1, No. 27; dated, 
"Bloomington, Indiana, Saturday, 
April 2,5, 1835"— We have always 
felt as did the fellow who wrote this: 

"Once on a time to forests wild. 

Remote from public view. 
An apred sire his favorite child 

In infancy withdrew : 
That peaceful and secluded there 

.^mid the si'ent rove. 
The youth mipht shun each female snare. 

And never learn to love. 

"But as soon as years had rolled away. 

And fancy's power beeran. 
Unconscious of paternal sway. 

He souffht the haunts of man ; 
The youth beheld the varied scene. 

In love and wonder lost : 
But woman's soft attractive mien 

BegTliled his eye the most. 

" 'What beauteous form that is?* he cried, 

'That looks so heavenly sweet ?* 
'A bird, my son.' the sire replied, 

"Unknown in our retreat.' 
'Oh would it.' said the youth, 'but flee 

To our sequestered dell. 
And there, in solitude with me. 

For ever more would dwell : 
Tocether, through the woods, we'd stray. 

And build the self-same nest : 
I'd woo it alt the live-Ionpr day. 

And clasp it to my breast.' " 

Marcus L. Deal Old-Timer. 

About June 1, 1835 Marcus L. Deal 
issued the first number of The "Bloom- 
ington Post," an organ of the Whig 
party, which continued for eight or 
ten years. I. H. Brown and I. N. Mor- 
ris were associated with Mr. Deal in 
this enterprise at diffcrtnt time.-". 

In October, 1838, the first number 
of "The Ben Frnnklin" made its ap- 
pearance, with Jesse Brandon at the 
helm. The politics of this paper was, 
"First choice, Harison; second choice, 
Van Buren." (It can not be learned 
how long this publication continued). 
Mr. Deal, for a short time published 
"The Budget of Fun," date unknown. 

Late in the forties, C. Davidson put 
out "The Herald," a Whig paper, for 
several years, and during a part of this 
time J. S. Hester conducted another 
of opposite politics. 

About this time Elder James Mathes 
published a monthly periodical called 
the "Christian Record" in the interests 
of the Christian church. In addition 
to this he issued a weekly newspaper 
called the "Independent Tribune and 
Monroe Farmer." C. G. Berry and 
Jesse Brandon were also connected 
with this publication. 

Good Paper. 

The brightest paper up to this time, 
the "Norhwestern Gazette," was start- 
ed by James Hughes* in 1852, and con- 
tinued for about eighteen months. In 
1853, G. H. Johnson and W. N. Con- 
nelly aided in its publication. 

In 1853, Eli P. Farmer and Jesse 
Brandon published the "Religious 
Times," aftei"ward called the "Western 
Times." The next year J. F. Walker 
and L. M. Demotte purchased the 
Times office and began issuing the 
"Bloomington Times," which was the 
first organ of the Republican party in 
the county. The office was afterward 
moved by Jesse Brandon to Nashville, 

A. B., and J. C. Carlton started the 
Bloomington "News Letter," a Demo- 
cratic paper, in January, 1854. A. B. 
Carlton was editor, and the following, 
taken from the paper and appearing 
as an advertisement for a bov to 
learn the printer's rade, shows the po- 
litical asperity of the publication: 

Forceful Language. 
"WANTED — Immediately, a boy of 
sober and industrious habits, be- 
tween thirteen and fifteen years of 
age, can have a first-rate opportun- 
ity to leai-n the Printing business 
by applying at this office. He must 
be a pretty good reader and spell- 
er, and able to read manuscript. He 
will not be permitted, while under 
our charge, to use in any quantity, 
as a beverage, any intoxicating 
liquor. He must be apprenticed for 
at least three years — we would ore- 
fer five. Any one wishing to learn 
the business "will be taken on a 
trial of three months. No Know- 
nothing boy, nor one who has 
Know-nothing parents, need apply, 
as we want no one about us who is 
trained or sworn to lie, or who is 
taught that falsehood is a venial 
offense.— J. C. CARLTON, Publish- 
er News Letter. Sept. 20." 
About the last of June, 1856, the 
"News Letter" was sold to Howard 
Coe, who commenced the issue of the 
Bloomington "Republican," which con- 
tinued until February, 25, 1858, when 
the office was sold to Clement Walker 
and W. S. Bush. In January, 1859 
Mr. Bush severed his connection with 
the paper, and in 1863 J. F. Walker 
purchased a half interest in the con- 
cern. (It is said that during the Civil 
War and un to 1884, this paper at- 
tained the largest circulation of any 
paper ever issued in Bloomington). 

While the "Republican" was being 
printed three attempts were made to 

found successful Democratic papers 
in the county seat: In 1857-58, C. T. 
Nixon issued thirteen numbers of the 
Bloomingrton "Advocate," and in the 
summer of 1858, John B. Borland 
started the Bloomington "Presage," 
continuing it for three months; an- 
other was started on October 3, 1863, 
by C. H. Patterson, and was continued 
about six months. In May, 1867, Wil- 
liam A. Gabe became editor and pro- 
prietor of this paper and changed its 
name to that of Bloomington "Pro- 
gress." In about 1874 the office was 
destroyed by fire, but later was re- 

Fire Destroys Plant. 

The Bloomington "Democrat" was 
started by Thomas C. Pursel, about 
1868, and continued until August 1875 
(the office was destroyed by fire in 
1872, but was rebuilt) when it was 
sold to O. G. Hunt and J. V. Cook. 
These men started the Bloomington 
"Times," a Republican paper. 

Mr. Pursel, about this period, pub- 
lished the "Indiana Student" for a 
short time. 

The "Indiana Student' "has lived 
since its foundation, and is published 
at present in connection with the 
Journalism Department of Indiana 
University, where it gives practical 
newspaper work in fact and theory to 
students who care for the profession 
of journalism. 

In October, 1874, or thereabouts, 
H. J. Feltus began issuing the Bloom- 
ington "Courier," a Democratic news- 
paper, which he continued to publish 
until 1894, when he sold the paper to 
Cravens brothers. The two brothers 
continued the Courier as a weekly and 
in 1897 started the "Bloomington Ev- 
ening World," also. These papers are 
published at present by O. H. Cra- 
vens, one of the brothers. 

In April, 1877, Walter S. Bradfute 
and a young man named Arnett be- 
gan issuing a small paper the size of 
a letter sheet, designed to chronicle 
local news and pleasantry. Mr. Ar- 
nett left in 1877 and from that time 
to the present Mr. Bradfute has con- 
tinued his issue. "The Telephone," 
as Mr. Bradfute re-named the publi- 
cation, has hereafter been published 
as a weekly until about 1882, when it 
was enlarged and in later years pub- 
lished as a daily and weekly, until 
within the last couple of years 
the weekly publication was discon- 
tinued and the "Telephone" is now is- 
sued as a daily newspaper by Mr. 
Bradfute and his son, Blaine as editor. 

In 1882 the "Daily Herald" was 
started as a Bloomington publica- 
tion, by P. S. Smith, but was discon- 
tinued in a short time. 

"Greenback" Paper. 

James Marlin conducted a "Green- 
back" paper called the "True Plan" in 
the campaign of 1878. 

In 1880, the Bloomington "Hawk- 
eye" was published for a few months 
as a Democratic paper, and in the 
same year John East conducted a 
small campaign paper. 

The Bloomington "Star" was first 
published in 1895, by Harry Feltus. 
one of its present owners, and in 1921 
a partnership knowTi as Feltus Print- 
ing Company was formed. This con- 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

cern is now publishing The Blooming- 
ton Star. 

The Bloomington "Daily Journal" 
was started by a stock company in 
1914, with Ai-thur Tracy as editor. 
This paper was published for about 
eighteen months. 

The following is contained in the 
editorial column of "The Bloomington 
(Ind.) Gazette and Advocate," of the 
issue of Saturday, April 25, 1835, 
which we trust will give a slight 
glimpse of conditions as the Editor 
.saw them, at that time: 

"Geo. L. Kinnaed is a candidate to 
represent the Sixth District in Con- 

"Milton McPhetridge is a candidate 
for School Commissioner. 

"Mr. Hester, until recently the edi- 
tor of this paper, has withdravm from 
the concern; he was an agi-eeable 
partner. The difficulty of procuring 
suitable workmen, his absence much 
of the time on professional business 
and other causes, have dicouraged 
and prevented him from bestowing 
upon the paper and the public as 
much of the labors of his pen as he 
otherwise would, and we regret that 
he has not found sufficient induce- 
ment to continue. 

"The paper will hereafter be pub- 
lished by the undersigned. Thankful 
for the patronage heretofore receiv- 
ed, I will spare no efforts to de- 
serve a continuance of public favor. 

"We have had several partners, 
mainly for the purpose of receiving 
their assistance in the Editorial de- 
partment. They have, in almost every 
instance, continued but a short time, 
and being such men as we would 
have supposed most suitable, if any, 
we are now determined to rely upon 
our unaided exertions. 

"Our failures and discouragements 
heretofore have only tended to 
arouse our energy — until recently, 
having to work myself, in the oifice, 
1 had not the opportunity to prepare 
myself for the duties of the Edi- 
tor. We neither had the leisure to 
improve our style of WTiting, nor to 
investigate the various political and 
other subjects upon which an editor 
is expected to comment. 

"Anticipating a time when it might 
not be in our power to have the as- 
sistance of our friends, or a partner 
who is capable of writing for the pa- 
per, we have for some time past 
<'ndeavored to prepare ourselves to 
edit with the hope that we should 
succeed in a manner acceptible to our 
patrons, and lespectable to ourselves. 

"Having been so fortunate as to 
receive pecuniary means from other 
sources than those of the paper, we 
are determined to draw upon them to 
improve and sustain it. We do not 
make these remarks to encourage ad- 
ditional subscriptions now, all we ask 
is, that after we have presented as 
good or a better paper than is pub- 
lished in most of other places, they 

then give us such patronage as similar 
papers receive. 

"The people of this and adjoining 
counties have as much taste for read- 
ing and are as able to pay for their 
subscriptions as those of any other 
portion of the state, and they will, 
we flatter ourselves, be willing to pat- 
ronize us if we deserve it. 

"We were the first, or among 
first printers in the State, and ei 
in this part of it; and however 
short we have fallen of our aim 
has not been for the want of indus 
and our honest and wishes 
those whom it was our duty to S( 
and our interest to please." 



Graduates Have ".Made Good" on Some of Most Important Literary Magaz 
and Newspapers of United States — Growth from Three Students to 
portant Factor in State Educational Institution — Partial List of Gradu 
and What They .\re Doing. 

Indiana Univer.sity as one of the 
pioneer journalism schools in the 
United States has every reason to 
be proud of its graduates who have 
made good in the newspaper and 
magazine field. The journalism 
<lepartment .started with only an en- 
rollment of three students and has 
steadily grown until last semester 
200 students were enrolled in the 
department which occupies a building 
to itself. A partial list of the 
scribes who are graduates of the 
Journalism school is as follows: 

Aley, Max, '11, Managing Editor, 
Century Magazine. 

Aydelotte, Frank, '00, Editor, The 
American Oxonian. 

Barnhart, Dean L., '11, Publisher, 
Goshen Democrat. 

Barnhart, Eearl, '90, Magazine 

Bartley, Ross, ex'16. Newspaper 
Correspondent, Washington, D. C. 

Blair, James R., '20, Reporter, 
Peru Union. 

Booth, Alice B., '08, Assistant 
tor. Good Housekeeping. 

Boy.l, Samuel, ex-'16, Ed 
Washington Deniocrat. 

Bradfute, Blaine, ex-'Ol, Ed 
Bloomington Telephone. 

Brehm, George, ex-'06, Illu.str; 
Norwalk, Conn. 

Brodhecker, Rolland, '21, Assoc 
Editor, Brownstown Banner. 

Brubaker, Howard, '92, Maga 

Cadou, Jepson, '17, .\mer 
Legion Weekly. 

Carr, Charles C, '09, Editor, 
Petersburg Times, St. Petersb 

Chambers, Frank E., ex-'12, 1 
lisher. Palmyra News, Palmvi'a, '. 

Chamnes, hy L., '06, Editor of 
diana University Publications, an 
.\lumiii Quarterly. 

Cooper, Kent, ex-'84, Assis 
(Jeneral Manager, Associated Pi 

Cravens, Oscar, ex-'92. Editor 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


Publisher, Bloomington Evening 

Clark, Thomas Curtis, '99, General 
Manager, Christian Century. 

Cook, Guy T., '18, Telegraph Editor 
Milwaukee Journal. 

Crittenberger, Dale Jackson, '78, 
Editor of Newspaper, Anderson, lud. 

Dalyrumple, Allen, '20, Copyreader, 
Indianapolis News. 

Dreiser, Theodore, ex-'93. Novelist. 

Elliott, George A., ex-'98. Editor, 
New Castle Courier. 

Ewing, Fred R., ex-'99, Editor, 
Pi'inceton Clarion News. 

Fox, Fontaine, ex-'OS, Cartoonist, 
Chicago Tribune. 

French, J.* Wymond, '18, Instructor 
in Journalism, Indiana University. 

Gifford, Lester C, '10, Editor, Ko- 
komo Dispatch. 

Harper, Ida Husted, ex-'71. Maga- 
zine Contributor. 

Hawkins, Bret H., ex-'13, Assis- 
tant Telegraph Editor, Indianapolis 

Haworth, Paul L., '99, Magazine 
Writer, Head of History Department 
in the Indianapolis City Normal. 

Helm, Mark P., '94, Managing 
Editor of Educator-Journal, Indiana- 

Herold, Don, '13, Cartoonist, New 
York City. 

Hershey, Lillian Wilcox, ex-'19. 
Magazine Contributor. 

Herz, Florence, '16, Indianapolis 

Hunter, Paul, ex-'98. City Editor, 
The Press, Cheboyan, Wis. 

James, George, '10, Editor, Brazil 

Kahn, Howard, '08, Editor, St. Paul 
Daily News. 

King, Fred I., '97, Publisher, Wa- 
bash Plain Dealer. 

Levell, Frank, '20, Editor, Indiana 
Alumnus, Indiana University. 

Louiso, Byron, ex-'13, Feature 
Writer, Anderson Daily Bulletin. 

Lyon, Clarence C, ex-'04. Corres- 
pondent for Scripps-McRae Syndicate. 

McGrift', Floyd, '13, European Cor- 
respondent for International News 
Service, 69 Fleet Street, London, E.G. 

Mellett, Don, ex-'13. Editor, Col- 
umbus Ledger. 

Mellett, John C, Conti'ibutor to 

Miller, D. C, ex-'OO, Managing 
Editor, Bloomington Evening World. 

Mourer, Albert A., ex-'09. Manag- 
ing Editor, Pharos Tribune, Logans- 
port, Ind. 

Naugle, E. E., ex-'07, Editor, Daily 
Times, St. Petersburg, Fla. 

Ogg, Frederick A., '00, Magazine 
Writer, Professor of Political Science 
in the University of Wisconsin. 

Preston, Keith, '07, Contributor to 
Chicago News. 

Purcell, George, '09, Editor, Vin- 
cennes Sun. 

Rabb, Kate Milner, '88, Feature 
Writer, Indianapolis Star. 

Raschig, F. Elmer, '10, Editorial 
Writer, Indianapolis Star. 

Reeder, Earl, '16, Editor, South 
Bend News-Times. 

Reeves, Earle, '11, Manager, Lon- 
don Bureau, International News 

Scheifly, William H., '01, Magazine 
Writer, Associate Professor of Ro- 

mance Languages, Indiana Univer- 

Schleppy, Bloor, '12, Feature Writ- 
er, Indianapolis Star. 

Scott, Leroy, '97, Novelist and 
Magazine Writer. 

Sembower, Alta Brunt, '01, Short 
Story Writer. 

Shields, Gertrude M., '14, Author 
and Short Story Writer. 

Stephenson, Joe M., ex-'15, Pub- 
lisher, South Bend News-Times. 

Stockton, Jeanette, '20, Assistant 
Society Editor, Indianapolis Star. 

Stormont, Gil, ex-'71. Feature 
Writer, Indianapolis Star. 

Stuart, James A., '01, Managing 
Editor, Rocky Mountain News, Den- 

Stuart, John L., 'OS, State Manager 
of the Associated Press, Indianapolis. 

Sullivan, Hassal T., '13, Assistant 
Managing Editor, The Milwaukee 

Summers, A., '09, Editor, Martins- 

ville Democrat. 

Thomas, Charles S., '94, Editor, 
Educational Department, Atlanta 

Toner, Edward C, '95, Editor, An- 
derson Herald. 

Walters, Basil, ex-'18. News Editor, 
Indianapolis Star. 

Warner CliflTord T., '17, Editor, 
Fenestra, Detroit Michigan. 

Weems, Chester F., ex-'lO, Editor, 
Worthington Times. 

Welch, Neal, ex-'17, Editor, South 
Bend News-Times. 

Wheeler, Lawrence, '21, Sunday 
Editor, Indianapolis Star. 

Wilson, Mindwell Crampton, '05, 
Associate Editor, Delphi Citizen- 

Wilson, Henry B., '05, Editor, 
Delphi Citizen-Times. 

Winslow, Ralph, ex'19. City Editor, 
Richmond Palladium. 

Winter, I ester, ex'02, Cox-respon- 
dent, Indianapolis News. 


Hugh Hinkle Makes Collection of Ancient Periodicals — Many Incidents of Past 
Decades Brought to Memory by Re-print of News from the Columns of 

We were fortunate, indeed, in com- 
ing into possession of an old copy of 
one of the pioneer papers of Bloom- 
ington — a copy of the "Indiana Ga- 
zette; and Literature's Advocate," 
Vol. 1, No. 27; dated, "Bloomington, 
(Indiana) Saturday, April 25, 1835." 
"The Far West" Printed in 1833. 

In this collection we also found a 
copy of "The Far West — devoted to 
News, Politics, Literature and Agri- 
culture," Vol. 1, No. 35.; dated, 
"Bloomington, Indiana, Thursday, 
July 11, 1863." 

This is the oldest copy of any 
Bloomington publication it has been 
our pleasure to look upon. 

We also found in this collection 
copies of "The Republican Progress, 
October 27, 1899, and a copy of the 
Bloomington Courier, Vol. 2; dated 
June 7, 1895, from which we herewith 
reprint a number of items. Also, 
among old magazines, we located a 
copy of "The Saturday Evening Post" 
on June 27, 1857, and a copy of "The 
Independent," dated N. Y., August 28, 
1873, which proved quite interesting. 

Preserved Old Newspapers. 

These papers, along with sevenil 
other old publi>.alions of later date, 
including a copy of "The Northwest- 
ern Gazette — A Working Farmer's 
Journal," Vol. 2, No. 13, dated, 
"Bloomington, Indiana, May 21, 185i" 
and a copy of "The New Y'^ork Her- 
ald," Whole No. 104.59; dated, "New 
York, Saturday, April 15, 1805," (The 
day after President Lincoln was as- 

sassinated) which gives a complete 
account in dispatches "f the death of 
President Lincoln, wrr3 carefully pre- 
served by Huo-h "Chuo" Hinkl >. 

Mr. Hinkle has been a silent and 
observant collector of relics all his 
life and has assembled together a col- 
lection of old Indian paraphernalia 
and memontoes of pasl decades, such 
as coins, letters, olcl pistols and guns, 
and weapons of all deioripticns, which 
might be cherished by any student of 
past history. 

Another collection of old papers 
was preserved and furnished by Rob- 
ert Strong of East First Street. 
Treading in the Past. 

In reading over these old papers it 
gives one that feeling of awe and 
triumph, much as one feels upon 
awakening from a dream. 

We feel a certain sense of familiar- 
ness with the things talked of in these 
old papers, still we feel that we are 
talking with those who have departed 
this life long, long ago. We find these 
old "news items" very interesting, in- 
deed; and consider the privilege to 
read them a decided threat. 

Items of interest which appeared in 
The Courier, Vol. 2, dated, Blooming- 
ton, Ind., Friday morning, July 7, 
1895, may be of interest to readers of 

"Goings and Comings." 

"Dr. Homer E. Strain has rented 
rooms in the McGee block at Bloom- 
ington and will move there soon. Dr. 
Strain is a graduate in dentistry and 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

a young man who will succeed, says 
our Harrodsburg correspondent. 

"Mrs. Clint Norton of Bedford, is 
a guest of Mr. and Mrs. Horace Nor- 
ton. , ^ ,. 

Joseph E. Henley went to Indian- 
apolis yesterday on legal business. 

"Miss Ida McGee of Marion, Ohio, 
is visiting her cousin. Miss Elsie Ma- 
son, in Bloomington. 

"Dr Amzi Hon of Harrodsburg, is 
a guest of Dr. U. H. Hon and wife. 
"Mrs. J. W. Jackson and Mrs. Jas. 
Leas have returned from Gosport. 

"Miss Florence Atwood of I. U. is 
entertaining her sister. Miss Mary At- 
wood, of Evansville. 

"Mr and Mrs. G. M. Edwards are 
entertaining their daughter, Mrs. Tho- 
mas Heaton, of Lyons, Ind. 

"Samuel Colpitts and W. J. Leas 
have returned from Indianapolis, 
where they have been attending the 
Grand Lodge of K. of P. 

"The Woman's Club will meet at 
the home of Mrs. Simpson, South Col- 
lege avenue, Saturday, June 8, at 
2:30 p. m. 

"Mrs. J. F. Pittman and daughter, 
Mrs. Josenh Scribner. are guests of 
Judee R. W. Miers and family. 

"Misses Mollie Johnson and Ida 
Sims visited in Spencer the first part 
of the week. 

Dig Up Bait. 
"Horace Blakely, Sam Hunter and 
Otto Rogers dug fifteen pounds of 
bait, bought twenty-seven poles, 
eighty-two hooks, three seins and two 
pounds of bacon, and drove over to 
Sandborn, Knox county, fishing. They 
have promised their numerous friends 
ten pounds each of brain food when 
they return. The time they will spend 
in carrying out the contract is just 
six days, one week. 

"Dr. and Mrs. J. E. Harris are en- 
tertaining Miss Mary Menzies of Mt. 

"Ed Whetsell was in Indianapolis 
yesterday, looking after a law suit 
now pending in the U. S. court. 

"Mrs. Gertrude Romizer of Charles- 
ton, 111., arrived last evening and is 
visiting her parents, Mr. and Mrs. H. 
J. Feltus of CoUesre Hill. 

"Werter D. Dodds, editor of the 
Student, has been appointed instruc- 
tor in English for the ensuing year. 
Mr. Dodds is every wav qualified to 
fill this important position and his 
selection will meet with unanimous 
approval. It is always the case that 
persons who are engaged in any way 
with The World office are in line of 

"Mr. R. W. Wylie and wife who 
have been taking treatment at the 
Barnard Sanitarium, in Martinsville, 
have returned to their home in Bloom- 

"Miss Addie Malott, one of Bed- 
ford's charming society belles, is the 
guest of Mr. and Mrs. John R. Nu- 
gent, North College avenue. 

Baseball Fans Notice. 
"It makes the Bloomington World 
feel so joyful whenever a ball team 
of that city wins a game that it de- 
votes half a column of space to tell 
about the wonderful performance — 
Martinsville Leader. 

"And why shouldn't The World be 
greatly elated over the success of the 

local ball team ? It is the best team 
in the state, and can lick any aggre- 
gation that does business ueiween 
Lake Michigan and the Ohio river. 
.4.nd The World wll wager $16.37 in 

subscription accounts against an equal 
amount of the Leader's cold cash that 
our judgment is correct." 

Do these above items bring to mem- 
ory other incidents? — I thought so. 




Reprinted From The Indianapolis News of October 4, 1921, Under The Asso- 
ciated Press Credit Line— This Article May Well Be Carried Into This 
Book For Its Value to Coming Generations. 

The future inhabitants may find it 
interesting to learn that in 1921 the old 
spheroid known as the earth is emerg- 
ing from what some human diagnosti- 
cians might call a serve attack of 
meteorologial mumps. It has been ac- 
companied by an intennittent fever, 
manifested in a world-wide heat wave 
of unusual length and intensity. In 
spite of crises and relapses — earth- 
quakes, tidal waves, cloudbursts, ty- 
phoons, water spouts, hail storms, 
floods and hurricanes in many widely 
separated parts from Kamchatka to 
Cape Horn and from Gaum to Guada- 
lupe — the doctors are confident the 
patient will recover. 

Meanwhile, the United States for 
the last year has been suffering 
chiefly from an excess of high tem- 
perature and a deficiency of moisture, 
a condition unprecedented in the fifty 
years' history of the weather bureau. 
From January 1 to September 22, 
1921, the temperature of New York 
City, which is typical of the country, 
has shown an aggregate excess of 
warmth of 9.60 degrees above normal, 
while there has been a .shortage of 6.71 
inches in rainfall. The greatest 
amount of September precipitation 
was in 1882, when more than 14 V4 
inches fell and the least for that 
month occurred two years later with 
onlv .1.5 of an inch. 

The persistent higher temperatures, 
for which a number of speculative ex- 
planations have been given, began in 
.■\ugust, 1920. and for the succeeding 
twelve months there was an average 
monthly excess above normal of 3.4 
degrees. March, 1921. an unusually 
warm spring month, had an excess 
average of 10.8 degrees. The first 
slight break in the record occurred 
last August, which was slightly below 

Some time before the present phe- 
nomenon, the nine months period be- 
ginnina: in October, 1918. and ending 
in Julv 1919, the average monthly 
temperature was 2.71 degrees above 
normal, and this was a record until 
sun spots, sea bottom upheavals or 
other hypothetical causes sent the 
mercury still hieher. The highest 
average temperature ever recorded 
in this country for the month of 

March, weather officials said was 
48.3 in March, 1921. 

The average temperature for April, 
1921 — .55 degrees — was the warmest 
for that month in half a century. May 
and June were not unusual, but 
July broke all records for the preced- 
ing eleven years. 

Weather and Disasters. 
A curious freak of the weather in 
America for the week ending Septem- 
ber 22 was that, while every part of 
the country from Bismark, N. D. to 
Halifax, and from Pheonix, Ariz., to 
Miami, Fla., was suffering from ab- 
normally high temperatures, large 
areas in Wyoming, Montana, Oregon 
and Nevada were having freezing 

Weather bureau officials here de- 
cline to discuss the possible connec- 
tion between the present high temper- 
atures and distasters of nature in 
many parts of the world. It was re- 
called, however that when the volcanic 
eruption of Krakato, a small island in 
the Malay archipelago in the Sunda 
strait, between Sumatra and Java, oc- 
curred in the summer of 1883, the 
most violent of its kind in modern 
times, two-thirds of the island was 
blown away, 20,000 persons lost their 
lives, and a tidal wave propelled itself 
as far as the English channel. On 
this occasion, dust from the volcanic 
ashes was carried around the world 
and for days, in many parts, cool 
temperatures prevailed, owing to the 
ob.struction of the sun's rays. Some 
of the dust from Krakatoa was sus- 
pended in layers in the upper atmos- 
phere for years. 

Now, whether the world-wide heat 
wave is due to some terrible par- 
oxysm of nature, such as volcanic ac- 
tion in some remote region of the 
earth or seismic upheaval in the earth 
or seismic upheaval in the depths of 
some unknown sea, or whether it is 
due to sun spots or .some other cause, 
is entirely problematical. 

Explanation of Quake. 
It is only as recently at last De- 
cember 16 that scientists were cud- 
geling their brains to solve the mys- 
tery of an earthquake estimated to 
have been "2.800 miles from Washing- 
ton." A few days later news came 
of an earthquake in far off Kan-Su 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


province, China, four times that dis- 
tance, in which 2,000 persons lost 
their lives. The explanation given 
was that there probably had occurred 
two distinct shocks, each widely sep- 
arated, and from that day to this 
seismologists speak of the "lost" 
earthquake. The present tempera- 
tures may be due to it. It is a fact, 
However, that, whatever the cause, 
this terrestrial ball has been subjected 
of late to rough usage, notwithstand- 
ing that the war is over. A glance 
back at some of recent disasters and 
natural phenomena shows the follow- 

Two million Koreans starving in 
Manchuria owing to drought-ruined 

Three hundred buildings wrecked 
and many killed by hailstorm and 
waterspout at Baez, Cuba. 

Three volcanoes, Villarica, Llaima 
and Lanin. spout flames more than 
1,000 feet from craters. 

Drought kills fish in River Seine 
and Prance suffers most severe 
drought in forty-seven years. 

Rhine and Moselle rivers do great 
damage in highest flood in 136 years. 

Cloudburst and hailstorm damage 
Rome, Italy. 

Mt. Vesuvius shows activity and 
earthquake shock is felt from Leg- 
horn to Lake Lugano. 

Italian destroyers carry inhabitants 
to safety as volcano Stromboli re- 
sumes activity. 

Storms and Earthslides. 

Damage of several million drach- 
mas done in Grece by severe hail- 

Earthslide blocks Corinth canal. 

Cyclone devastates three towns in 

Volcano Kilauea in Hawaii spouts 
immense fountains of lava. 

Activity of the volcano Popocate- 
petl in Mexico increasing. 

Earthquake shakes Vera Cruz and 
four other cities. 

Lightning strikes oil wells, causing 
millions of dollars damage in Tampico 
and other districts. 

Mexicans pray to "water goddess" 
to end drought. 

Volcano Colima in Jalisco is in 

Many lives lost in waterspout which 
destroyed part of Tangier, Morocco. 

Volcano Masaya in Nicaragua in 

Typhoon and floods in Philippines, 
and especially on Island of Luzon, 
do great damage. 

New Craters Opened. 

Six new craters opend in Mt. Izalco, 

Waterspout in Maia-Doura prov- 
ince of Spain damages crops and vil- 

Heat in the Alps causes glaciers to 
shrink and nine mountain climbers 
are killed. 

Seventy-five dead in tornadoes 
which sweep southern United States. 

Flood inundates Pueblo, causing 
$10,000,000 property loss. 

Forty-seven perish in San Antonio 
(Texas) flood. 

One consolation of the freak weath- 
er, however, is the prospect of an 
"open winter." — The Indianapolis 


Expressions of newspaper editors 
and publishers, brought about by the 
founding of the Joseph Medill School 
of Journalism at Northwestern Uiii- 
versity, are of interest. Stephane 
Lausanne cabled from Paris his hope 
that journalism would develop a .-iti'l 
gi'eater worship for truth and the 
constant practice of good faith. Paul 
DeDupuy, another French editor, 
pleaded for honesty. President-elect 
Harding, the first newspaper editor to 
be elected to the presidency, sum.'/'ed 
up the aims of the average new^jiaper 
when he telegraphed: 

"But the greatest achievement — 
an achievement entirely away from 
all personal ends — is to proiiiote the 
public good. I have been a p.Trtiti- 
pant in thirty-six years of nifwsur- 
able success with a small city jour- 
nal, and I attribute our gooil fortune 
to the unfailing work for co.iiniunity 
first and the putting aside of oar per- 
sonal ends. We made it a rule to cry 
out against meanness and evil, but 
.studiously avoided needlessly Mound- 
ing and never sought to .lestrov what 
could be cured. * * * a newspaper 
with abiding conscience find.s oppor- 
tunity each succeeding day with re- 
gards beyond the measurements of 
material gain." 

A few years ago one of the govern- 
ment bureaus issued a bulletin deal- 
ing with the profession of journalism. 
It spoke of the opportunity for ser- 
ice in all the leading professions and 
concluded that the newspapers op- 
poi-tunity is greater than the others 

because it reaches more people ;i)ul it 
works at the task day after d'xv. As 
Mr. Harding said in the beginning of 
his message to the Medill .chool: 
"Nothing surpasses the possibilities 
for service that are invested in a 
journal commanding the public con- 
fidence." It is to that end — the end 
that the public will trust it, will re- 
spect its opinions as being for the 
common good — that every newspa- 
per worthy of the name strives from 
one issue to the next. — Indianapolis 

Named Site Buena Vista. 

Indian Creek Township, in Monroe 
county, Indiana, has had two or 
three small villages that flourished 
within its boundaries. 

In March, 184S, Jesse W. East, 
proprietor, assisted by Henry Farm- 
er, surveyor, laid out ten lots on the 
south part of the east half of the 
northwest quarter of Section 20. 

Mr. East named the village thus 
started "Buena Vista," a name then 
rather fresh in the minds of all 
Hoosiers, and started a store about 
the same time. Soon a blacksmith 
and a few families found suitable 
livlihood attainable at the place. In 
after years there has usually been a 
blacksmith shop and a store, along 
with probably a dozen families lo- 
cated at the place. 

John Evans, Henry Oliphant, 
Woodward & Clay and King, Wood- 
ward & King were merchants of the 
village during the years of its early 


(Earl E. Evans in Leslie's) 

Ka-be-nah-gwey-wence (Wrinkled 
Meat), better known to tourists of the 
northwest as plain John Smith, is 
alleged to have recently celebrated his 
134th birthday and any one who ob- 
serves the depth and number of 
wrinkles in his face will have no rea- 
son to doubt that his given age is cor- 
rect, although many will suspect him 
of witholding a number of birthdays 
from the total. 

During a recent vacation trip, in 
the region of Cass Lake, Minn., the 
writer twice visited Wrinkled Meat 
at his home, on the outskirts of the 
aforementioned village, and, on both 
occasions, found Old John in the best 
of spirits and willing to talk, so long 
as there was anyone to listen. 

John began the routine story of his 
134 years, choosing as the first sub- 
ject his nine squaws, who, John main- 
tains, are responsible for his many 
wrinkles and long nose. "Me have 
nine squaws," said John. "All pretty 
face but crazy. Pretty quick me get 
tired of squaw; throw 'em in the 
woods No good." 

ii-^'-^^ ^'^ Injun," continued John. 
I'lght two wars, many battles. Kill 
five Sioux and scalp 'em." At this 
part of his story John points proudly 
to his feathered headgear, hanging on 
the wall near his floor bed, and upon 
which are arrayed the five feathers 
representing the five unfortunate 
Sioux Indians. Long Prarie and Pine 
City were the two principal battles in 
which John engaged. 

Chicago is his great nightmare, and 
he IS not a trifle backward about ex- 
pressing his opinion. "Crazy towm " 
says John. "Many man, many 
snuaw, too many kids; all crazy. 
Money, money, money, too much 



It seems almost incredible that it 
was only 45 years ago that the tele- 
phone was invented. Since then, in 
less than a life time, the telephone in- 
dustry has been developed and ex- 
panded to such a remarkable extent 
that it now provides a service of na- 
tional scope for the 107,000,000 people 
living in the United States. This has 
required the stringing of enough wire 
to span the distance from the earth to 
the moon more than 100 times; the 
erection of pole lines which would 
reach nearly 15 times around the 
world; the installation of duct space 
for carrying cables underground in 
sufficient length to reach more than 
six times through the center of the 
earth from pole to pole, and the con- 
struction of buildings, if brought to- 
gether to form a city as large as Ft. 
Wayne. Over 33,000,000 telephone 
conversations take place every day. 

The first phonographic disc, made 
in 1887 by Emile Berliner, is pre- 
server! in the Smithsonian Institution. 

An English centenarian is recorded 
as having lost his first tooth at the 
age of 102 years. 


Historic Treasures, Compiled btj Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


Incredible Progress in Less Than Two Decades From Man's First Feeble 
Flutter at Kitty Hawk, to More Than a Whole Day and Night in 
a Flight of Indiirance by Plane at Minola, Friday, December 30.1921. 

Man's first feeble flutter in his conquest of the air lifted him aloft for the 
fleeting period of fifty-nine seconds. Eighteen years later he soared eagle-like 
through space for twenty-six and one-third hours. When Wilbur Wright, in a 
hea\'ier-than-air machine, flew 82.5 feet at Kitty Hawk, December 17, 1903, the 
feat was pronounced one of the marvels of the century. The whole world rang 
with the accomplishment. Friday, December 30, 1921, a monoplane, piloted 
by Edward Stinson, accompanied by Lloyd Bertaud, a mechanic, completed a 
continuous flight of twenty-six hours nineteen minutes and thirty-five seconds. 
In eighteen years a span of less than a minute had been stretched to more than 
a day and a night, yet the marvelous performance at Mineola is heralded a*, 
simply the breaking of a world's endurance flight in aviation. 

While the advance in the science of international flying races for famous 

flying has been both rapid and start- 
ling, when the period involved is con- 
sidered a careful analysis shows that 
the progress came not by leaps and 
bounds, but rather through hundreds 
of experiments, sacrificed lives and 
determination seldom devoted to simi- 
lar projects. 

Five Years After First Flight. 

Five years after Wright's first 
flight he still held the world's record, 
with 77 miles made in 2 hours 20 min- 
utes 23 seconds, at Anvours, France 
Two years before that A. Santos Du- 
mont covered 720 feet in the first 
flight ever made in Europe. In 1909 
Henry Farman had gained the flying 
honors for France with a flight of 137 
miles in 4 hours 6 minutes 2.5 seconds. 

Just a decade after Wright had 
made his "hop off" national and 

trophies were the vogue in both Eu- 
lope and America. Then came the 
war and the sporting side of aviation 
gave way to the more serious combat 
of the air with hundreds of aviators 
killing and being killed in a realm 
foreign to man-kind only a few years 

Before the transition, however, the 
feats of the Wrights, Farman, Santos 
Dumont and other pioneers of the 
plane with recoi-ds for speed, endur- 
ance, altitude and passenger-carrying 
being pushed upward annually. Seven 
years after Wright's fifty-nine-second 
flight, G. Fourney held the endurance 
record with eleven hours of continu- 
ous flying. 

At the Close of 1914. 

At the close of 1914 this record had 
been almost doubled, for W. Land- 
mann had a continuous flight of 21 
hours 48 minutes 45 seconds i" <".er- 

many, .June 26-27 of that year. The 
records also show that T,. Noei, of 
England, flew- more than nineteen min- 
utes with nine passengers, and fifteen 
pas,sengers had been cai'ried ton hight 
of nearly 1,000 feet by the Russian 
aviator Sykorsky. Stinson on Decem- 
ber 29, 1921 added two hours and 
twenty-eight seconds to the world'-^ 
best previous endurance record, hel.l 
by Broussoutrut and Bernard, as the 
result of a flight made in France a 
year ago last June. A span of foui- 
and a half hours was thus added by 
Stinson to the record made by Lind- 
mann seven years ago. 

Flying at a speed of ninety-five 
miles an hour they had battled with 
a snow storm while skimming over 
the earth at a bight of less than 100 
feet, with the thermometer below 
zero, with a seventy-mile gale and 
with hot stinging oil that splashed 
in their faces and almost blinded 

While no official recoi'd was kept 
of the distance flown by the Amer- 
icans, competent observers estimated 
that their plane had covered approxi- 
mately 2,500 miles. 

Distance Record Broken. 

In distance covered, Stinson and 
Bertaud undoubtedly surpassed all 
former records and more than ecjual- 
ed the trans- Atlantic flight of 1,960 
miles made by Captain Sir John Al- 
cock and Lieutenant Arthur W. Brown 
from St. Johns, Newfoundland, to 
Clifden, Ireland. 

The endurance flight came as a fit- 
ting climax of the achievements of 
-American aviation in 1921 when four 
world records were made bj' Yankee 
aviators. The other three were: 

An altitude and eificiency record 
for flying boats made when a Leon- 
ing monoplane reache<l 19,500 feet 

Get-together Home-Coming Banquet held in Indiana University Cvmnasium 

Hiaturic J'rea.siue.s, Cumpiled by Forest M. "Pup" Hall 


with four passengers, August 16. 

An altitufle record made by Lieut. 
J. A. McCready, of the army air serv- 
ice, who pioleted an airplane to the 
hight of .37,800 feet at Dayton, Ohio, 
September 28, breaking the previous 
mark of .•',:!, 114 feet set bv Major Ru- 

dolph Schroeder. 

A speed record for a close course 
in the Pulitzer trophy race made by 
Bert Acosta, who drove a Curtiss 
navy racer at an average speed of 
17().7 miles an hour for 150 miles at 
Omaha, Neb., November 3, 1921.— Tlip 
Indianapolis News. 

Mausoleum Rose Hill Cemetery 


Slorv of thi? Growth and Decay of One of Busy Commercial Centers in the 
Karly Days of Bean Blossom Township — Her Industries, Business Life, 
and Incidents of Interest in the History of Rarlv ."Settlement. 

"Swevt smiling village, loveliest of 

the lawn, 
Thy spoits are fled, and all th\ 

charms withdrawn. 
.Amidst thy bowers the tyrant's 

hand is seen, 
.And desolation saddens all thy 


— Goii'sn\itii 

There was a time in the life of 
Monroe county when the village of 
Mt. Tabor was the leading commercial 
center, with prospects far greater in 
a businss way for becoming a thriv- 
ing city than any other village in the 
county (the towns and cities of the 
county today were all villages then), 
for it was an important shipping 
point, as far as grain and live stock 
was conceintd. 

Impcrtant Eefore Town. 

Mt. Tabor was an important place 
before any town was there, if that is 
not an ambiguous statement, for the 
impcrtance of the location led John 
Burton to choose the place for a site 
for his saw mill when a saw mill in a 
wcodtd, new, unsettled territory ment 
untold advantages for future growth 
cf that community. 

As early as 1820, John Burton 
erected a saw mill on this location, 
and constructed a dam in Bean Blos- 
som creek, and a little later began 
grinding corn and wheat, though the 
liclt'ng of the latter was done by 
hand. He enjoyed prosperity through 
a wide and useful patronage for sev- 
eral years before any other buildings 
were erected near his site. 

The business center (we can not 

yet call it a village) began to expand 
about 1825, it is said by people who 
remember of older people telling of 
clden times jn the community. 

James Turner and Jefferson Wamp- 
ler establisheel blacksmith shops there, 
which, it is thought were the first 
in Bean Blossom township, about 

William EUett opened the first 
salesroom at the place as early as 
1828, it is said, in the shape of what 
ater generations might call a "sa 
loon." but known then as a "grocery," 
for he sold w'hisky and other liejuors 
(called "wet groceries" in early days), 
rnd within a year began selling a 
small stock of groceries. He remained 
only a few years. 

Village Laid Out in 1828. 

April, 1828, saw Mt. Tabor a real, 
sure-enough village, for at that time 
the village was properly laid out and 
reccided at the county seat (Bloom- 
ington), with W., D. McCullough as 
surveyoi. ' 

Sixty-six lots were laid out on the 
north side of Bean Blossom creek, and 
the old plat shows the bridge, the 
saw mill and the old grist mill. 

In 1829, James Gilbert and Andrew 
Wampler began selling liquor in the 
village, but it is likely that these men 
w»'re not there at the same time. 
Fir."! Real Store in 1829 or 1830. 

Parks & Hite opened the first store 
of any consequence in Mt. Tabor in 
1829 or 18:J0, and during the later 
period Hezekiah and David Wampler 
opened a combined liquor establish- 
ment and grocery. .About this lime 

William EUett also sold some mer- 
chandise. In 1831 Ellett & Kirkham 
engaged in the grocery business to- 
gether. In 1832, Hezekiah Wampler 
brought on a stock of general mer- 
ehanelise, which he steadily increased 
in time until he had the largest stock 
in the village. 

In about 1828 or 1829, Samuel 
llartsock purchased the old Burton 
Mills and rebuilt both on much im- 
proved lines, and improved the old 
dam until an excellent water power 
was obtained. Within a year or two, 
Hartsock sold out to Parks, Shelburn 
& Hite, and in 1831, Gideon Walker 
purchased a half interest in the con- 

Shipped By Fiat-Boat. 

The old mills had a large local trade 
besides shipping large quantities of 
good flour to the southern markets 
by flat-boat. In the thirties and dur- 
ing the forties, great quanitities of 
produce were sent to the southern 
markets by Nathan Hill, Parks & Eg- 
bert, Wampler & Co., W. J. Sparks 
and others. As high as 5,000 hogs 
were slaughtered in Mt. Tabor in one 
season, and shipped down the river. 

In the spring of the year White 
river rose so high that back water in 
Bean Blossom creek would rise in 
the town of Mt. Tabor to sufficient 
depths that boats could be floated. 

It is said that a freshet would oc- 
cur, a flat-boat would be hurriedly 
built and loaded with pork, flour, corn 
and wheat, then sent down the stream. 
There was very little current in the 
creek, so the boats were poled down 
to the rivei- current, after which hand 
labor was over until the destination 
■.vas \-eached. 

Fifteen Boat Loads Sent. 

As liigh as fifteen boat loads were 
shipped from Mt. Tabor in one sea- 
son, and when we recall that the sea- 
son was only during the flood period 
of the spring rains, we must know the 
importance of the town. 

Dr. W. S. Walker used to tell of 
making nine trips to New Orleans 
with flat-boats, and Mathias Berry is 
said tn have made the trip thirteen 

The trade of Mt. Tabor extended 
far beyond Bloomington. It is said 
that Hezezkiah Wampler shipped the 
first boat load of pork, grain and pro- 
visions down the river in 1836. Noah 
Stine owned a large cooper shop 
where lage numbers of barrels were 
manufactured for the pork packers 
and Hour industeries. Mr. Turner had 
a big gunsmith shop in the village, 
and Mr. Chambers manufactured all 
kinds of spining wheels and reels. 
Judge Eckles Given Charivari. 

-Amsden, Hatterbaugh & Coffin 
manufactured wheat fans for a few 
xears begining about 1836. This 
firm employed as high as 25 men, 
and kept four peddlers with wagons 
on the roa<l all the time — this was a 
large and important business. David 
Wami)ler conducted a big tannery at 
that place about this period. 

The well known Judge Eckles was 
married at Mt. Tabor, and, of course, 
the citizens gave him an old-fashioneei 
charivari or "belling." 

.A great number of tin pans, cans 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

with rocks in them and all kinds of 

bells from sleigh, cow and sheep bells, 
to the big old "dinner" bells were fast- 
ened to the machinery in the old saw 
mill; the water was then turned on, 
thus giving the Judge and his bride a 
charivari by machinery. 

Reached Population of 350 

Mt. Tabor was at its best from 
1835 to 1852, and probably did the 
greatest business early in the forties. 
Its highest population was about 350. 

William Hite was the first postmas- 
ter, and Nathan Hill and F. G. Hite 
succeeded him. Besides those here- 
tofore mentioned in this article, we 
find the following were in business 
in the "deserted village" when it 
thrived : 

John S. Bams started a store in 
1834, and Gideon Walker ran a gro- 
cery about the same time. John Ben- 
nett began to sell goods in 1835. J. 
K. Hemphill also was in business 
about that time. 

After this came Wampler, Shelburn 
& Dunning, in 1836; Ellett & Bams, 
in 1837; William Hite, 1839; James 
Whitesell, 1841; Felix G. Hite, 1841; 
A. W. Hill, 1843; W. J. Sparks, 1845; 
Sparks & Davis, 1847; (the Wamplers, 
Sparks, Whitesell, Hill, et al, were 
yet in business); George L. and Mil- 
ton Brown, 1840; William Houston, 
1848; John C. Mays, 1849; Parks & 
Egbei-t, 1849; Sparks & Davis, 1849. 

About the time of the war, in 1862- 
1864, business and industry had 
dwindled and people had drifted away 
until at that time there was only one 
store in Mt. Tabor, which was kept 
by Levi Kean, the last store to be 

kept in the village. William Cham- 
bers was an early wheelwright and 
the Posey Brothers made quite a 
number of hats from lambs' wool, 
which were disposed of in the sur- 
rounding community. Also a man 
named Moody, (we can not learn his 
given name at this time), conducted 
a talor shop in Mt. Tabor in about 
1832— Edward Ellett succeeded him, 
and G. W. Boyd succeeded Mr. Ellett 
in the business. 

Justice Baily Recalls Visits. 

William L. Baily, Justice of the 
Peace in Bloomington, with offices in 
the court house, says that when he 
was a youngester (along in the 
eighties) he used to visit in the com- 
munity near old Mt. Tabor, and that 
only the old mill and a few houses 
were still standing on the site at that 
time And, today there is only a 
weatherbeaten old house or two to 
mark the once thriving throughfare. 
The busy business houses, manufactur- 
ing plants, the thronged streets and 
buildings have long disappeared. 

In looking over the site of the old 
village, one is reminded of Gold- 
smith's lines which we quote at the 
beginning of this story. 

Whether we desire to do so or not, 
we citizens of Bloomington must real- 
ize that, though Mt. Tabor had all 
the advantages of transportation, 
good business well established, and a 
fail- foundation to build a metropolis 
from, she gradually died — died be- 
cause she did not constantly add to 
her population. 

We can not "stand still" in this life 
— we must either progress or go back- 



The village of Stinesville was laid 
out by Eusebius Stine, owner, and 
John J. Poynter, surveyor, in 1855, 
on the southeast quarter of Section 
17 in Bean Blossom township, Monroe 
county. The plat consisted of 114 
lots, and owes its origin chiefly to 
the New Albany railroad, 15 lots of 
the plat being situated on the west 
side of the railroad track. 

The village grew slowly, but re- 
ceived quite a boost when the Vir- 
ginia Company began quarrying 
American marbel west of the place 
on Big Creek. 

Samuel Brisco probably started 
the first store, and John McHenry 
& Son brought a stock of merchan- 
dise a few years later. Then James 
Williams sold goods for a short time, 
and Mr. Matheny was probably next, 
followed by James Shell, with "Thomas 
Riggs soon after. 

William Easton opened the first 
hotel in Stinesville, and Dr. Mullinix 
was probably the first physician to 
locate in the village. John McHenry 
was the first postmaster. Eusebius 
Stine built the first sawmill; he also 
erected a small grist mill. These 
buildings were erected long before 
the town was started. 

Amone the early residents of 
Stiiies\'ille were Eusebius Stine, 
Samuel Brisco, Thomas Wilson, 
Charles Miller, Frank Ashbaugh, Mr. 
Matheny, Jackson Hite, William Eas- 
ton, George Pugh and their families, 
and probably a few others. 

The great feature of the village 
has been the stone industry of the 
surrounding neighborhood. 

Hotel Toumer 

Hotel Bowles 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 



Head of History Department Is Oldest Active Member of Faculty — Will Retire 
in June. Dr. and Mrs. Woodburn Were Leaders in Raising of Funds for 
Student Building. 

In commemoration of his 65th birth- 
day, Dr. James A. Woodburn, together 
with his wife, has forwarded a {rift 
of $1,000 to the Million Dollar Me- 
morial fund, the first subscription to 
be reetived from a faculty membor. 
The oldest active member of the 
faculty, and president of the alumni 
council. Dr. Woodburn has manifested 
a keen interest in the Memorial pro- 
ject since it was, first nitntioned as a 
possible movement. H-j and Mrs. 
Woodburn have already made contri- 
butions to memorial or endowment 
funds of six different educational 
institutions, the University of Michi- 
gan, Mt. Holyoke, Wellesey, Johns 
Hopkins, Purdue and Indiana. They 
also were leaders in the raising of 
funds for the Student Building in 

Will Retire in June. 

Since 1890 Dr. Woodburn has held 
the chair of American history at In- 
diana University, and will have com- 
pleted a period of 32 years of con- 
tinuous service to the University 
when he retires at the end of the 
present year. Graduated from Indi- 
ana in 1876, he has since received de- 
grees from John Hopkins and Colgate 

Professor Woodburn has displayed 
an unusual interest in state and mu- 
nicipal political affairs since his con- 
nection with Indiana University. He 
is president of the Bloomington Ki- 
wanis club and an elder in the local 
United Presbyterian church. He has 
long been a member of all the im- 
portant state historical societies and 
has taken a lead in the programs of 
each. He is author of a number of 
historical works widely used as text- 
books in schools. He still res'des in 
the house that was his father's home. 
Works Have Won Renown. 

Various agencies of the state have 
made recognition of Dr Woodburn's 
achievements as a teacher and his- 
torian. The Indianapolis Star, com- 
menting editorially last spring said in 
part: "He has accomplished an amaz- 
ing amount of literai-y work during' 
his connection wtih the University. 
He has dealt extensively with govern- 
ment and politics. His 'Life of Thad- 
deus Stevens' is a valuable contribu- 
tion to American biography and na- 
tional history. He stands high in edu- 
cational circles and holds an enviable 
position as an authority on American 
history. He has so lung and so ably 
represented the University and his 
name is so intimately associated with 
it that he seems a permanent part of 

The gift made yesterday by Dr. 
and Mrs. Woodburn is one of the larg- 
est received to date in the Memorial 
campaign, and is a whollj' voluntary 
one, being made befoi-e the real drive 
for subscriptions is opened. — Indiana 
Daily Student, Nov. 30, 1921. 

Charles W. Moores was re-elected 
president of the Indiana Historical So- 
ciety at the annual business meet- 
ing' in Indianapolis, December 29, 
1921, in the auditorium of the public 
library. Other officers elected were: 
Professor James A. Woodburn, of In- 
diana University, vice-president; 
William E. English, second vice-presi- 
dent; Harlow Lindley, third vice-presi- 
dent; Lee Burns, recording secre- 
tary, and Charles E. Coffin, treasurer. 
The executive committee for 1922 is 
composed of the following, in addition 
to the officers: Evans Woollen, chair- 

Dr. James A. Woodburn 

man; L. N. Hines, Miss Harriet 
Palmer, of Indiana University; Mrs. 
F. A. Martin and Jacob P. Dunn. 

The constitution of the society was 
amended so as to permit the annual 
business meeting to be held at the 
time of the joint conference on the 
history of the early part of the year 
with the historical society, the histor- 
ical commission and the Society of In- 
diana Pioneers. A report on member- 
ship showed a gain of 570 in 1921. 
There .are now 700 members. 

Professor Woodburn read a memor- 
ial to Judge Daniel Wait Howe, late 
ex-president of the society. Two gifts 
of historical documents were received 
by the organization. 


$1,623,785 FROM STATE 

January Apportionment for 1922 Has 

Been Distributed — Raised by 

Taxation, Fees. 

portionment of the state school fund, 
J. S. Hubbard, deputy state superin- 
tendent of public instruction, an- 
nounced. The fund is distributed in 
January and June of each year. 

The money was distributed on the 
basis of $2,036 for each of the 797,- 
537 school children in Indiana. Ma- 
rion county received the largest 
amount, the total being $168,880.09. 
The smallest amount of the money 
went to Ohio county, which receive 1 

The state school fund is derived 
from the state school tax, interest on 
the common school fund, unclaimed 
fees, manuscript fees, and show licen- 
ses. The largest source of income is 
the state school tax, which this year 
provided $1,619,817.63. 

The amount of money received by 
Monroe county was $16,349.08. 


A total of $1,623,785.33 has been 
distributed to the ninety-two counties 
of the state as the semi-annual ap- 

Monroe County's Medical Society 
was organized during the period of 
activity among members of the old- 
school medical profession, and as the 
older doctors of the community gradu- 
ally gave place to newer blood of the 
on-coming generations, the organiza- 
tion has continued to live, regardless 
of the theory of practice. 

This organization is affilliated with 
the State and National Medical So- 
ciety and numbers nearly every grad- 
uate practicing phy.sician in Monroe 
County among its membership. 

Practicing physicians who were 
members of the Monroe County Medi- 
cal Society January 1, 1922 are: 

Dr. F. A. Austin, Dr. Fred H. Bat- 
man, Dr. W. N. Culmer, Dr. C. E. 
Harris, Dr. G. F. Holland, Dr. W. W. 
Harris, Dr. J. E. P. Holland, Dr. P. 
C. Holland, Dr, J. Kentling, Dr. J. E. 
Luzadder, Dr. O. M. Morris, Dr. J. E. 
Rogers, Dr. J. C. Ross, Dr. Rodney D. 
Smith, Dr. C. C. Stroup, Dr. F. F. 
Tourner. Dr. J. P. Tourner, Dr. Leon 
E. Wcts-11, Dr. J. W. Wiltshire, Dr 
Homor Woolery, all maintaining office 
fnd practice in Bloomington; with Dr 
Burton Myers. Professor of Anatomy 
in Indiana Universitv, and Dr. O. K. 
Harr's. of E'lettsville, Dr. Mitchell, 
of Sm'thville, rnd Mrs. Luck a^ ohv- 
sjcian for women at Indiana Univer- 
sitv. completes what we are informed 
is the correct membership at pr?sent. 


Edmund Hoyle (1672-1769) was an 
English writer on whist and card 
games. He was the first man to 
systematize the laws of whist, and for 
a time he supported himself by teach- 
ing the game. His famous "Short 
Treatise on Whist" appeared in Lon- 
don in 1742. Rules for other games 
followed, and his book of games, which 
included the "Short Treatise," has 
nassed into many editions. His name 
has become proverbial, and "Hovle," 
in common speech, means a book of 
rules and instructions for card games, 
especially the famous book edited by 
Hoyle himself. The common expres- 
sion, "according to Hoyle," means fol- 
lowing the rules laid down in Hoyle. 


Hiatoric Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


Monroe County Shocked by Terrible Crime — Believed Act of Mad Man — His 
tory of Early Days of Village — New Unionville Result of Railroad. 

One foi'eiioon in September, 1861, 
(old) Unionville and Benton town- 
ship inhabitants were shocked by one 
of the most tragic incidents ever tak- 
ing place in Monroe county, Indiana. 
The whole community was horrified 
when people heai'd of the awful crime 
that had been committed in the Cox 

Neighbors found on that fateful day, 
when they entered the premises of a 
man named John B. Cox, that a whole 
family had been terribly butchered, 
seemingly in cold blood. 

Horrifying Scene. 

Within the house a shocking- scene 
met the startled eyes of the first neigh- 
boi- who made the discovery of the 
awful murder. Mrs. Co.x lay upon a 
bed with her throat slashed from ear 
to ear, while the husband and father 
of the family, John B. Cox, was fouiul 
laying unconscious in his own blood 
on the porch of the house, weakened 
from the loss of blood from several 
deep cuts and severe bi'uises about his 
neck and head. 

Upon another bed near the mother 
was found a little girl of ten years, 
whose throat was horribly mangled. 
She was still breathing, but had lost 
ccnsciousness. Upon the floor near the 
bed on which this girl was found, an- 
other younger girl was found dead 

with hei' liead half severed from the 

A trundle-bed was found to hokl two 
smaller children, a girl who was se- 
\ erely cut about the neck but not mort- 
ally wounded, and a boy of about ten, 
who was unconscious from the loss 
of blood from severe cuts inflicted on 
his person. 

This little boy, it seems, was not a 
member of the Cox family. He was 
considerably scratched and bruised, 
and evidence showed plainly that the 
little fellow had put up a ten-ible fight 
for his life, as the bedding was torn 
and scattered over the room. 

A baby, the youngest child of the 
Cox family, was found to be the only 
member of the household that was un- 
hurt, and this caused not a little com- 
ment and wonder at the time. 

Large Crowd Gathers. 

.Soon the word of the ghastly mur- 
der became spreati throughout the 
community, and an enormous crowd 
gathered at the scene of the crime to 
view the horrible sight. » 

It seems that Mr. Cox had been hav- 
ing trouble with his neighbor.s, who 
were immediately arrested upon sus- 
picion of having had a hand in the 
terrible crime, and they were taken to 
Bloomington for .safe keeping. Later, 
these men were tried in the county 

court and acquitted of the charges. 

The dead and wounded were removed 
to the residence of William Cox, near 
the scene of the tragedy. As soon as 
John B. Cox regained consciousness he 
stated that several men had attacked 
the family during the night, and had 
knocked him senseless, after which he 
knew nothing until the shouts of the 
neighbors had arouserl him, the next 

Cox Believed Off Mentally. 

It was believed, later, by many peo- 
ple, that John B. Cox, who was at 
times afflicted mentally, had commit- 
ted the horrible deeds during a fit of 
temporary insanity. 

Cox disappeared from the commun- 
ity soon after the trials of his neigh- 
bors, and one Bloomington man who 
came home from the Civil war on fur- 
lough, stated that John B. Cox had re- 
ported for roll call in his company one 
morning with other recruits, but when 
recognized the man disappeared and it 
was believed that he went into the 
Confederate lines. This was the last 
time he was ever heard of by Monroe 
county people. 

Many people in the community in- 
sisted on taking the matter as the act 
of an insane man, and the case termi- 
nated with this view. The wounded 
chiklren connected with this tragedy 
have all recovered and lived to the 
present time, growing into useful and 
upright citizens. 

Old Unionville was the only village 
in Benton township, Monroe county 
until the Indianapolis Southern (now 
the Illinois Centi'al) railroad was 
built, about 1904-190.^, when a num- 

Scene on Indiana University Campus 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


ber of_families moved to the presen t 
>ite of the hamlet of (new) Unionville 
which was established when the rail- 
road built a station about three miles 
west of the old site of Unionville. 
Alexander First Merchant. 
It is probable that J. J. Alexander 



W. L. Harding, former Governor of 
Iowa, discussing the status of the 
farmer Jan. 11, 1922, said the fed- 
eral reserve banks and the war fi- 
nance board do not understand the 
farmers' situation at present. 

"Farmers should have one year's 
time on paper instead of ninety days," 
he asserted. "The wheels of pros- 
perity will start again when the farm- 
ers l^egin to buy, but they will not 
begin to buy until they get better 
prices. While Germany, France and 
all the I'est of the world are hard at 
work getting; back their trade lost 
during the war, this country is at 
play, and capital and labor are at 
each other's throats. We had better 
buckle up our belts and take the slack 
out and get down to work." 

Mr. Harding said the farmers had 
been hit harder by the business de- 
pi-ession than an> other class. 

"Wo are poor," he added. 


Purdue university and Indiana Uni- 
versity received in the six months 
ended December 31, 1921, $1,424,127.42 
expended :51,24::'.,10.D.70, had left a bal- 
ance of $170.756.?.2 and had at the 
beginnig of the period a balance of 
$52,-353.8.5, reports they have field 
with William G. Oliver, state auditor, 
show. The Purdue report does not 
include figures for its extensive agri- 
cultural experiment station. The In- 
diana University report does not in- 
clude figures for its medical school 
with the hospital division. 

The Purdue report shows that the 
university began the period wim a 
balance of $.38,742, received $751,594, 
expended $473,235 and ended the per- 
iod with a balance of $154,482. 

The Indiana University report 
shows that it began the period with 
a balance of $13,611, received $672,- 
532. expended $669,870 and ended the 
period with a balance of $16,27.3. 

There were in each instance a num- 
ber of bills belonging to the pre- 
vious half-year, paid in the period, 
?nd likewise a number of bills which 
should hiive been presented for pay- 
ment in the period will not be paid 
rr"'' in <-h- "irs" hi]f of 1922. 

The Purdue report gives al' its 
salaries, exclusive of the agricultural 
st-ation, as amounting to $267,788 for 
the period. The Indiana University 
report shows no such tabulation. 

Indiana University celebrated the 
]02nd anniversary of its founding 
Friday, Jan. 20, with an all-Univer- 
sity convocation. 

was the first merchant, as he opened a 
■store worth about $900 in 1836, and 
soon tiid a good business. Late in the 
forties, James Carter opened a store 
and continued the business for a num- 
ber of years. C. C. Fleener opened a 
store about the same time. 

F. R. Miller engaged in bu.siness at 

the piece about 1852, and thus the 
business life of the place went on, 
usually one or two merchantile estab- 
lishments, a blacksmith shop, post of- 
fice, carpenter shop or two, along with 
about a dozen families composing the 
population of the village. 


January 21, 1922, a change in post- 
masters for the Bloomington postof- 
fice took place. William M. Graham, 
a Republican leader in the civic affairs 
of the city having successfully passed 
the civil service requirements, was rec- 
onniiended to the CongTess by Repre- 
sentative Oscai' Bland, from the Sec- 
ond District, and received the appoint- 
ment as postmaster of Bloomington, 

The quarterly report of the Bloom- 

ington postoffice shows receipts of 
$20,988.90 compared with $16,684.24 
for the same three months last year. 
The receipts have gradually increased 
from $27,000 in 1913 to estimated re- 
ceipts of $75,000 for the present year. 
The outgoing postmaster is Oscar H. 
Cravens, who has been efficient in 
carrying on the postal affairs of the 
office for eight years, having received 
the appointment during a Democratic 
administration, then a I'e-appointment 

Postmaster William M. Graham 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

for a second term as Bloomington's 
postmaster. The following article ap- 
peared in the Cincinnati Enquirer, of 
January 8, 1922, which will give a 
hint as to the political activities of 
the Second District at the present 

A movement is beinjr launched in the Sec- 
ond District to nominate Oscar Cravens of 
Bloomineton, as the Democratic candidate for 
Congress. He recently rcsig-ned as postmas- 
ter at BloominKton. He has published a 
Democratic newspaper in Mronoe county for 
years and is one of the most popular men 
in the district. 

The Second was a Democratic stronghold 
until it was divided by the CuIIop and anti- 
Cullop factions. The victories of the Demo- 
crats in the recent city elections have given 
to them the hope that they can carry the 
Second if the factional strife can be elimi- 

Certain leaders were saying this week that 
Cravens is the one man uixin whom all of 
the factions can unite, as he has not antag- 
onized any of them. It is said that Cravens, 
while not a candidate, would not be adverse 
to accepting if the nomination came without 

Representative Oscar Bland, Republican, 
will have no oi»position in the Second for 
renomination. but observing politicians of 
both parties have come to look upon the Sec- 
ond again as doubtful territory. — Cincinnati 
Enquirer. Jan. 8. 

Bloomington's Post Office Building as it appeai-ed in 1922. 

The act of William M. Gra- 
ham after a.ssuming his official du- 
ties as Bloominiorton's postmaster for 
1922 was to sub.-^cribe $250 to Indiana 
University's million dollar memorial 

Retiring- Postmaster Oscar H. Cra- 
vens likewise made a contribution of 
$250 to the State University memorial 
as his last act in the office of post- 

Both Mr. Graham and Mr. Cravens 
are former students of Indiana Uni- 



Another treasure, coming, we 
might say, out of the mists of pio- 
neer days, is the old square-upnght 
piano used by Professor Baynard R. 
Hall, the first professor in the old 

Oscar H. Cravens, Outgoing Postmaster and Editor. 

Seminary (which has ultimatsly de- 
veloped into the wonderfully com- 
plete Indiana University of today). 
This old musical instrument shows by 
its mahogany inlaid case the aris- 
tocratic atmosphere from which it 
evidently was taken when Professor 
Hall "imported" it into the then new 
State of Indiana. It is probable, that 
this instrument was the first piano 
that was ever brought to Blooming- 
ton, as Mr. Hall had it carried by 
ox-team and flat boat from Philadel- 
phia to Bloomington in 1823, when 
this village was rather youug. 

The return of the old relic of refine- 
ment and culture of the pioneer life 
of the community to the city of high- 
er learning seems but fitting triumph 
during the present age, when people 
are reviving olden memories and 
building memorials for past heroes, 
lest "others may forget." 

Return Seems Triumphant. 

The old piano came again to Indi- 
ana's seat of learning through a be- 
ouest of Mrs. George Roberts, ot 
Vicksburg. Miss., and arrived in 
Bloomington for the second time in 
January, 1922, ninty-nine years af- 
ter its first arrival. 

During the life of James O. Howe, 
who came into possession of the old 
piano of Professor Hall in 1861, the 
University had expressed a desire of 
obtaining it as a relic of its history. 
Having had knowledge of the often- 
expressed desire of the University, 
Mrs. Roberts made provision in her 
will that the school should have the 
old instrument upon her death, which 
occurred during 1921. 

The piano first arrived here by 
wagon from Philadelphia, before the 

Hist07-ic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


days of railroads and steamboats on 
the Ohio. Professor Hall learning of 
his appointment as a professor in 
1823, sent east for this luxurious 
piano, and took up his duties as sole 
professor when the Seminary opened 
in 1824. The piano safely crossed 
the mountains, traveled down the 
Ohio in a flatboat, and then came 
overland from Louisville, arriving "in 

Heavy rains were encountered on 
the trip from Louisville; the water 
was high, and streams had to be 
forded. In crossing one narrow ford 
seven feet deep the piano had to be 
blocked up to keep the water from 
entering the case. 

Natives Flock To Hear It. 

The arrival of the piano is vividly 
described in "The New Purchase," 
by Dr. James A. Woodburn. In the 
words of the owner: "It arrived in 
tune, at least we played tunes on it. 
Natives flocked around the doors and 
windows, looked in and walked in; 
came by day or night, 'never dreamin' 
to be troublesome, just sorter wantin' 
ter hear that powerful pianne tune 
again. They often sort of wanted 
to see the lid tuck up to see the tune 
played, and see them jumpers dance 
the wires so most mightly darn pow- 
erful smart.' 

"A very respectable woman of 
Bloomington rural district after stop- 
ping in to hear the tunes remarked, 
'It's as far above a fiddle as a fiddle 
is above a Jew's harp!' A fashionable 
young man bashfully knocked, told of 
his love of music, and, after hearing 
a few tunes, whispered in awed tones, 
'If I had a wife and one of them I 
would never want no more. 

"We might as well have moved as 
tried to bolt the doors and windows, 
besides, it seemed too heartless to 
disappoint so many simple admirers 
who did no harm but rust the wires 
with their perspiring fingers." 

For 89 years the old piano has 
been in the Howe family. In 1832 
the instrument was acquired by 
Joshua O. Howe, one of Indiana's first 
trustees. In 18fil it passed to James 
Howe, the oldest son. Lillie Howe 
Troutman, youngest daughter of 
.lames Howe, now living in Bloom- 
ington, tells of how people would open 
the door of their home and walk in, 
and how the students would enjov the 
niano for their dancing. Joshua Howe 
had originally bought the piano for 
his two daughters, one of whom was 
Louise Howe, mother of M'ss Juliette 
Maxwell, present director of physical 
education for women at Indiana Uni- 

The niano remained in the home of 
James Howe, on College avenue, until 
his death in 1902. On the death of 
Mrs. Howe the reb'c was shinned to 
Vicksburg hv Mrs. Elb's Polk, and "iv- 
en to her dauehter. Mts. G^oree Rob- 
erts, who beoueathed the niano to the 
Un'versitv unon her death. 

The niano is a snuare unright in- 
sti'ument. with a beautiful ease, a 
rosewood polished finish thnt never 
was scarred. Tho legs ave b-u/nvltae 
and rosewood. Several hammers are 
out, and the instrument has not bepn 
plaved for some time, but can be 
readily repaired to eive out again the 
sweet melodies of the pioneer days. 



Two hundred ex-service men, rem- 
nants of the army, navy and marine 
corps who served during the World 
War, and now members of Burton 
Woolery Post, No. 18 of the Ameri- 
can Legion, gathered in the city hall 
on the night of January 10, 1922, for 
their annual "soiree." 

With the exception of one or two 
instances the familiar army khaki had 
given way to civilian clothing of pop- 
ular makes and now no insignia or 
authority marked the distinction be- 
tween former major and buck private. 
The same old spirit of the American 
soldier of "up and at 'em" was mani- 
fested, however, when the chow pre- 
pared by the War Mothers was passed 

The little band was also represent- 
tative of the old army in other ways. 
Latrine rumors were floating around. 
Instead of the old familiar rumor of 
furloughs, with pay and discharges 
with pension for life the rumors last 
night consisted of a new club house 
for members of the Burton Woolery 
Post and affiliated organizations. In 
the early stages of the meeting the 
man who was always asking "when 
do we eat" was there. The bird who 
used to say "when does the eagle fly" 
was now asking when will the bonus 
be passed. Others were asking "where 
does the Burton Woolery Post go from 
here." In the excitement a visiting 
marine slipped in a story or two. 

The program of the evening con- 
sisted among other things of a num- 
ber of hits by the peerless Old Town 
Quartette composed of Maurice 
Parks. Russel Blakelv, Paul Baker, 
and Elza Temples. Forest M. "Pop" 
Hall introduced as Leon Ti-otzky al- 
so made a few remarks. Dr. Frank 
Holland retiring commander stated 
that the Burton Woolery Post had an 
enviable record as none of its mem- 
bers had been implicated in any crime 
of importance or were at present in 

jail. Moving pictures of the "Price 
of Peace" secured from the Extension 
Bureau of the University showed 
army scenes ranging all the way from 
the destruction of observation bal- 
loons by Germans to short arm in- 
spection and lurid reproductions of 
the Broadway Revue in which Amer- 


ican doughboys played all parts, mas- 
culine and feminine. 

Upon a vote of the membership the 
Burton Woolery Post went on record 
as coming out full fledged in support 
of both a national and state bonus and 
instructed their adjutant to inform 
the legislators of this fact. The new 

Maurice Park.'; 

Paul Baker Russell Blakely 

Elza Temples 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

officers selected for 1922 were Oscar 
"Red" Dillman, commander; Hugh 
Norman, vice commander; Floyd 
Southern, adjutant; Forest M. "Pop" 
Hall, historian, and W. E. Brown, Rex 
Forsythe and Dr. J. E. P. Holland as 
members of the executive uoai'd. 

Dr. J. E. P. Holland in a short 
speech said that with a possible mem- 
bership of 2,000 to draw from that 
there was no reason why the Burton 
Woolery Post should not have a com- 
munity house of its own that would 
afford everifthing necessary for the 

club rooms and recreation. 

Oscar Dillman, the new commander, 
stated that his election came as a sur- 
prise and one of the things he had in 
mind for the local post during the 
next year was a drive for increased 
membership; also greater social ac- 
tivities probably including a show put 
on by local talent at the Harris Grand 
if possible. He urged the payment 
of dues to Floyd Southern, adjutant, 
at the Model Shoe store. — Frank 
White, in Bloomington Evening 


Interested citizens pointed out 
Thursday to members of the Ameri- 
can Legion plans which will in all 
probability re.sult in the construction 
of an elaborate memorial and com- 
munity building in Bloomington. 

The" will of Capt. W. M. Alexander, 
civil war veteran and prominent citi- 
zen, who died last, provide.s 
$20,000 for a soldiers' memorial, 
which is expected to form the nucleu.-f 
of the building fund. 

The county comnii.^sioners have en- 
tertained a favorable attitude toward 
a memorial building in honor of Mon- 
roe county's soldiers, living and dead, 
and it is believed that they will be 
able to appropriate twenty or thirtx- 
thousand dollars to such a movement. 
The city, also, would come in for a 
generous appropriation. 

Plans for the memorial and com- 
munity building as discussed by a 
committee of citizens would call for 
an art-brick structure with stone 
facade and trimmings in which would 
be a large auditorium for town meet- 
ings, conventions or any large gath- 
ering which the city has never before 
been able to accommodate. The build- 
ing would also contain club rooms and 
rest room features in the front apart- 
ments downstairs, with two smaller 
auditoriums foi- farmers meetings or 
any other small gatherings on the 
second floor. The building would be 
about 80x120 feet and cost $125,000. 

A .statue or bronze tablet at the 
front of the building would commem- 
orate the memory of Capt. Alexantler, 
whose endowment would make the 
building possible. 

Friends point out that while the will 
of Capt .-Mexander states a prefer- 
ence to a monument in thf> court house 
yard, it is believed that greater honor 
would be done to the civil war veteran 

in a memorial building of which the 
late Captain probably never dreamed. 
John P. Fowler, county clerk, is exe- 
cutor of the Alexander estate. 

That portion of Capt. Alexander's 
will which refers to a war memorial 
is as follows: 

"Item IX — I will and direct that 
my executor reduce the remainder of 
my estate, not heretofore bequeathed, 
to cash by the sale of both my per- 
sonal property and any real e.state 
that I may die seizefl of, and out of 
the funds derive<l therefrom together 
with any funds that may be added 
thereto from any source, cause to be 
ei'ected a monument to be known and 
marked as the Alexander Memorial 
Monument, erected in honor of and 
to the memory of any and all soldiers 
who have gone into the service of 
their country from Monroe county, 

The Legion memorial idea received 
its first impetus at the annual meet- 
ing last Monday night at the city 
hall. The memorial was discussed in 
committee meetings and mentioned by 
Dr. J. E. P. Holland, president of the 
Chamber of Commerce, who pledged 
the support of the Bloomington Cham- 

Several pledges to an Americai'. 
Legion memorial and community 
building have been made in the past 
year by prominent citizens, and these, 
with Capt. Alexander's endowment 
anil money from several other avail- 
able .sources would amount to over 
half the fund necessary to erect such 
a building. 

Committees of the American Legion 
will meet with prominent citizens to 
discuss the huilding plans at an early 
date. — The Bloomington Weekly Star, 
.Jan. 13, 1922. 




Among the names written on In- 
diana University's roll of honor in the 
World War and presented to the Uni- 
versity on a bronze tablet with im- 
pressive ceremonies recently are those 
of Major Paul Barnett Coble, Mclson 
Smith, Joseph Bruce Chambers, Bur- 
ton Woolery, Wilbuni Hunter and Jo- 

seph Knox Barclay, all of Blooming- 

Major Paul Barnett Coble, assist- 
ant professor of rhinology, otology 
and laryngology in the Indiana Uni- 
versity School of Medicine, the only 
faculty member of the University who 
died in the service. He died in France 

on May 11, 1919. 

Melson Smith was a first-class pri- 
vate of Company A, 9th Engineers, 
who died of diphtheria on November 
30, 1918. 

Joseph Bruce Chambers, a corporal 
in the Quartermaster Corps, died of 
pneumonia on January 7, 1919, at the 
Walter Reed hospital at Washington. 
Burton Woolery, sergeant in Bat- 
tery F, 150th Field Artillery, 42nd di- 
vision, was killed in action on July 29, 
1918. His battery was recruited large- 
ly from Indiana University men in the 
spring of 1917. He had seen service 
on the Lorraine front from February 
to June, in the Campaigrn during the 
fifth German offensive, and in the 
Aisne-Mame drive, where he met his 
death. The American Legion post in 
Bloomingrton has been named in his 

Wilbum Hunter died in Differ- 
dange, Luxemburg, of bronchial pneu- 
monia, on February 18, 1919, while a 
first-class private in the Army of Oc- 

Joseph Knox Barclay died at Camp 
Lee, Virginia, on May 1, 1918, follow- 
ing two operations. He received his 
commission as captain at Fort Benja- 
min Harrison in 1917. During his 
undergraduate days he was a star 
track athlete. After leaving the Uni- 
versity he was twice elected prosecut- 
ing- attorney of the Tenth judicial 
circuit, and was Democratic county 
chairman during the campaign of 

All of these men were prominent 
among the student body at the State 
University and were active in various 
campus affairs. 

In addition to perpetuating the 
memory of these war heroes in the 
form of a bronze tablet, alumni, stu- 
dents and friends of Indiana Univer- 
sity are raising a million dollar mem- 
orial fund to be used for three new 
buildings on the campus, a dormitory 
for women costing $250,000, an ath- 
letic stadium to cost $250,000, and a 
combined auditorium and men's build- 
ing to cost $500,000. 

With only preliminary plans for the 
campaign under way, subscriptions 
ai-e already pouring into the office of 
the director in sums of from $1,000 
to $5,000. The Women's Self-Gov- 
ernment Association, a campus organ- 
ization, has contributed $5,000, while 
numerous other organizations have 
made gifts of $1,000 each. President 
and Mrs. William Lowe Bryan have 
given $2,500 to the fund, while Joseph 
M. Swain, former President of the 
University and Mrs. Swain have con- 
tributed $1,000. Professor James Al- 
bert Woodburn, head of the history 
department and oldest member of the 
faculty, and his wife have given 
$1,000, and many Bloomington busi- 
ness concerns, citizens and students 
have subscribed over $106,000. These 
contributions have come entire- 
ly unsolicited and before the 
opening of the actual campaign 
to reach the goal. Indications 
are that the campaign will reach 
a total of three million. Payments are 
to extend over a period of five years. 
It is estimated that the present stu- 
dent body and faculty alone will sub- 
scribe nearlv one-half million dollars. 

Historic Treasures, Compiled bij Forest M. "Pop" Hall 



It is the desire of President Hard- 
ing and of himself that the "human 
touch" be consideretl in all matters 
havina- to do with disabled soldier re- 
habilation, Charles R. Forbes, direct- 
or of the veteran's bureau, said in 
an address in Washington, before a 
group of educators and scientists who 
met at his invitation to discuss ways 
and means of "finding the best meth- 
od of returning to society more than 
100,000 men disabled in mind and 
body by the scourge of war." The 
conference met under the direction of 
Dr. John H. Finley, of New York. The 
great work and responsibility, Mr. 
Forbes said, was that of education 
and "we must see to it that the finest 
types of institutions and the best ser- 
vices are rendered" the beneficiaries 
of the bureau. 

"We are now using 5,000 schools 
throughout the country for training 
the ex-service men," he said, "and 
7,000 institutions for placement train- 
ing. We have approximately 101,000 
men receiving vocational training and 
about 32,000 men awaiting assign- 
ment. So you will understand that 
our rehabilitation and education will 
be our greatest problem having to do 
with the future of the ex-service men. 

"My greatest concern at the pres- 
ent is the method of placement train- 
ing. I w'ould state that 41 per cent, 
of our entire ex-soldier population 
taking vocational training are in 
placement training in shops and man- 
ufacturing plants. I am informed 
that 6,000 of our beneficiaries have 
been rehabilitated, but I have failed 

to find 1,000 who are actually engaged 
in the employment which they se- 
lected or was selected for them 
as their vocational objective. The bu- 
reau reports 900 men qualifietl last 
month (November, 1921) to return to 
gainful occupations. 

"We expect the peak of our hos- 
pitalization to be reache<l in 1925, 
when we will have hospitalized 32,000 
men, the majority of which will be 
neuro-psychiatric cases and tubercu- 
losis cases." (In 1921-22, Indiana Uni- 
versity had as students eighty dis- 
abled veterans, under this rehabili- 
tation division). 


Attempts at this time to gain the 
aid of the states in raising funds to 
erect in Washington a memorial 
building to those who served in the 
world war, as contemplated by the 
Geoi'ge Washington Memorial Asso- 
ciation, were condemned by the Amer- 
ican Legion. The national legisla- 
tive committee of the legion issued 
a statement Jan. 16, 1922, pro- 
testing against the plan, which has 
been indorsed by President Harding, 
until enactment of adequate relief 
legislation for the disabled and the 
unemployed veterans, as well as of a 

"The veterans of the war," said a 
statement by the legion, "believe this 
is not the time to spend money on 
world war memorials. When the gov- 
ernment has disposed of its obliga- 
tions to the ex-service men and wom- 
en themselves, and when later the 
country gets the proper perspective, 
it wall be time to plan a great na- 
tional victory memorial." 

I Author Unknown) 
Take this letter to my mother. 

Far across the deep blue sea. 
It will fill her heart with pleasurs. 

She'll be >?tad to hear from me : 
How she wept when last we parted. 

How her heart was filled w-ith pain. 
When she said: "Good-by, God bless you. 

We may never meet affain." 

Take this letter t<t my mother. 

It will fill her heail with joy. 
Tell her that her prayers are answereil, 

God protects her absent boy : 
Tell her to be ;rlad and cheerful. 

Pray for me wher'er 1 roam, 
.■\nd ere loni^ I'll tui-n my footsteps 

Back towards my dear old home. 

Take this letter to my mother, 

It is filled with words of love : 
If on earth I'll never meet her. 

Tell her that we'll meet above. 
Where there is no hour of parting. 

All is peace and lo\'e and joy: 
<;od will bless my dear old mother, 

.^nd protect her only boy. 



Dr. B. F. Stephenson has the credit 
of organizing the camp fire Post 
at Decatur, 111., in April 1866, from 
which the present organization of the 
Grand Army of the Republic origin- 

There were only forty-three union 
soldiers in the village of Decatur, but 
they eagerly responded to Dr. Steph- 
enson's plan to organize a Post. So 
successful was this Post and its popu- 
larity spreatl so rapidly that before 
six months had passed, Dr. Stephen- 
son had, in res:)onse to invitations, 

Ke-'^idence Hal 

The Hams-Grand 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

organized over forty other Posts in 
the State. 

Realizing the need of central or- 
ganization and general regulations, a 
convention of the Posts of Illinois was 
held in Springfield, in July. Dr. 
Stephenson was elected Provisional 
Commander-in-Chief and headquar- 
ters were established at Springfield, 

The gi-owth of the order was .so 
rapid in adjoining States, and the 
Posts became so numei-ous, that on 
October 31, 1SG6, the Provisional 
Commander-in-Chief issued a call for 
representatives from the several 
States to form a national organiza- 

The convention met in Indiana- 
polis, Ind., on the 20th of November, 
1866, and Posts were represented 
from Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Iowa, 
Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, New 
York, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and 
the District of Columbia. 

At that meeting plans were adopted 
for the organization of Posts, State 
Departments and a National Encamp- 
ment, as they exist now. 

A committe was appointed to pre- 
pare a ritual and laws for the govern- 
ment of the organization. F.C. and L. 
was adopted as a motto. None but 
honorably discharged soldiers and 
sailors could be initiated into its 
ranks; no man who had been disloyal 
to his country or his flag could be- 
come a member. 

At this convention the political fea- 
ture was entirely discountenanced by 
the adoption of the following law: 

"No officer or comrade of the G.A. 
R. shall in any manner use this or- 
ganization for partisan purposes, and 
no discussion of partisan questions 
shall be permitted at any of its meet- 
ings, nor shall any nomination for po- 
litical office be made." 

The Second National Encampment 
met in Philadelphia, on January 1.5, 
1868, and in addition to the State De- 
partments represented at the first en- 
campment were the Departments of 
Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, 
Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connec- 
ticut, New Jersey, Maryland, Dele- 
ware, Michigan, Minnesota, Tennesee 
and Louisiana. 

The Civil war veterans of Monroe 
county at Bloomington named their 
organization the Gen. Slocum Post, 
after the hero who led them. 
G.A.R. Average Age 78 

At a recent meeting of Paul E. 
Slocum Post 85, G. A. R., the com- 
bined ages of the 22 veterans of the 
Civil War present was 716, making 
the average age 78. Those present 
and their ages follow: 

J. W. Miller, 82; C. W. Shaw, 75; 
David Chambers, 78; John Bonsall, 
77; Isaac Eller, 79; J. P. Mitchener, 
77; Isaac Mitchell, 70; Samuel Lan- 
dis, 78; W. F. Hepley, 76; John War- 
ner, 82; Joel Eaton, 80; Henry 
Springer, 82; James Spaulding, 78; 
Peter Martin, 77; James Ransom, 78; 
Newton Fee, 75; Joseph Neal, 76; 
Harrv Dillman, 74; Alex Kelly, 81; 
J. P. Kinman, 75; L. W. Shields, 74; 
William Duncan, 80; Samuel Pettus. 

A iJPmH^ a 

H "-L 1-1 I'll 

1.1 K ■ ■ 




Smithville, Indiana Public School 

January 11, 1922. The Sons installed 
the following officers: 

Commander, Wilson I. Ross. 

Sr. Vice Com., W. O. Medlam. 

Jr. Vice Com., Fred Fender. 

Patriotic Instructor, W. N. Shaw. 

C. C, I. F. St. Clair, Schuyler Fen- 
der, Wm. L. Bailey. 

Treasurer, E. T. Treadway. 

Secretary, A. L. McConkey. 

Guide, Schupler Fender. 

Installing Officer, J. B. Dillman. 

Lincoln's birthday is to be appro- 
priately observed. 

The Auxiliary installed the follow- 
ing officers: 

Past President, Lydia Lake. 

President, Mertie Hickam. 
Vice President, Mertie Shaw. 
Chaplain, Laura Dillman. 
Treasurer, Nellie Clark. 
Secretary, Grace Fender. 
Pat. Instructor, Louise Jones. 
Guide, Cora Dillman. 
Asst. Guide, Minnie Hicks. 
1st Color Guard, Cassie Stevens. 
2nd Color Guard, Laura Shaw. 
Inside Guard, Rose Blair. 
Outside Guard, Rose Jones. 
Press Correspondent, Alice Rogers. 
Musician, Blanche Zikes. 
Counselor, Fred Fender. 
Trustees, Myi'tle Adams, Josephine 
Sumner, Carrie Parks. 

Installing Officer, Henry Dudley. 


The Sons of Veterans and their 
Auxiliary held a joint installation 

Believing that the more intimate 
knowledge of one another's work will 
result in larger mutual sympathy and 
greater unity of thought and there- 
fore in more effective action, certain 
associations of women in Bloomington, 
interested in religion, philanthropy, 
education, literature, patriotism, art 
and social reform, determined to or- 
ganize a Local Council of Women in 

When any society behsnging to the 
Local Council undertakes any good 
work in which it desires to interest 
the other organizations in the Council, 
it may send a written statement of 
the matter to the Corresponding Sec- 
retary of the Local Council whose duty 
it shall be to communicate the matter 
to all societies in the Council through 
their respective Pi-esidents. 

The aim of this Council is to bring 
the various associations of women of 
Bloomington into closer relations 
through an organic union; but no so- 
ciety entering the Council shall there- 
by lose its independence in aim or 
method, or be committed to an^' prin- 
ciple of any society in the Council 
the object of which is to sei'V'e as a 
medium of communication and as 
means of prosecuting any work of 
common interest. 

Any society of women in Blooming- 

ton. the nature of whose work is 
satisfactory to the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Council, may become a 
member of the Council, by its own 
vote and by the payment of two dol- 
lars annually into the treasury of 
the Council. 

Officers of Council in 1921-22. 

President, Mrs. T. J. Louden; vice- 
president, Mrs. Otto Rogers; secre- 
tary, Mrs. George Henley; correspond- 
ing secretary, Mrs. Frank Andrews; 
treasurer, Mrs. Fred Beck. 

Executive Committee — Officers of 
Local Council and Presidents of Af- 
filiated Organizations. 

Hospital Board— Mrs. S. F. Teter, 
Mrs. J. E. Henley, Mrs. C. G. Malott, 
Mr. Fred Matthews, term expires in 
1922; Mrs. C. H. Springer, Mrs. R. H. 
East, Mrs. C. A. Evans, Walter Wood- 
burn, term expires in 1923; Mrs. J. 
B. Wilson, Mrs. J. K. Beck, Mrs. W. 
W. Black, Dr. R. C. Rogers, term 
expires in 1924. 

Honor Roll — Mrs. W. N. Showers, 
Mrs. Mary E. Brodix, Mrs. J. D. 
Showers, Mrs. H. C. Duncan. 

Affiliated Organizations. 

Pre.sidents and Delegates: Amer- 
ican Association of University Women 
— Mrs. J. K. Beck, Miss Jessie Ho- 
gate, Mrs. F. M. Andrews, Mrs. R. G. 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


Miller, Mrs. Wm. Telfer. 

Argonaut Club — Mrs. Fred Finley, 
Mrs. W. H. Rogers, Mrs. G. C. Davis, 
Mrs. Minter Cline, Mrs. W. L. Luck. 

Bloomington Women's Christian 
Temperance Union — Mrs. F. R. Wool- 
ley, Mrs. T. E. Nicholson, Mrs. J. B. 
Dutcher, Mrs. J. M. Sappenfield, Mrs. 
J. C. Carpenter. 

Cemetery Association — Mrs. J. W. 
Shoemaker, Mrs. J. K. Beck, Mrs. J. 
0. Howe. 

Charity Organization — Mr. Alex 
Hirsch, Mrs. Minnie Waldron, Mrs. 
Henry Russell, Mrs. Mose Kahn, Miss 
Grace Davis. 

Conversation Club— Mrs. S. M. 
Kerr, Mrs. J. E. Luzadder, Mrs. John 
Millen, Mrs. J. E." Henley; Mrs. T. P. 

Daughters of Veterans — Mrs. L. C. 
Hendershot, Mrs. Alfred Perring, Mrs. 
G. M. Whitaker, Mrs. Henry Split- 
gerber, Mrs. D. M. Orchard. 

Dickens Fellowship Club — Mrs. 
Marie Rogers, Mrs. Frank Yelch, Mrs. 
A. E. Deupree, Mrs. George Setser. 

Facility Women's Club— Mrs. U. H. 
Smith, Mrs. D. A. Rothrock, Mrs. F. 
G. Bates; Mrs. W. M. Tucker, Mrs. W. 
T. Morgan. 

Friday Club — Mrs. J. E. Moser, Mrs. 
A. B. Moser, Mrs. Curtis Seay, Mrs. 
J. D. Hensley, Mrs. A. K. Storms. 

Friday Music Club— Mrs. W. F. 
Book, Mrs. John Foley, Mrs. Charles 
Matthews, Mrs. W. A. Cogshall, Mrs. 
Louis Becovitz. 

Inter Se Club — Mrs. Merle Morris, 
Mrs. C. C. Smallwood, Mrs. J. Kent- 
ling, Mrs. J. B. Bridwell, Mrs. Austin 

Kappa Alumnae Association — Mrs. 
W. N. Culmer, Mrs. Wm. Telfer, Mrs. 
G. D. Morris, Mrs. C. F. Ree<l, Mrs. 
Philip Hill. 

Leag:ue of Women Voters — Mvs. W. 
W. Black, Mrs. A. J. Neill, Mrs. Rav 
Cook, Mrs. J. E. Luzadder, Mrs. F. T. 

McCalla Parent-Teachers Associa- 
tion — Mrs. B. D. Myers, Mrs. Ben 
Johnson, Mrs. F. H. Batman, Mrs. 
Milo Curts, Mrs. Laura A. Hippen- 

Mothers Club — Mrs. M. R. Curry, 
Mrs. J. D. Jordan, Mrs. Ray Cook, 
Mrs. Earl Wylie, Mrs. Geo. Brook- 

Navajo Club— Mrs. C. G. Malott, 
Mrs. J. M. Smith, Mrs. L. W. Hughes, 
Mrs. Otto Rogers, Mrs. W. I. Fee. 

Nineteenth Century Club — Mrs. 
Wm. Burrows, Mrs. C. E. Hills, Mrs. 
C. E. Harris, Mrs. C. M. Hepburn, 
Mrs. R. R. Ramsey. 

Pi Phi Alumnae Club— Mrs. T. J. 
Karsell, Mrs. Otto Rott, Mrs. C. E. 
Harris, Mrs. L. W. Hughes, Mrs. C. 
E. Edmondson. 

Psi Iota Xi — Miss Margaret 'Har- 
row, Miss Opal Corr, Miss Winifred 
Smith, Miss Edith Regester, Miss 
Florence Hirsch. 

Social Club — Mrs. Wm. Graham, 
Mrs. C. R. Pleasant, Mrs. R. G. Miller, 
Mrs. C. H. Springer, Mrs. J. H. Hunt- 

Sons of Veterans Auxiliary — Mrs. 
Lydia Lake; Mrs. Nelle Clark, Mrs. 
Lola Dillman, Mrs. Lucy Lundy, Mrs. 
Carrie Parks. 

Sorosis Club— Mrs. C. G. Malott, 
Mrs. Harriet Hughes, Mrs. Harriet 
Steele, Mrs. R. G. Miller, Mrs. Ralph 

Swastika Club — Mrs. J. L. Norman, 
Mrs. L. B. Hunter, Mrs. Wm. Graham, 
Mrs. A. J. Thompson, Mrs. J. Kent- 

Tri Kappa — Mrs. Jesse Fulwider, 
Mrs. Hubert Beck, Mrs. N. O. Pittin- 
ger, Miss Mary Hicks, Mrs. Eleanor 

Unique Club-^Mrs. C. R. Pleasants, 
Mrs. H. E. Strain, Mrs. J. B. Brid- 
well, Mrs. Charles Sears, Mrs. George 

War Mothers of Monroe County — 
Mrs. J. H. Huntington, Mrs. R. H. 
East, Mrs. John Rogers, Mrs. H. E. 
Strain, Mrs. J. P. Kemp. 

Wednesday Club— Mrs. G. W. Bol- 
lenbacher, Jr., Mrs. W. W. Harris, 
Mrs. S. F. Teter, Mrs. F. H. Batman, 
Mrs. Lillie Troutman. 

Woman's Club — Mrs. John Cravens, 
Mrs. R. E. Lyons, Mrs. U. G. Weath- 
erly, Mrs. D. M. Mottier, Mrs. J. A. 

Woman's Relief Corps — Mrs. Alvin 
McConkey, Mrs. Al Smith, Mrs. Wm. 
Lake, Mrs. Frank Rairden, Mrs. Eph 
Hughes, Mrs. Mary Wliitely. 

Woman's Self Government Associa- 
tion — Miss Susie Kamp, Miss LeMay 
Ryan, Miss Dorothy Wolfe, Miss Ruth 
Frisinger, Miss Rosalind Schu. 

Youne: Woman's Christian Associa- 
tion — Miss Mildred Foster, Miss 
Mabel Kearns, Miss Lois Stonebraker, 
Miss Janet Woodburn, Miss Gayle 

Small. Corner in Largest Furniture Factory in the World 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


iTu iDnllirr 

You gave to us the breath of life, 
And in your trusting, guiding love 

You made our path, in bitter strife 
A path of praise to God, above. 

Man, thougli he may stray away 
From tlie things his mother taught 

Will turn to good — there to stay — 
When his mother comes to thought. 

Then, praises be for you, my dear. 
For all the good we've knowTi; 

May you, in comfort and good cheer 
Live on, mother dear, mv own. 


While we honor the memory of our 
soldiers, so bravely fighting for our 
country's honor, we must not forget 
that the truely great power which 
produced that brave courage of our 
fighting man was hi.<; mother. She it 
was wlio suffered all the a^'onies of 
suspense, the dread and horror of the 
unknow^^, feeling that boy was 
going into war and she knew noc w-hat 
dangers. It was she who must brave- 
ly urge him to know bow proud she 
felt tliat her son was not afraid. She 
dare not let him see her tears, nor 
allow him to know that hev very heart 
was being torn from her soul, lest 
he faltei'. To the mothers we 
owe a tribute which can never be paid. 

When the members of the Indiana 
Food Commission were seeking \vay.'5 
and means of conserving food in J 917, 
Mrs. Alice M. French of Indianapolis, 
Ind., was appointed to organize the 
mothers of sons and daughters for 
service. This being done, the result 
was American War Mothers came 
into existance September ?.'i, lv)17, at 

Indianapolis, Ind. Don Harold of the 
food commission suggested the name 
"War Mother". The following year 
the organization became a national 
organization. Mrs. John W. O'Har- 
rovv of Bloomington, Ind., was ap- 
pointed to represent Monroe county. 
She was the county's first War Moth- 

The initial meeting of the Monroe 
County War Mothers was held in the 
city library of Bloomington, Ind., at 
eleven o'clock A. M., February 12, 
1918, with the following original 

Mrs. John W. OHairow, War Mother: Mr.-. 
John L. Ditlman, secretary-treasurer: Mrs. 
D. M. Mottier. historian : Mrs. L. V. Buskirk, 
Mrs. Harry Fowler. Mrs. Eliza Riddle. Mrs. 
Charles Dunn. Mrs. Edward Robinson. Mrs. 
Wm. Hessler. Mrs. J. M. Rice. Mrs. Mary 
Bowers. Mrs. Thomas Cunningham. Mrs. Ed- 
ward Bougher. Mrs. Edward Barnhili. Mrs. 
L. B. Hunter. Mrs. Wm. Raw les. Mrs. L. D. 
Ropers, deceased : Mrs. Georee Setzer. Mrs. 
Mary Reed. Mrs. R. J. YounK. Mrs. Wm. 
Harris, Mrs. John Wells, Mrs. Charles 
Sprinprer, Mrs. Otto May, Mrs. Henry Sim- 
mons, deceased ; Mrs. J. L. Norman, Mrs. 
Frank Wilson, Mrs. J. F. Regester, Mrs. W. 
H. Beeler. 

Each township was organized wath 
the exception of one. The Monroe 
County War Mothers assisted in all 
war drives and activities during the 
war. Up to October 1, 1918, 816 boys 
were in the service and 504 mothers 
were eligible to membership in war 
mothers organization of Monroe coun- 
ty. For the year 1919 Mrs. O'Har- 
row was elected war mother. They 
adopted a French orphan — Claudia 
Jaffre; also furnished and maintained 
a two-bed ward in the city hospital. 
Tliis organization affiliated with the 
local council of women of the city of 

Bloomington in July, 1919, and in Au- 
gust, 1919, a charter was granted thLs 
chapter with G8 members. The Gold 
Star records of this county have been 
published complete in the State Gold 
Star Volume, but to date the Blue 
Star records are not complete. On 
May 24, 1919, Mayor Weaver and the 
city council of Bloomington, Ind., gave 
and deeded a plot of ground in Rose 
Hill Cemetery to the War Mothers 
organization of Monroe county in 
honor of the Gold Star men who fell 
in the world war, for a suitable monu- 
ment to be placed with the names of 
these men upon it. 

The first decoration day was held 
on May 30, 1919, with a wooden cross 
with .34 Gold Stars on it, representing 
the 31 Gold Star men of the county. 
The objects of the organization are: 

1. To assist the government in 
every way possible toward 100 per 
cent Americanization. 

2. To affiliate mothers of sons and 
daughters who served in the world 

3. To perpetuate the memories of 
the spirit of the men and women who 
achieved peace and independence to 
the world. 

4. To erect monuments in honor 
of our dead heroes and the preserva- 
tion of documents and individual rec- 
ords for state and county history. 

At the national and state conven- 
tions in 1920 a law was passed that 
all officers of the organization be 
elected biennially. The War Mother 
elected for Monroe county for the 
years 1921-1922: Mrs. Jolin Hunting- 
ton. The War Mother elected for 
Monroe countv for the vears 1922- 
1923: Mrs. Homer E. Strain. 

Moie than 250,000 women of the 
British isles were made widows dur- 
ing the world war. 

Bloomington's Beautiful Modern City High School. Building 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 



•'Comrades, Comrades. 

Ever since we were boys — 
Sharinc: each other's sorrows, 

Sharing each other's joys." 

Seventy-four years as partners, 
dthout a fuss, not even a hint of an 
rgument nor mistrust — ever harmon- 
)us, each thinking' more of his part- 
er's opinion and desires than his cwn 
> the almost super-natural history of 
wo of Blooniington's premier busi- 
ess men of the older generation, 
hese men, although both seventy- 
ine years of age, are strong physi- 
ally, and clearer mentally than the 
verage youth of twenty-one, and take 
ride in the statement, that in all 
leir numerous business ventures, 

terested in a thing that was the thing 
in which the other was interested. All 
boys swap, and Ohio has ever been 
noted for the "David Hiram" inclina- 
tion of its men folk — therefore, we 
may know that the youthful partners 
had many speculative adventures be- 
fore their maturity. 

Although one partner was never 
married, it never made any difference 
in the relations of the partners when 
Mr. Karssell took a bridei — if any- 
thing, the partnership became more 
harmonious, as the principals realized 
that the firm must succeed in its busi- 
ness ventures more surely, now that 
one of the partners was rearing a 
family which must be educated and 



ro secure a book, write on the face of this slip the author and title. Much 
time will be saved in delivering the book, if the book number is noted 
on the slip. This may be obtained by consulting the card catalogue. 
The applicant's name and address, together with the number of his desk, 
should be noted. Present the slip at the central desk. The book will 
be brought to the reader at his seat. 

Readers are expected to return books to the central desk before leaving 
the Reading Room. Their slips will be returned to them as receipts. 

For information concerning the regulations of the Reading Room, consult 
the pamphlet "Information for Readers " to be had on application at the 
central desk. 

business in Bloomington, the partners 
were quite proud of the day's sales, 
which amounted to $6. These men 
had their discouragements, more than 
we can realize, in building up the 
credit of their firm and establishing 
their product in the market — but, 
through all the discouragement, and 
later success, there was never a fuss 
between the partners, although the 
partnership had numerous occasions 
to protect their rights in the business 

Now, while Mr. Karssell is not ac- 
tive in business, having turned his 
later established business, the Kars- 
sell Mills to the management of his 
sons, who have incorporated the busi- 
ness as The Bloomington Milling Com- 
pany, it is understood that he and Mr. 
Collins are still silently interested in 
other business in as harmonious a 
manner as when they swapped off 
their first Jack knife, back in the 
days of the little old rural school 
house in Ohio. 

Mr. Collins, the other partner of 
the firm of Collins & Karssell, is still 
in business in Bloomington in one of 
his ventures, and is the head of the 
Collins, Woodburn Grocery Company, 
one of Bloornington's largest retail 
grocery concerns. Both are interested 
in the National Stone Company. 

When asked what had impressed 
him most since coming to Blooming- 
ton, Mr. Karssell dryly replied: "The 
fact that we stayed in this town after 
we came here, and the fact that in 
seventy-four years of partnership, Mr. 
Collins and I have never had a fuss, 
never went broke, and never got rich." 

It has been impossible to obtain an 
interview from Mr. Collins. 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


^^^ ^ 

'^f* ^^^^^H 


lliii =' «^^ 

liZ^ ' 





Bloomington Hospital and Nurses' Home 


With the many superior qualifica- 
tions which helps Bloomington to far 
outshine, as a modern city, any other 
town of equal population within the 
State of Indiana, we are rather proud 
of the Bloomington Hospital, and the 
efficient work of the much-needed 
community institution. 

The Bloomington Hospital was or- 
ganized and incorporated in 1904, and 
the first work of this ci\'ic enterprise 
was carried on in the old brick resi- 
dence building (in the right edge of 
the picture), but it was soon esti- 
mated that this building would not 
long be adec|uate to meet the needs 
of the growing city of higher learn- 
ing. This building is now used as the 
housing quarters for nurses and is 
known as the Nurses Home. 

The new, modern hospital building 
was started in lOlfi, but owing to the 
world war and other problems con- 
fronting the whole community, the 
building (in the accompanying illus- 
tration) was not completed until No- 
vember, 1919. Although the hospital 
had proven a wonderful benefit to the 
community, the financial needs of the 
project ever had to be met by other 
means than the actual earning power 
of the local institution, until the year 
1921, when accounts were balanced 
with just a small sum showing on the 
profit side of the book, above all ex- 
penses and mpirovements. 

In the fall of 1920, Miss Harriett 
Jones, a practical nurse of more than 
ordinary executive ability was in- 
duced to take over the actual manage- 
ment of the Bloomington Hospital, 

and a gi'eat part of the success of 
the institution in the last year is due 
to her understanding and co-opei'ation 
with Bloomington physicians, selec- 
tion and teaching of practical nurses, 
along with gi\'ing sick people mother- 
like service in everyday practice. 

During 1921 there were at different 
times 683 patients taken care of in 
the hospital, along with 58 child 
births. The present working staff of 
this institution is composed of four 
graduate nurses, and ten undergradu- 
ate nurses in the three-years train- 

ing course required by law before a 
license can be granted a graduate 
nurse. The standard of efficiency re- 
quired of nurses in the Bloomington 
Hospital compares favorably with the 
great hospitals of the country, and of 
course, the salaries paid for these 
efficient nurses is better than in the 
average small-town hospital, and 
many of the great city institutions. 

The control and support of the 
Bloomington Hospital is primarily in 
the hands of the Woman's Council, 
an organization of Woman's Organ- 
izations of Bloomington, which acts 
through a Hospital Board. This 
board, as elected for the present year, 
is as follows: 

Mrs. J. B. Wilson, president; Mrs. 

Operating Room in Bloomington Hospital 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


Jhai'les Springer, vice-president; Mrs. 
ennie East, secretary; Mrs. Claude 
/lalotte, treasurer; Mrs. J. K. Beck, 
ivs. J. E. Henlev, Mrs. Chester Ev- 
ns, Mrs. W. W. Black, Walter Wood- 
urn, Fred Matthews, and Dr. Robert 
'. Rogers. 

Rocking-horses with hollow bodies 
.'ere recently used for smuggling 
ontrabrand goods into India. 


County Clerk John P. Fowler, 
issued a report stating that the 
marriage licenses issued in Monroe 
county during 1920 were 279 and 
those issued in 1921 were 303, an 
vorces filed during 1920 were 75; dur- 
ing 1921, 81; showing an inciease of 
991; in 1921, 1,229, which report 
shows 239 more licenses issued in 


leorge Parks Brought in First Hand-^Hll to Township in 1817 — Post Office 
Received Name Ellettsville, Then Town Changed Name — First Store Run 
by Alonzo Beman in 1838 — Reuben Tompkins Laid Out First Lots — Events 
in Pioneer Social Life Recounted. 

Away back in the year 1817, before 
lonroe county was organized, when 
here was no such place as Richland 
ownship or Ellettsville on any map as 
he name of a community, George 
'arks, brought into the territory a 
ude hand-mill, which was the first 
rist mill in the neighborhood, and 
irobably one of the first mills of any 
ind in Monroe county. 

This old hand-mill was patronized by 
he whole community of pioneer set- 
lers in Richland township, until the 

Mt. Tabor grist mill was built by old 
man Burton (mentioned elsewhei'e by 
the writer), in 1820. The old hand- 
mill of George Parks was yet in ex- 
istance in the year 1883, when it was 
operated on Old Settlers Day by John- 
-■ion Sharp, who owned it at that time. 
Richland Became Ellitfsville. 
Ellettsville, Monroe county, Indiana, 
(lid not have as early origin as sev- 
eral towns in the county. The place 
was at first named Richland, and 
Edward Ellett kept a tavern there for 

several year before it was considered 
a village. He also conducted a black- 
smith shop which was well patronized. 

Ellett later started a small, old-fash- 
ioned "up-and-down" saw mill, and, it 
is said, he later put in one apartment 
of the mil building a set of rude 
stones, and for a number of years 
ground corn and probably some wheat 
for his trade. Needless to say, Ed- 
ward Ellett may be truthfully credit- 
ed with "starting the town," although 
in the month of February, 1837, Reu- 
ben Tompkins employed John Sedwiek, 
Monroe county surveyor, and laid out 
four lots on section 9, Richland town- 
ship, and named the village thus 
founded Richland. 

During the same year, an effort was 
made to secure a post office for Rich- 
land; but, as there was another post 
office in the State of Indiana by that 
name, it was changed to Ellettsville, 
in honor of Edward Ellett. 

In the spring of 1838, Alonzo Beman 
laid out an addition of seventeen lots, 
and at this time the name of the vil- 
lage of Richland became Ellettsville, 
the same as the post office. 
Opens First Store. 

Mr. Beman, at this time, opened the 
first store in the place, his stock con- 
sisting of a general assortment of 
goods, worth probably $1,000. 

Within a short time, Beman was 
joined by F. T. Butler, who became a 
partner, and who was then in business 

Scene Among Monroe County Hills 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

at Mt. Tabor, packing pork and manu- 
facturing hats on quite an extensive 

In 1839, Jefferson Wampler opened 
a liquor store in the little village; and 
about the same time, or perhaps late 
in 1838, Ellett & Barnes started a 
good store of general merchandise in 

In 1840 there were two stores, one 
liquor shop one blacksmith shop, one 
grist mill, one saw mill, a post office 
and about five families in the make-up 
of what is now the second largest city 
in Monroe county. 

James Whitesell started a store in 
1841, continuing until about 1846. 
Johnson Stites sold liquor in 1840. 
Isaac Wampler sold liquor in 1841. A 
man named Manville was in busi- 
nes about 1846. H. R. Seall opened 
a good general store in 1848, and 
continued in business for about ten 
years. S. B. and O. A. Harris started 
in business with $1,000 worth of 
goods in 1848. Emanuel Faulkner 
opened a store in 1849; Parks 
& Coffey started soon afterward, as 
did John H. Reeves, Harris & Dean 
and Dowell & Moore. The McCallas, 
of Bloomington had a branch store in 
the village about this time. 

Dowell & Stearns and G. B. Moore 
were in business in 1850. R. W. Akin & 
Co., opened a general store in 1856. 
W. H. Jackson opened a store about 
1865. Parks & Puett were early bus- 
siness men of the village, as were the 
Perry Brothers, who later became e.\- 
tensively engaged in the developement 
of the stone industry. J. M. Campbell 
started in business about the begin- 
ning of the war of Rebellion, and F. 
E. Worley began some time during 
the war. 

Among the business ventures of the 
village have been the saw mill of San- 
ders and Kjiighton, Houston's stream 
saw mill, started in the fifties and 
sold to Perry & Sedwick, and later 
destroyed by fire; David Allen's gi'ist 
mill which about $13,000, and 
later became the property of Jesse 
Draper, then W. H. Jackson, who was 
the owner when the mill burned down 
in 1882-83. 

S. B. Harris built a grist mill in 
1870 and later installed machinery 
and did wool carding. It is said that 
John Whisenand carded wool in the 
village as early as 1842, his motive 
power being a tread wheel. Early in 
the fifties, Gilbert May started a cab- 
inet shop. Shook & Faulkner began 
the manufacture of carriages about 

First Bank Opned. 

F. E. Worley opened a private bank 
about 1870 or 1871, with a capital of 
$40,000 to $60,000, and soon won the 
confidence of the people, and in the 
decade of the eighties his residence 
was considered one of the finest, if not 
the most magnificent in Monroe 
county. During the seventies, George 
Fletcher started a plaining mill in 
Ellettsville, and a man from Indiana- 
polis started a spoke factory, which 
was sold to Sedwick & Grant. Later, 
in the eighties, William Walls con- 
ducted a wagon .shop, and Judson San- 
ders started a steam saw mill in 1883. 

In 1850 the population of Elletts- 
ville was about 60; in 1860, it had 
grown to about 250; in 1870, about 
450; in 1880, about 585, and in 1883 
the place began to show its real 
.strength of growth, as the population 
showed 625 in that year, and has 
grown ever since until today the pros- 
perous little city is next to Bloom- 
ington in towns of Monroe county. 

In June, 1866, the population of 
Elletts\alle being 388, upon petition 
a plan to incorporate the town of El- 
lettsville as laid out at the time, com- 
prised of 202 acres, was voted upon 
in an election ordered by the county 
commissioners for June 16. A major- 
ity of votes cast in this election being 
in favor of incorporation, in Septem- 
ber, 1866 the county board declared 
Ellettsville to be duly incorporated 
Officers were elected, but elections 
were abaniloned for several years, 
when the municipal government was 
revived and continued to the present 

Rawlins First School Teacher. 

The first school in Richland towiiship 
was taught in what is now a part of 
Ellettsville, where the old residence 
of William Draper was built. The 
building was constructed of round logs 
and contained a great fireplace which 
could be induced to take in logs sL\ 
feet long and fully two feet in di- 
ameter. The building had one Iop' left 
out of the wall on the south side about 
brest-high, over which opening greased 
paper was fastened, to serve the pur- 
pose of a window. 

William Rawlins, son of Roderick 
Rawlins, the first treasurer of Mon- 
roe county (mentioned elsewhere by 
the writer), was the first teacher in 
this school building. 

The school term was three month 
long, and the children of James Parks, 
Benjamin Parks, Lewis Noel, Coieman 
Puett, Samuel Ellett, Joseph Reeves, 
George Sharp, George Parks, William 
Milligan (two miles away), and Wil- 
liam Edmundson attended school in 
this old log structure under the 
tutorship of young Rawlins, who 
taught them how to read, write and 

In about five years this old build- 
ing was abandoned for school pur- 
poses for a more modern structure of 
hughed logs, which was erected near 
the old cemetery, and used until 
the township was divided into dis- 
tricts, in the decade of the forties. 
Various school houses were used in 
Ellettsville prior to 1855, at which 
time a large frame house with two 
rooms was erected, and used until the 
$7,000 brick building was erected 
about 1871 or 1872. Major H. F. Perry 
was one of the first teachers in the oiL 
frame house. The teachers in Elletts- 
ville in the winter of 1880-81 were, 
Mary Moberly, H. M. Edmundson, J. 
E. Edmundson, Nellie Wingfield and 
J. W. Bray, holding class in the frame, 
while J. V. Foster and M. E. Dick.son 
taught in the brick building. 

Early Church Life. 

The old Venial Baptist church was 
one of the very first, if not the first 
church organized in Monroe county, as 

meetings were held as early as the 
winter of 1817-18, although it is prob- 
able no actual organization of the 
church was effected until several years 
later. Among the first members of 
this congregation were the families 
of James Parks (mentioned elsewhere 
in the history of Monroe county), 
Lewis Noel, Leroy Mayfield, John San- 
ders, the Coffeys, Shreeves, Martins, 
Frank Hall and others. 

A rude log church building was 
erected in the Sanders neighborhood 
about 1826, and was used until about 
1838, when a frame church house was 
built further north and within three- 
fourth of a mile of Ellettsville at that 
time. The old log structure was so 
open that in bad weather meetings had 
to be held in the home of James Parks 
who foi- many years was Deacon of 
the church. 

The Rev. James Chambers was the 
first minister, and was succeeded in 
a few years by the Rev. Leroy May- 
field, who was pastor for more than 
thirty years. 

The Bethany Baptist church was 
also organized quite early, its first 
members being the families of John 
Wilburn, William Sparks, Abe May, 
Henry Flood, William H. Treadway 
an(l Henry Sanders. 

Cumberland Presbyterian. 

Another famous early church of the 
community was the Cumberland Pres- 
byterian church of Richland town- 
ship. Citizens of Bloomington of this 
faith often attended services there. It 
was organized in 1830, and among its 
members were the Sharps, Constables, 
Figgs, Johnsons, Halls, Clays and 

The church building was erected on 
Section 4, and named the pleasant Hill 
Cumberland Presb>-terian Church. 
Tliomas J. Sharp donated the land for 
this edifice of worship. 

The North Liberty Church of Christ 
was also organizen in the thirties, and 
numbered among its congregation the 
families of Plesant York, Andrew 
Reeves, James Everman, Wesley 
Acuff, James Hall, J. H. Houston and 

The ol<? Wesley Chapel Methodist 
Church was organized in Richland 
(later Ellettsville) in the twenties, 
and among its members were the Ker- 
bys, the Smiths, Hopewells, Sedwicks, 
Reeves, Knightons, Stineson, Moots, 
Sharps, and others. 

Other denominations were probably 
organized in and about Ellettsville in 
the pioneer days, both early and in 
later years, but we find that the Meth- 
odists, Baptists, Presbyterians, and 
Christians, remnants of the old pio- 
neer organizations of Richland town- 
ship have churches at the present time 
in Ellettsville. 

More than 100 tons of wood are con- 
sumed in the world daily in the form 
of matches. 

It is said that prehistoric men were 
more skilled in trephining than our 
present-day surgeons. 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 



(By Robert P. Huang) 

(Robert P. Huang, of Ticnstsin, 
China, a Chinese student, who came 
to America for the first time in Sep- 
tember, 1921, to take his senior work 
in Indiana University, has graciously 

written the following article especial- 
ly for "Historic Treasures" that we 
mr.y realize with what honor Indiana 
University and Bloomington are now 
thought of in his native country.) 

At the request of our inspiring- 
friend, Mr. "i'op" Hall, and realizing 
this rare opportunity of expressing 
my great sacisfaction for tne Uni- 
versity of which I feel it a great hon- 
or to be a student member, I wish to 
write herein a few odds and ends 
for which my fondness for "Indiana" 
has increased by leaps and bounds 
since I came here. To say that I now 
understand fully the student life in 
the University and the institution 
itself, would not sound very truth- 
ful, but having stayed here for four 
or five months together with some 
knowledge I had before, about the 
institution, however, I want to try my 
best to make a prompt response to 
Mr. Hall's kind i-equest. 

In our American literature class, 
Mr. Hall once asked me, "How did 
you choose to come to Indiana Uni- 
versity? Is Indiana very well known 
in China?" This question, though a 
sudden one, did not embarrass me 
very much to answer it, as it had 
been asked and answered many a time 
before, for seme professors, students, 
and town people. The one simple 
answer which I have never for- 
gotten to make as it is an undeniable 
truth is, "Indiana University has been 
and is advertised in the Far East by 
the Chinese sudents who graduated 
from this University." Like Harvard 
and Yale and the other educational 
institutions in the United States, In- 
diana has given to the students from 
China various privileges of learning, 
for which they, when they p-o back 
home and far separated from the 
University, never forget their grati- 
tude. One of these students whom 
I can bring back to your knowledge 
or present to you is Mr. Jegan T. Hsi, 
a graduate of the Economics depart- 
ment of 1917 or 1918. Mr. Hsi has 
pursuaded many others and me to 
come to this University, as I can still 
remember his pursuasive tone in say- 
ing, "If you desire to go to the United 
States to study, I would sincei'elv ad- 
vise you to go to Indiana directly; 
ou'll find the professors there in- 
spiring, students loving and even the 
town people friendly; and you'll have 
a chance to acquire much more in In- 
diana University than you would else- 
where when you first go to the 
United States; because the professors 
and all the people there with all gen- 
erosity are ready to help any one who 
desires help." Thouprh uttered half 
a year ago, this advice still rings 
'cudly in my ears. Ever and anon I 
have proved through my experience 

have been 

of his 

here that his words 

To prove the truthfulness 
words, it behooves me to mention here 
some of the experiences I have tiad 
during these four months. I like to 
start relating these experiences of 
mine from the classrooms to the ex- 
tent of the campus and the city. In 
the classrooms, I can prove every 
sense of Hsi's words that the profes- 
.sors are very inspiring and helpful. 
True, there are some professors who 
have been so sympathetic with for- 
eign students, their handicaps in the 
handling of a language totally dif- 
ferent from their own that they al- 
most immune them from class discus- 

sions. This might be a wrong policy; 
but the sympathetic hearts are cer- 
tainly appreciable. Moreover, profes- 
sors have now and then offered extra 
hours to us, for private consultations 
— this is certainly extraordinarily 
kind of them. The fellow students 
are no less helpful. Now and then 
they cheer us up — ^"Hello" to us and 
treat us with all friendliness and po- 
liteness they could show — what more 
do we expect! To be really grateful 
let me say for the satisfaction of 
our early expectations, our happiness 
goes beyond possible expression. 

I have expressed my satisfaction 
in the Univerity; do I have any com- 
plaint against the city? On the con- 
trary, Bloomington is the most de- 
sirable place we could wish for — the 
organizations, social, religious, or 
business, the people and what not 
offer us constant support in every 


By Russell P. Harker, '12, and K. L. King. 

Song copyrighted, 1913, by the Indiana Union, Bloomington, Ind., and 
used by permission. Melody of chorus copyrighted by C. L. Barnhouse. 
Copies of entire song, with accompainment, may be obtained from the 
Indiana University Bookstore. 

1 % />-"./ 

RablRihl RahT R»ki 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

expected direction. ' The zenith of 
good will between our two peo- 
ples here in this city can not be more 
improved; but, as one of the profes- 
sors said: "K China is better under- 
stood as to her situation, principles 
and ideals now, the fi-iendship be- 
tween the two peoples would be even 
on a firmer basis." This, however, 
we both expect to realize, when we 
understand each other more through 
our personal associations. 

The, but not the least, which I 
want to say is this Memorial event 
which is gloriously started now on 

the campus. I certainly have come 

here at an opportune moment when I 
can have a share in honoring the 
heroes who sacrificed their lives for 
the dear civilization and humanity. 
The East and the West, Orient or Oc- 
cident alike, are the lovers of civili- 
zation and Humanity. From this 
movement of honoring the heroes who 
saved the civilization and humanity, 
shall we allow ourselves to remain 
behind! We singers of "Indiana, 
we're for you" must rally to the sup- 
port for the success of this "Great 
Memorial Event." 




The first banking business in 
Bloomington was done by Tarkington 
& Atkinson, who issued "shinpla.«ters," 
as did J. M. Howe, along in the early 
fifties (mentioned in another article 
in "Historic Treasures.") 

Although Bloomington, Indiana, 
may never reach as great a size a.s 
Chicago — that is, in population — the 
town is far in advance of Chicago in 
the percentage of prosperous bank- 
ing houses within its business dis- 

Bloomington, Indiana, in 1922 is 
represented as 100 per cent sound fi- 
nancially by the prosperous showing 
of its banking houses in reports 
which are published in fulfillment of 
the State and National banking laws. 

The growth of Bloominglon's 
wealth is reflected in the following 
figures, which show the total deposits 
in Bloomington's banks by years: 

In 1911, $1,105,000; in 1915, $1,459,- 
000; in 1918, $2,0:J6,000; in 1920, 
$2,903,000; in 1921, $;3,3.34,000. 

The Bloomington Bank was organ- 
ized by local men about 1857, with a 
capital stock of $20,000, and soon af- 
ter this organization was formed bank 
notes were issued by this institution, 
which had deposited Missouri and oth- 
er State bonds with the auditor of 
State as security for these notes. 
These bonds so depreciated in 1860 
that the bank was suspended, as the 
paper of the concern was rated at 
probably 30 cents on the dollar. 
First National Bank 

Soon after the suspension of the 
Bloomington Bank, a private banking 
house was organized and opened in 
Bloomington by Buskirk and Hunter. 
This concern continued in business 
until about 1871, when it was merged 
with other interests which resulted 
in the organization we know as the 
Bloomington First National Bank, 
with a capital stock of $100,000, which 
was later raised. The bank was 
opened in the old building which 
stood where the present modern stone 
banking building of the financial con- 
cern presents a pleasing appearance 
to our citizenship of 1922. The first 
president of this banking institution 
was George A. Buskirk. 

Monroe County State Bank 
The Monroe County State Bank, as 
the name implies, is a state institu- 
tion, and was chartered under the 
laws of Indiana in 1892, by a number 
of Bloomington financiers and busi- 
ness men, who felt the growing need 
of another bank in the thriving com- 
munity. To flatter one's self in say- 
ing that these men showed sound 
judgement seems a trite expression, 
when we see the volume of business 
which flows through Bloomington's 
financial channels daily. The name 
of W. A. Fullwider, as president; 
Senator Edwin Coor (a trustee in In- 
diana University and attorney), as 
vice-president; S. C. Dodds and Ar- 
thur Cravens played a great part in 
building up the prosperity of the 
institution in its early years. 

Citizens Loan and Trust Co. 

The Citizens Loan and Trust Com- 
pany of Bloomington was organized 
with a capital stock of $25,000 in 
1899, which was increased later to 
$50,000. The business of this insti- 
tution, while coming in the class of 
banking houses, is really more gen- 
eral than a straight banking concern. 
Originally, the concern did a loan and 
trust business e.xclusively, but in 1903 

broadened its scope. The original 
officers of this financial concern 
were: P. K. Buskirk, president; John 
T. Woodward, secretarv; Directors: 
J. D. Showers, Fred Matthews, W. N. 
Showers, H. C. Duncan, Ira Batman, 
N. U. Hill, W. T. Hicks, W. S. Brad- 

Bloomington National Bank. 

While many strangers, especially 
among incoming students of Indiana 
University, at first confuse the names 
of Bloomington's two National Banks, 
they soon learn that the city of higher 
learning proudly possesses, maintains 
and supports two National banks. 

The Bloomington National Bank, 
while the youngest of the city's finan- 
cial concerns doing banking business, 
is far from being weak as the last 
published bank statement shows. 

This concern is located in the Allen 
Block, and was organized and char- 
tered just before the memorial fin- 
ancial turmoil of 1907, with W. H. 
Adams as its first president. The 
bank soon became recognized as a 
strong financial institution having 
been chosen as a United States De- 

Reflect Soundness of Business. 

Bloomington may well be congratu- 
lated for the prosperous showing of 
her banking concerns in the first 
month of 1922, as the growth of these 
institutions only reflects the progress 
and growth of the community's busi- 
ness life. 

Did Ruskin anticipate the founding 
of the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts ? 
It would seem so from the following 
note to "Sesame and Lilies," which 
was pu'olished in 1865: "I wish there 
were a true order of chivalry institut- 
ed for our English youth of certain 
ranks in which both boy and girl 
should receive, at a given age, their 
knighthood and ladyhood by true title; 
attainable only by certain probation 
and trial both of character and ac- 
complishment; and to be forfeited, on 
con\-iction by their peers of any dis- 
honorable act." — New York Evening 

Cozy Ward in Bloomington Hospital 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 



Old Todd Settlement as Near as Residents Ever Came to Having a Town in 
Boundaries — Chapel Hill Project a Failure — Account of Early Life in 

In the late forties and early fif- 
ties, counterfeiters and horse thieves, 
burglars and crooks of every kind 
seemed to over run Indiana when they 
found poor shelter for their depreda- 
tion in other parts of the country, and 
Monroe county received her share of 
these unwholesome guests. 

Within the county where the rough 
country was sparcely inhabited, the 
ravines, morasses and almost impen- 
etratable thickets furnished excellent 
retreats for these outlaws and the 
light-fingered gentry plied their depre- 
dations upon the more reliable neigh- 

Counterfeit Money Too Plentiful. 

In some localities of the state neigh- 
bor could place no dependence in 
neighbor, for the inducements to pass 
counterfeit money were indeed strong, 
owing to the poverty of the masses 
and the great advantage a few hun- 
dred dollars would give to a man in 
that early period. 

Many men of otherwise good char- 
acter, who had previously bore good 
reputations were sometimes induced 
to connect themselves with manufac- 
turers of counterfeit bills or bogus 
coin, in order to reap a harvest for the 
time-being, intending to later resume 
their old places of respectability 
among their fellow-men. 

The southeastern portion of Mon- 
roe county showed early evidence of 
illegal ti'ansactions of this character, 
and several residents of Polk township 
were at times suspected of complicity, 
but nothing definite was learned until 
late in the fifties. 

Before this, counterfeit bills on dif- 
ferent state banks and bad coin of fair 
appearance, color and weight had 
made its apperance in the county at 
stores, and steps had been taken to 
find just who it was that had been 
guilty of the deeds, but the rascals had 
a well organized system and complete- 
ly baffled the authorities. 

It is probable that more of this 
doubtful money was actually manufac- 
tured within the county, but passers 
of counterfeit money w-ere, neverthe- 
less, iiuite numberous. 

"Regulators" Organize. 

This condition of affairs finally led 
to the organization of what was known 
as regulators — men of honesty in 
Monroe county and vicinity — who re- 
solved to end by their own efforts the 
careers of lawbreakers, if careful vig- 
ilance and persistent effort could pos- 
sibly bring such things to pass. We 
may state now, that these men did 
succeed, and the plan soon became 
quite popular as a means of settling 
with criminals . 

One man was shot in the jail at 
Bloomington by a mysterious crowd of 

men, who overpowered the guards. 

Wiiile the plan had been a success 
for the purpose it was originally 
meant, it led, however, to grave abuses 
in a short time. 

In more than one section of the 
county, a number of men who enter- 
tained a grudge against a neighbor, 
would assemble at night, thoroughly 
disguised, and then give the man a 
terrible whipping. 

Bingham Case Recalled. 

One man, named Bingham, was 
treated thus, and so severe was the 
punishment he received that his body 
was a mass of bruised and blackened 
flesh from the whipping he received. 
The man died from his wounds in a 
few days. It was stated by persons 
who lived at that time, that the man 
was undoubtedly an honest citizen. 

Another man named Vansickle, who 
lived in the southern part of Monroe 
county, was so severely whipped by 
masked men who took him out one 
night, that he died from the effects 
in a ftw months, at what has become 
known as "Vansickle's Mill," in the 

southern part of Morgan county. 
Town Would Not Grow. 

Polk township, in Monroe county, 
like Salt Creek township, also had 
hopes of building a thriving city at 
one time. When the township was 
created it was named for President 
James K. Polk, in 1849, and the near- 
est to a village was established at 
"Todd's Big Springs" where elections 
were held in the house of John Todd 
for several years. The old blacksmith 
shop was later used. Wilie Davis 
and Samuel Axam were the first 
fence viewers, Peter Norman was 
first inspector of elections and 
Wilie Davis was the first constable 
in the township. 

David Miller and John Smith 
thought that the township should be 
represented by having a metropolis 
within its lines, and in October, 1856, 
these two men, as owners, employed 
the county surveyor to lay off twenty- 
seven lots on the northwest quarter of 
the southeast quarter of Section 31, 
Township 7 north. Range 1 east, in 
Polk township, and named the village 
thus started on paper "Chapel Hill." 
Hopes End in Disapointment. 

Their hopes of establishing a thriv- 
ing city were soon doomed to disap- 
pointment, for after the start was 
made the infant vilage was too weak 
to survive for any length of time. But, 
although the village died there .still 
remains near the site one of the most 
pictures(|ue hills with its steep road 
blasted and carved through and over 
the solid rock. 


Monroe Lodge, No. 22, F. and A. M., 
held its annual banquet in the City of 
Bloomington, December 29, 1921, with 
nioie than 400 men seated about the 
friendly board, the following account 
of which appeared in the Bloomington 
Evening World of December 30, 1921: 

Plans for a new .$200,000 Masonic 
Temple for Monroe Lodge, No. 22, 
were unfolded by the building com- 
mittee, at the annual banciuet, last 
night. The Temple is to be erected 
on the Masonic lot, corner of College 
avenue and Seventh street, and will 
face on Seventh, opposite the post- 
office. (This lot is now occupied by the 
"old Seminary building," mentioned 
elsewhere in this book). 

Ways and means for financing the 
project were explained in detail, the 
plan of the committee being to allow 
members to make twenty equal pay- 
ments semi-annually over a period of 
ten years after they have subscribed 
for stock. Total amount of resources 
already on hand counting cost of the 
lot are about .?30,000. 

.-Architect Explains. 

Mr. Hunter, of the firm of Rubush 
& Hunter, Indianapolis architects, 
was present and by the aid of stere- 
optican slides, showed drawings of the 
inside of the Temple. The ground 
floor will contain an assembly room 

for taking care of the social features, 
which may be used by Masons at any 
time of the day or night. It also will 
contain a library where Masoni-j liter- 
ature will be available, as well as a 
roomy office for the secretary's use. 

The banquet room is to be 50 by 87 
feet, and a ladies' lounge 18 by 19. 
There will be living quartei's for a 
custodian and family. The main as- 
sembly room will be 50 by 67 feet, and 
the men's lounge 24 by 35 feet. The 
main lodge floor will be 69 feet long 
and 50 feet wide, with a balcony 
extending around the room. There will 
be a stage 22 by 50 feet— half as large 
as the present Blue Lodge room. 

The building is to be erected of 
native stone, with two massive col- 
umns at the entrance. A forced ventil- 
ation system is to be installed. 

Professor U. S. Hanna explained in 
detail plans worked out by the com- 
mittee for raising money to build this 
Temple. The original plans as worked 
out provided for an increase in tlues, 
but this plan was abandoned. The 
committee decide<l to ask for contri- 
butions from the membership, based 
upon payments semi-annually, and 
booklets are to be mailed to the mem- 
bership in a short time, explaining 
the plan in full. 

An open discussion was asked for 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

by the building committee, after the 
details had been divulged, and a rising 
vote was taken, expressing unanimous 
thanks as approval and confidence in 
the committee and support of its work. 
Many present were in fa\or of stai't- 
ing work at once on the new building, 
and the committee announced that 
actual construction would start as 
soon as funds are received. 

Interesting Information. 

Interesting information concerning 
the Temple project was given by Fred 
Matthews, chairman of the building 
committee, and the other members of 
the committee, who are W. E. Show- 
ers, Professor Thomas E. Nicholson, 
M. L. Borden, T. J. Sare, Professor U. 
S. Hanna and Allen Buskirk. 

Mr. Showers spoke of what citizens 
owe the community in which they live, 
declaring that they can not take out 
more than they put into a com- 
munity, and thai it is necessary for us 
to each pay a debt we owe to our home 
town as much as an obligation at a 
bank. He expressed himself as being 
enthusiastic over the building of the 
Temple, and referred to the joy 
of self-sacrifice from sheer civic pride. 
"To put this Temple project over, it 
will reciuire sacrifice," he said, "but it 
would not be worth a cent if it did 
not." He asserted the building will 
be a lasting monument to the city of 
Bloomington, and the only wonder is 
that the membership of the lodge has 
not demanded it long before this time. 
Mr. Showers's father was a member 
of the building committee, and the 
Temple project was a matter dear to 
his heart. W. E. Showers showed 
his great interest and love for the 
lodge and his home town by attending 
the meeting on crutches, where he 
made an elo(|uent plea for the build- 
ing project. 

Gave History of Lodge. 

Allen Buskirk said Monroe lodge 
deserves and should have a home of 
its own. He explained all the good 
points of the new Temple, and said 
that one important feature is that the 
wives and tiaughters of Masons are 
to be well taken care of in the new 
buildhig. He said the banquet room 
is to be able to care for the entire 
membership with ease and with the 
lounge room at the side, will house 
an overflow of 200 or more. In clos- 
ing, he said it was his father's most 
sacred wish and desire that Monroe 
lodge have a new home. 

Mr. U. H. Smith, toastmaster of the 
banquet, introduced M. L. Borden as 
the old "wheel horse." Mr. Borden 
spoke on the necessity of unity, and 
in his interesting manner, gave a 
history of the early Masoiiic struggles 
in the community. Monroe lodge was 
instituted at Bloomington, in 1840 and 
with the lodge divided several years 
later, over the question of building a 
hall, seven or eight men financed the 
project alone. These men were the 
late Morton C. Hunter, George A. 
Buskirk, J. G. McPheeters, William 
R. Tarkington, I. A, Holtzman, James 
B. Clark and Wallace Right, pioneers 
in Masonry of Monroe county and 
Bloomington, whose memory is now 

honored and revered by later Masons. 
Legal Advisor Talks. 

Thomas J. Sare, legal ad\-isor of 
the building committee, said money 
must be made available before the 
Temple is started. Those who take 
.stock will, in reality, be making an 
outright donation, as their stock will 
carry no voting power. Members will 
sign notes for their stock and as soon 
as a sufficient number of notes have 
been taken up, the committee will bor- 
row money on the remainder and thus 
push the Temple to completion. 

U. H. Smith, bursar of Indiana Uni- 
versity, presided as toastmaster, fol- 
lowing the turkey banciuet, which was 
served by the ladies of the Eastern 
Star. After invocation by Dr. C. H. 
Taylor, pastor of the First Methodist 
church of Bloomington, a vote of 
thanks was extended to the Eastern 
Star for the splendid menu, which in- 
cluded escalloped oysters, mashed po- 
tatoes, peas, baked beans, fruit salad 
celery, hot rolls, pickles, brick ice 
cream, cake, coffee, and cigars. 

Mr. Smith presented retiring Mas- 
ter, Professor Thomas E. Nicholson, 
who reported that sixty petitioners 
had been raised to Master Masons 

during 1921. He praised his excel- 
lent corps of officers and the mem- 
bers for their loyal attendance and 
assistance. He referred to the fact 
that there are over 2,000,000 Masons 
in the country, and spoke of the good 
they have accomplished in their re- 
spective communities. 

George Washington a Mason. 

George Washington, first President 
of the United States, was a Mason, 
as were fifty of the fifty-six signers 
of the Declaration of Independence. 
"Masonry, down through the ages, 
has formed the bulwark of good citi- 
zenship," he said. 

Professor Logan Esarey, newly- 
elected Master, made a short, witty 
talk, and gave way to John R. Stemm, 
division superintendent of the Monon • 
railroad, who emphasized the effect 
Masonry has had among employes of 
the railroad. He said Masonry has 
produced better employes, who give 
better service, "and I am thankful 
that it is growing on the Monon rail- 
road," he declared. He complimented 
Bloomington as being one of the most 
progressive and rapid-growing cities 
along the whole Monon system. 




In a number of old newspaper clip- 
pings we have been able to look 
through recently, we find one which 
appeals to our sense of news value 
as interesting reading and contain- 
ing information of importance for 
the reading public today and for fu- 
ture generations. 

The old clipping was only marked 
with "London Paper, 1834" in lead 
pencil, written on the margin, there- 
fore, we can not state what the name 
of the publication was in which the 
article was first printed. The sub- 
ject of the article is the feature that 
seems of importance: 


"When the properties of steam and 

its powers were ascertained, it was 
supposed human genius would extend 
no further; still, since then we have 
had our streets and houses lighted by 
gas, and now we are to have our res- 
idence warmed and our provisions 
dressed without the use of 'fire, 
flame, smoke, steam, gas, oil, spirit, 
chemical prepai'ation, or any danger- 
our substance whatever." 

"Incredible as this may appear, it 
is no less true, an ingenious German 
having invented a machine by which 
it may be accomplished. 

"It is about (blurred) inches high, 
12 inches wide and 9 inches deep. 
It has the appearance of a minature 
chest of drawers, and is surmounted 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


by an inverted crescent, which is hol- 
low for the purpose of containing 

"It is called 'Wenn's Solar Stove,' 
and is heated by 'elementary heat,' 
produced, accordnig to the words of 
the inventor, by 'separate and com- 
bined elements.' It may be used with 
greatest safety in ships, and manu- 
factories or ware houses, where in 
(blured) of the combustible, most of 
the stock fires are prohibited. 

"The process of heating is so clean, 
and simple that a lady having white 
gloves on may perform it without 
soiling them, or a child three years 
of age without injury. 

"Yesterday, its powers were exhib- 
ited at the West Indian Docks, be- 
fore Captain Parrish, the dock master; 
T. Sheldarke, Esq., engineer; — — 
Beck, Esg., and a number of other 
gentlemen connected with the Dock 
Company, who expressed the greatest 
surprise at Wenn's invaluable discov- 
ery, and they considered it would be 
of incalcuable service to the Navy, etc. 

"Heat was produced by invisible 

means in less than two minutes, and 
in less than three minutes afterwards, 
water which had been put cold into 
the crescent, boiled with such force, 
that the window of the room in which 
it was tried was compelled to be 
opened to let the steam escape. 

"There is a drawer of tin in the 
machine in which a steak or chop 
can be cooked in its own gravy, but 
there not being one at hand the ex- 
periment was not tried. 

"Three hours after it had been 
heated from which nothing had been 
done to it, was found to be still so 
hot that it could scarcely be touched 
by the naked hand, although it had 
been carried from the Dock to the 

"We understand it is the intention 
of the ingenious inventor, who has 
expended all he was possessed of in 
brmging it to perfection, to exhibit 
it to the public at the Museum of 
Arts and Sciences, in Leicester 
square. — London Paper. 

(We wonder what ever became of 
this mysterious invention.) 


It is about seventeen years since 
the Salvation Army commenced work 
in Bloomington. There was some ex- 
citement among the onlookers when 
the army officers appeared on the 
street for open air service. The uni- 
form, cap and tunic and poke bon- 
net worn by the officers, and their 
weapons of warfare consisting of 
tamborine, cornet, guitar and big 
drum seemed to some people to be 
out of place in religious meetings. 

A store room on West Sixth street 

became the place of worship for in- 
door services. The novelty of this 
seemingly odd procedure aroused the 
curiosity of the people, who flocked 
in large crowds to the store room to 
see the new show, but soon began to 
realize they were in a place that was 
termed: "A Red Hot Gospel Meet- 
ing." During the revival services 
many notorious characters were con- 
verted and showed by their actions 
that a change in life had been 
wrought. There was some misunder- 
standing and persecution in the early 

days, but the bulk of the inhabitance 
many years ago were led to see that 
there had been good results accom- 
plished through the methods adopted 
l)y the Salvation Army. 

It is well understood that the army's 
local work is for the preaching of 
the gospel truths and uplifting of fal- 
len hunicinity from sinful careers to 
lives of honesty, sobriety and right- 

The local crops has various branches 
of activity, such as preparing and 
distributing Christmas cheer baskets, 
winters relief work, summer outings 
for mothers and children, Sunday 
school work, week night meetings for 
young people and regular gospel serv- 
ices the whole year round. 

Ensign and Mrs. Brookes are the 
officers in charge of Bloomington 

Salvation Army Baskets Ready for Christmas" Delivery 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


I'ps and Downs of Early Kxistence of Thrivins: Village Shown in History of 
Enterprise Exhibited by Early Inhabitants — Interesting Facts Pieced To- 
gether— $18,500 Woolen Factory Erected in 1864. 

Harrodsburg, situated in Clear 
Creek Township, Monroe County, In- 
diana, was laid out by Alexander 
Buchanan, proprietor, and John Sed- 
wick, surveyor, in December, 1836, on 
the northeast corner of the southwest 
quarter of Section 29, Township 7 
north, range 1 west. 

The original plat of the now 
flourishing little town of Harrods- 
burg was made up of twenty-four 
lots and the village was named New- 

Newgene Renamed Harrodsburg. 

Levi Sugai't laid out an addition 
of three lots to the village of New- 
gene, in May, 1837, and for some 
reason (we cannot find out at this 
time just why the name was 
changed), the name of the village 
wax changed to Harrodsburg. 

Berkey & Isominger are said to 
have started the first store in the 
place, and took out a license in 1836. 
Jacob Corman took out a liquor li- 
cense in 1839, paying $25 for the 
same. Tilford & Glass also estab- 
lished a store in th,e early life of the 
village. A. and P. Carmiehael, who 
were in business in Sanford in the 
early days, are said also to have 
established a business in Harrods- 

The early families of the village 
(then Newgene) were, Henry Ber- 
key, who is said to have purchased a 
lot conditionally before the place was 
laid out; Joseph Cranshaw, Job Hor- 
ton, Samuel Baugh, Richard Emp- 
son, Alexander Buchanan, and a 
widow lady named Cully, and others 

For about a year, in 1844, there 
had been no store in Harrodsburg. 
then S. W. and J. D, Urmey opened 
a stock of general merchandise worth 
probably $450, and in the following 
year Paris Vestal also opened a 

The first resident physician in the 
village was James Beatley, who was 
also reputed to have been a peda- 
gogue of considerable reputation in 
the community. 

Baugh & Empson were tanners, as 
was Rufus Finley, who erecueu a K»n- 
nery about fortv rods down the little 
creek at the village. 

Creek Took Name From Indian. 

It was told by early settlers that 
the little creek took its name from 
Ro-si-neah, an old chief of the Dela- 
ware Indians, who. when the first 
settlement was made, was encamped 
in a large hollow sycamore tree on 
the bank of the stream. In pro- 
nouncing the name, accent the last 

Vestal continued with his business 

for about two years, then sold out 
to Moore & Baugh. Greason was 
Vestal's partner for a time, as was 
Mr. McCrea. 

Vestal and Sutherland were part- 
ners for a while in 1848, then con- 
tinued in business as separate con- 
cerns. About 1849 James W. Carter 
was in business in the place, and 
about 1850, Sutherland & Graham 
formed a partnership of short dura- 
tion. The Urmeys continued in busi- 
ness, and Odell & Walker were in 
business about this time. In 1853 
Sutherland & Baugh dissolved their 
partnership in July, which had only 
lasted a short time. 

Packing Concern Organized. 

Alexander Sutherland and Dugan 
Jones formed a partnership in April, 
1852, and established their business 
of the general merchandising, pack- 
ing pork, buying and shipping grain 
and provisions and buying and sell- 
ing real estate. Sutherland is said 
to have furnished $4,000 and Jones 
$2,000 of the capital in the concern, 
and two-thirds of the profits and 

losses were assumed by the senior 
partner. Henry Baugh was alone in 
business at that time, as was W. N. 

Among the business men after 
these early pioneers were. Carter & 
Dunn, Mr. Waldrip, Julius Sijes, Har- 
mon & Buchanan, East & Deckard, 
Judy & Kinser, Oliphant & Pearson, 
Oliphant & Girton, Carmiehael & 
Urmv, Oliphant & Woodward, Wool- 
erv & Wolf, Wolf & Son, Perdue & 
Wolf, Urmey & McFaddin, Purdue 
& Woolery, Sephenson & Carmiehael, 
H. C. Smallwood, Deckard & Cham- 
bers, Kisner & Smallwood, W. Kin- 
ser, Granger's store. Strain & Wood- 
ward, and perhaps a few others. 
Shipping Helped Growth. 

Beginning about 1853, the firm of 
Sutherland & Jones did a lal-ge busi- 
ness in packing pork and shipping 
the same, along with grain, in flat- 
boats down the creeks to markets of 
the south. They sent out from eight 
to twelve boat loads during a season, 
and employed from foily to fifty 

This firm did an aggregate busi- 
ness of little less than $100,000. This 
gave an appearance of great thrift 
to the little town of Herrodsburg, 
and influenced many people to locate 
in the place, who may have other- 
wise passed on to larger cities. 
Business Flourished. 

During the forties Urmey & Iso- 
minger shipped grain by boat from 
the village, as did the Urmey broth- 
ers. Sutherland & Jones lost con- 
siderable money on pork and were 
gradually forced to suspend opera- 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


tions, but with the firms obligations 
all paid off. 

In 1861 Carmichael & Urmey be- 
gan a big business in pork packing, 
and the first year they packed 1,800 
hogs. The business increased until 
about forty men were employed by 
the concern, and as high as 3,500 
hogs were slaughtered in a season. 
Considerable grain was also shipped 
by this concern, which continued in 
business until about 1877, when they 
failed through losses and compro- 
mised honorably with their creditors. 

The railroad had been completed 
in 1853, and this was quite an added 
boost for the town, as it afforded a 
much better means of reaching the 
markets than did the old water 

Later Indus,tries. 

Among the leading industries that 
later flourished in the thriving little 
town was a distillery operated by 
Brown & Dekard, about 1865, the ca- 
pacty of the distillery being about 
twenty gallons a day. Chambers & 
Strain were afterward owners. 

.J. M. Anderson conducted a cabi- 
net factory of no mean dimensions, 
beginning early in the fifties. Stipp 
& Strain built a big grist mill in 
1866, costing about $8,000, which 
later passed to the ownership of 
Woolery, Stevenson & Co., and then 
to John Stephenson, who operated the 
mill for many years. 

Oliphant, Woodward & Carmichael 
built a large woolen factory about 
1864, at the close of the war of the 
Rebellion, which cost about $18,500 
including the machinery and equip- 

The factory began operations after 
necessary help was employed and 
turned out considerable quantities of 
wool, yarn, flannels, jeans and cas- 

It seems that the enterprise was 
started at an inopportune time, for 
various changes were made in owner- 
ship of the concern, and at last the 
business was abandoned about 1879 
or 1880, when the population of the 
village was about 260. 



"I was working for my uncle, in 
a grocery in New Albany, Ind., when 
the war broke out in 1860," said W. 
W. Wicks, founder of the modern 
department store bearing his name, 
"and one day, he sent me up town 
to order a barrel of sugar and some 
flour from the wholesale house. 
When I got up town, I saw a crowd 
of men, and I crowded in to see what 
they were about. 

"It was a Recruiter! 

"I saw my chum, and bannered him 
to enlist — that night we were march- 
ing over to Jeffersonville as soldiers 
in the three-month's sei-vice (Lincoln's 
first call for volunteers). 

"Never did hear whether my uncle 
got his sugar or not," continued the 
veteran business man as well as sol- 
dier, "because I came to Blooming- 
ton after my three-months enlist- 
ment ended, and there re-enlisted in 
the three-years service." 

Since the close of thp great civil 
war, in 1865. Mr. W. W. Winks has 
been prominent in the development 
of numerous business enterprizes of 
Bloomington and Monroe county. 
When asked concerning some of the 
ventures Mr. Wicks stated that when 
"we started the 'Bee Hive' fthi'; ^tnre 
developed into the present-day Wicks 
store of Bloomington), wo did not 
have much of a stock, and little capi- 
tal — but we advertised what we had, 
and we did a good job of advertising, 
thf^'efovp it had to p-o. 

"I helped organize three stone 
comnan'es. pnd nr>pn'-d sor«\ nuarvips 
— but I organized one stone oom- 
panv which I didn't organize. 

"There was a piece of land I ran 
across which showed outcropnings of 
as fine looking" stone as you could 
want. I contracted for an option on 
this land, the" sn'd stock in mv com- 
pany to New York people who trusted 
my word without even looking at my 

proposition. Then, I decided I 
wanted somebody in the company I 
could talk to, so I decided to let Henry 
Showers have some of my stock. 

"Well, I made arrangements to 
take Henry out to look the proposi- 
tion over, and we drove to this land, 
and were walking across the fields, 
and were just climbing over a fence. 
I had one foot in the air when some- 
thing hit me! 

"It hit me just like a blow from 
one's fist! 

"Something said: 'Tain't no good!' 
in just those words. 

"I called to Henry Showers, and al- 
most paralyzed him, with: 'Henry, 
it ain't no good — no use you going 
any further.' 

"He was a little aggrivated, and 
insisted that we loot the place over 
as we had wasted all the energry of 
driving to the place. After viewing 
the rock which showed, he insisted 
that it was a dandy prospect for a 
stone quarry, and I had to acknow- 
ledge that it looked awful good to 
me — but I was convinced that it was 

no good, and would have felt guilty 
to have allowed them to go ahead. 
Then we decided to put in a couple 
cores and blast deeper than the sur- 
face which had shown. 

"Sure enough — It was no good! 

"I paid the stock purchasers their 
money back, then stood a damage suit 
from the man who owned the land, 
and finally compromised by paying 
him a good sum of money out of my 
own pocket. That's one Wicks Com- 
pany I organized that I didn't organ- 

Mr. Wicks, although retired from 
actual business activities, still re- 
tains not a little prestige among busi- 
ness men of the present period as a 
rather keen advisor whose advice is 
sought for in weighty financial mat- 


What will be known as the "peace" 
dollar came into circulation Jan. 1, 
1922. The Philadelphia mint coined 
856,473 of them in December so there 
would be enough of the 1921 date to 
prevent tlieir being held for a pre- 
mium by coin collectors. On one side 
is the head of Liberty and on the 
other is an eagle at rest, (which may 
be mistaken for a dove of peace, as 
the "spread eagle" is shown on most 
coins), on a mountain top clutching a 
broken sword struck by the sun's 
rays. Under the eagle is the word, 
"peace." (Mentioned elsewhere in 
this book.) 

About 100,000,000 of the new dol- 
lars will be coined unless special 
legislation provides for a larger total. 
This is the first new dollar design 
since 1878. The law provides that the 
design shall not be changed more fre- 
quently than every twenty-five years. 
The coinage of silver dollars stopped 
in 1904, but was resumed last Feb- 
ruary when the purchase of silver 
was begun under the Pittman act to 
replace silver dollars melted and sold 
during the war. In recent years the 
paper dollar has been more common 
than the silver dollar. Silver cer- 
tificates. United States notes, treasury 
notes of 1890 and Federal Reserve 
Bank notes are issued in dollar de- 
nominations. In the east there has 
been a prejudice against the silver 
dollar for many years. In the far 
west there existed as much prejudice 
against paper dollars. Several mil- 
lions of the old silver dollars are in 
circulation and with 100,000,000 of 
the new dollars coming, the silver 
dollar should become common again. 


Above all things — we have the fish 
on the court house. 

"Ann" had nothing on his Pisca- 
torial Majesty which floats at the 
highest pinnacle in the city. 

We ask — "How old is the fish on 
the court house?" It is highly prob-# 
able that no person living, even at 
this writing, can correctly answer 
that question. The big metal fish has 
been a weather vane above the cour* 
house beyond the memory of the old- 
est living inhabitant of Monroe coun- 
ty. We harken back to the days of 
forty years ago. At that time there 
was a belfry on top of the county 

building, with a small bell hanging 
in it. Above it was the fish. Some- 
one died several years before and left 
a legacy of $200 for a town clock. 
Additions to this sum were made at 
various times from the proceeds of 
amateur entertainments, principally 
civen by the Mendelssohn Society. 
The fund became sufficient to build a 
fine new cupalo for housing the town 
clock on the old court house. The 
fish came down for a few weeks when 
it was again perched aloof — proudly, 
perhaps — on the new cupalo. 

Just one other time did his Pisca- 
torial Majesty descend to earth. That 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

was when Monroe county decided to 
erect a new $200,000 court house, 
proudly termed a "temple of justice." 
The fish was then examined at close 

Henry J. Feltus 

quarters. Length, three feet, nine 
inches; made of metal that has stood 
the weather of years. 

The (lay came when gold brick.s and 
blue sky oil stock were the vogue. 

"An appropriate emblem of the town," 
people said of the fish — "sucker." 
But back went the fish to the highest 
point to the new temple of justice, 
again to wave in the breeze of the 
four seasons of the year. 

Who has not returned to his home 
town of Bloomington and to himself 
said, "That old fish on the court 
house looks good to me!" Like the 
Star Spangled Banner, we say of the 
fish — Long may it wave! 

Henry J. Feltus is the Jean of newspaper 
men of Bloominjrton. and a pioneer of Mon- 
roe county journalism. He established the 
Weekly Courier in BloominKton in 1875. and 
later the Daily Courier. At the time of publi- 
cation of this book Mr. Feltus, at the age 
of 75, is actively enpraged as a feature and 
editorial writer for The Bloomington Weekly 
Star, successful country newspaper, modern- 
ized, yet retaining the zest of the old school 
of newspaper writing. Mr. Feltus' "Lick- 
skillet Items," "Star Twinkles," and editorial 
paragraphs are known to nearly every news- 
I)aper man in the state. Probably his most 
popular feature. "The Stroller," was origi- 
nated only recently. It is with the sharp wit 
of The Stroller that he eulogizes the old tin 
fish on the Monroe county courthouse in this 

The accumulations of Christmas 
funds in the United States last year 
amounted to $150,000,000. 

The average wage earner in the 
United States consumes 1,775 pounds 
of food a year. 

Fogs indicate unsettled weather. A 
morning fog usually lifts before noon. 


City Established First Waterworks System in Early '90s — Water Shortages 
Annoy Citizens in 1899, 1901, 1908, and 1913— Near Shortage Averted in 
Summer of 1921 — Griffey Creek Project Defeated at Polls Last November. 

Few municipal elections or cam- 
paigns in Bloomington in recent years 
have been waged without the city 
water supply entering into the con- 
tentions of the rival parties as an im- 
portant factor. Ever since Blooming- 
ton first established a water works 
system in the early '90s, located 2H 
miles west of the city on the Stanford 
road, the question of obtaining an 
adequate water supply for patrons of 
the system has been a burning one in 
local politics. It has been the policy 
of succeeding- administrations to en- 
large and extend the system origin- 
ally established west of the city, and 
to provide for the growng needs of 
a growing city in that way 

The first waterworks systems es- 
tablished in Bloomington, when wells 
and cisterns no longer fulfilled the 
demands of a growing population, 
consisted of one small lake, still in 
existence as a part of the present 
plant, but rarely used. A small pump- 
ing outfit was purchased to lift the 
water from the level of the lake to a 
reservoir situated on the summit of a 
neai'-by hill. The water flowed into 
the city by the force of gravity, but 
the presure was soon found to be 
wholly inadequate to provide homes 
with satisfactory water conveniences. 
First Shortage in 1899. 

The presure was not the only de- 
ficiency of the original plant. In 1899 

came the first water shortage, when 
a long summer drought reduced the 
supply to the extent that water was 
available only on certain days, and 
then only in a limited amount to each 
consumer. Succeeding shortages oc- 
curred in 1901, 1908, and 1913, each 
serious in its magnitude and impress- 
ing the thoughtful people of the town 
that some move had to be made to- 
ward obtaining a better source of 
supply. For several years it was a 
puzzle to determine the exact cause 
of the water shortage. Apparently 
the rainfall was sufficient, the drain- 
age area large enough, but when the 
water was pumped from the lakes the 
supply proved inadequate. 

By 1903 the original plant had been 
enlarged by the acquisition of ad- 
ditional small spi-ings as sources of 
supply for the lakes, and additional 
dams built to collect the water. In 
1904 the first real movement was 
launched to abandon the entire region 
west of town in favor of Griffey 
creek valley as a possible source of 
the water supply for the city. In the 
spring of that year. Dr. E. R. Cum- 
ings, of the geology department of 
Indiana University, speaking before 
an organization composed of both 
townspeople and faculty interested in 
community progress, brought out the 
hitherto unknown fact that the lime- 
stone formation of the land west of 

Bloomington rendered it impractic- 
able as a site for an adequate water- 
works system. Daily, he claimed, large 
quantities of water !eake<l out from 
the dams through the porous lime- 
stone. Since then there has been a 
constant agitation on the part of 
a considerable element of Blooming- 
ton people to move the waterworks 
plant to Griffey creek, which has been 
just as furiously opposed by another 

Ship Water Into City. 

But the successive water shortages 
following the enlargement of the 
plant discouraged its most ardent 
boosters. In 1908 came a serious 
shortage, followed by the University 
installing a plant of its own in the 
Griffey creek vklley. In that year 
the situation became so desperate 
from the University's standpoint that 
water was shipped into the city in 
tank cars on the Illinois Central rail- 
road and run to the University build- 
ings by means of a specially laid pipe 
line. The experience of that year 
convinced University offciials that 
the present region was unfit as a 
source of water supply because of its 
geological features. 

The net shortage came in 1913, 
when the supply in the lakes west of 
town became the lowest in years. 
Citizens of Bloomington and the leg- 
islature demanded some immediate 
action on the part of the city officials 
to relieve the situation. "The result 
was another enlargement of the orig- 
inal plant by adding the Leonard 
spring to the feeding force of the 
lakes. Since that time Leonard's 
spring has sei-ved as the bulwark of 
the city's water supply. 

Advert Shortage in 1921. 

Apparently the problem was settieti 
with the addition of the Leonard's 
spring project, but it only took a few 
years to prove that even that was in- 
adequate. The pvoof was clinched 
last summer when a near shortage 
was narrowly averted. Then it was 
that the administration in power de- 
termined on a project in the Griffey 
creek valley. A large engineering 
concern was consulted and plans and 
specifications drawn for a plant, op- 
tions were obtained on land to guar- 
antee a large drainage area, and es- 
timates of the cost of such a plant 
were submitted. The majority of 
the citizens of Bloomington hesitated 
on an expenditure of nearly $800,000 
for a new waterworks system, and 
they voiced their disapproval of the 
project last November by electing 
John G. Harris mayor, who is op- 
posed td any change in the plant 
from its present location. — Dale Cox, 
in The Indiana Daily Student. 

Among the first acts of the new 
administration Bloomington's city 
council, in January, 1922, co-operated 
with Mayor Harris, in passing an or- 
dinance to improve and enlarge the 
city's present water system. 

The most appalling accident in his- 
tory was the falling of an amphi- 
theater in Rome in the time of Ti- 
berius. Fifty thousand people were 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 





Ninety-eight yeai-s of age, widow 
of the first male child born in Mon- 
roe county, is the enviable record of 
Mrs. EU'eanor Caroline (Reddick) 
Buskirk, of Bloomington, who, it is 
believed, is the oldest person now 
living in Monroe county. 

Sunday, January 22, 1922, a num- 
ber of relatives and close friends of 
Mrs. Buskirk, gathered at her coun- 
try home, situated just north of 
Bloomington, to pay respect and hon- 
or to the wonderful mother, who has 
survived in a Christian life all the 
trials and tribulations of an active 

Elleanor Caroline Buskirk was the 
daughter of Thomas and Nancy Red- 
dick, and was born January 22, 1824, 
in Stokes county. North Carolina. 
When she was a small child, her par- 
ents, with her three brothers and 
three sisters, brought her to Indiana. 
They traveled overland from their 
.southern home through the wild and 
Indian infested wilderness in a cov- 
ered wagon to the then comparative- 
ly new town of Bloomington, Indiana, 
where the father decided to make his 
home and rear his family. 

On September 21, 1841, the demure 
maid of seventeen became the proud 
vnfe of William H. Buskirk (who 
was taught to believe that he was 
the first male white child to have 
been born in Monroe county on Dec- 
ember 8, 1819, his birth place hav- 
ing been on a farm just east of 

Bloomington). William H., and El- 
leanor Caroline (Reddick) Buskirk 
were blessed in their wedded union 
by the birth of five sons and four 
daughters: Thomas, James, David W. 
William H., Ulesses Grant, and Nan- 
cy E., Harriet C, Amanda, and Ella 
C. Bu.skirk. Two of these cnUclreii 
are the only survivors with the moth- 
er of this pioneer family of sons and 
daughters. Harriet C. (Buskirk) 
Hughes, of North Washington street, 
Bloomington, widow of the late Cap- 
tain W. B. Hughes; and Amanda 
(Buskirk) Tourner, wife of Dr. J. P. 
Tourner, of Bloomington, are the 
daughters who live to honor their 
mother on the occasion of her ninety- 
eighth birthday anniversary. 

Having seen Monroe county and 
Blooming-ton develop from the hard- 
ships and privations of pioneer life 
into its present-day proportions of 
comfort of the city of higher learning 
gives Mrs. Buskirk, our pioneer 
mother, a great deal of satisfaction, 
as she has taken an active and helpful 
part in every stage of the commun- 
ity's growth, along with rearing her 
family in the Christian teachings of 
her faith. 

She still keeps in active touch with 
the affairs of the Methodist church 
life, of which she has been so much 
a part in her capacity as daughter, 
wife, mother, neighbor or friend, and 
has ever been loved by those asso- 

ciated with her, who in part share 
htr triumph in reaching the prime 
age of ninety-eight profitable years. 

Perhaps the most trying period of 
Elleanor Buskirk's useful life was 
during the years of the terrible civil 
war, when her husband answered his 
country's call to colors, leaving her 
with six children on a big, lonely 
farm, where she kept the sacred 
home fires ever burning, never losing 
faith in her prayer that the Great 
God would see that right would tri- 
umph, and bless her fkmily with the 
return of her husband with honor to 
his country. 

While her husband. Lieutenant 
William H. Buskirk was serving his 
country, in this war, the wife, with 
the help of her son, David H., who 
was but a small lad at the time, man- 
aged not alone to keep the farm go- 
ing, but paid off a mortgage and 
turned the farm over to her husband 
cleared of debt as a present upon his 
return from service. 

Mrs. Buskirk recalls vividly inci- 
dents of impressive moment in the 
Mexican war, the Civil war, the 
Spanish-American, and the World 
war. She gathers much satisfaction 
from the fact that she has lived to 
vote, and see the abolishment of 
slavery, the winning of prohibition 
and suffrage for women in the great 
United States, all of which were 
thought improbable in the days of 
her youth, nearly a century ago. 

The only surviving acquaintance, 
relative, friend or neighbor who was 
in any way associated with Mrs. Bus- 
kirk in her youthful days, is the Rev. 
George Puett, of Stinesville, who is 
ninety-four years of age. 


A novel method of education in 
music has been introduced at Indiana 
University in the form of grand op- 
era by wireless for students in the 
course in modern opera. Amplifying 
instruments have ben installed at the 
Indiana Univei-sity wireless station 
for receiving nightly concerts of the 
Chicago Grand Opera Company, and 
students av^ h' i\' shown listening tn 

Galli Curci in a recent performance 
of "Lakme.' 

The evening concert opened with 
a lecture on wireless by Dr. R. R. 
Ramsey, Professor of Physics, auth- 
or of scientific treatises on electric- 
ity, inventor of laboratory apparatus 
numerous scientific societies. Dr. 
Ram.sey is shown in the photograph 
standing to the left of the receiving 
instruments have been in'i'^:illefl ^t the 

instrument. So far as known, Indi- 
ana University is the only educational 
institution to make this use of the 

The Indiana University station 
picks up not only the concerts by 
Mary Garden's opera company in 
Chicago, but also wireless concerts 
sent out from Pittsburgh, Newark. 
N. J., Denver, Oklahoma City, and 
Wichita. Kans'is. 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

JANUARY 20, 1922 

students, faculty and alumni of In- 
diana University, January 20, cele- 
brated the 102d anniversary of the 
founding of the institution here with 
appropriate exercises, including a 
processional march through the cam- 
pus, and all-university convocation in 
the men's gymnasium which was ad- 
dressed by Dr. Henry W. Ballanthine, 
of the University of Minnesota, and 
an oratorcial contest for the Bryan 
prize. All classes were dismissed 
and there was a general holiday on 
the campus. 

The day's program opened with the 
gigantic Foundation Day procession, 
made up of various groups of the 
student body and faculty. The parade 
was led by the band, closely followed 
by the facutly members attired in 
academic robes. Alumni, post-grad- 
uates, Laws, Medics, and undergrad- 
uates followed in the order named. 
The gymnasium was filled to capacity, 
with practically every student and 
faculty member of Indiana University 
present to honor the one hundred 
second anniversary of the founding 
of the state institution. 

President Bryan Presides. 

President William Lowe Bryan pre- 
sided. After the invocation was de- 
livered by Dr. J. Frank Young, Prof. 
Paul McNutt addressed the! assem- 
blage on "The Significance of Foun- 
dation Day." He recounted the early 
history of the University, how in 1820, 
a law was passed providnig for a 
state seminary here, which developed 
into Indiana College and later into 
Indiana University. 

Professor Ballantine, a grandson of 
the late Elisha Ballantine, formerly 
professor of Greek in the IJniversity, 
spoke on "The Supremacy of Law." 
In the opening words of his address, 
he said, "Those who founded these 
institutions of learning, if they could 
revisit us and view the modern col- 
lege life, might be surprised, not to 
say dismayed. They might feel that 
in place of the three R's had been 
substituted the three L's, living, lov- 
ing and loafing. But there is one 
place in the University whei'e it is 
alleged, students really work, and that 
is the Law School." 

The address of Prof. Paul McNutt 
was of historic value, filled with 
important data of the University's 
life in earlier years, which we are 
fortunate in being able to print in 
full, as follows: 

Address by Prof. Paul McNutt 

We celebrate today the one hundred 
and second anniversary of the found- 
ing of Indiana University. I wish to 
make a brief statement on the history 
and significance of Foundation Day, 
January 20. 

Many other dates might have been 
selected with reason. The legal his- 
tory of the University may be traced 
through the laws for the ovganization 
and goveniment of the Northwest 

Territory, the Indiana Territory and 
the State of Indiana. The Ordinance 
of 178.5, passed May 20, 1785, pro- 
vided "There shall be reserved from 
sale the lot No. 16, of every township 
for the maintenance of public schools 
within the said township." The Or- 
diance of 1787, passed July 13, 1787, 
declared that "Religion, morality and 
knowledge being necessary to good 
government and the happiness of 
mankind, schools and the means of 
education shall be forever encouraged" 
and provided that lot No. 16 be given 
perpetually to the maintenance of 
schools and two townships near the 
center for the support of a literary 
institution, to be applied to the in- 
tended object bv the Legislature of 
the State. 

The act of March 26, 1804, for the 
disposal of public lands in the Indiana 
Territory established three land dis- 
tricts, Detroit, Kaskaskia and Vin- 
cennes and made provisions that cer- 
tain lands "shall, with the exception 
of the section numbered sixteen, which 
shall be resei-ved in each township for 
the support of schools within the 
same; also of an entire township in 
each of the three describe<l tracts of 
country or districts, to be located by 
the Secretary of the Treasury, for the 
use of a seminary of learning, * * * 
be offered for sale." Albert Galle- 
tin, then Secretary of the Treasury, 
located township No. 2, range 11 east, 
now in Gibson County, Indiana, for 
the use of a seminary of learning as 
rec|uried by the act. 

The act of April 19, 1816, for the 
admission of Indiana as a state pro- 
vided "that one entire town.ship, 
which shall be designated by the 
President of the United States, in ad- 
dition to the one heretofore reserveti 
for that purpose, shall be reserved 
for the use of a Seminary of learn- 
ing, and vested in the Legislature of 
said State, to be appropriated solely 
to the use of such Seminary by the 
said Legislature." 

The constitutional convention met 
at Corydon, June 10, 1816, and on 
June 19 appointed a committee to se- 
lect a township for designation by 
the President. On the same day the 
committee designated township eight, 
rang-e one west. The township was 
located in what afterwards became 
Monroe County and was named Perry 
Township. The location was ap- 
proved bv President Madison July 10, 

The constitutional conventain was in 
session until June 29, 1816. On June 
27, 1816, it passed the constitutional 
article on education which provided, 
"It shall be the duty of the General 
Assembly, as soon as circum.stances 
will permit, to provide by law for 
a general system of education ascend- 
ing in a regular gradation from town- 
ship schools to a State University, 
wherein tuition shall be gratis and 
equally open to all." Dr. Da\'id H. 
Maxwell, who has been called the 

founder of Indiana University, was a 
member of this convention. 

All of these dates which I have 
mentioned would have appeared in the 
history of any Indiana State Univer- 
sity, so it is not possible to fix any 
imp of them as the date of the found- 
ing of the Indiana University. 

The constitution provided that no 
lands be sold for school purposes be- 
fore 1820. The General Assembly 
met the first Monday in December, 
1819, and Governor Jennings' message 
contained this paragraph: "The con- 
vention has made it the duty of the 
General Assembly, as soon as the cir- 
cumstances will permit, to provide by 
law for a general system of educa- 
tion. The lands received for the use 
of the seminary of leai'ning are vested 
in the Legislature to be appropriated 
solely for that purpose, and it is sub- 
mitted to your consideration whether 
the location of such instil.ution i:pon 
or near such lands would not greatly 
enhance their value and enlarge the 
funds for a purpose so important. 
It is believed that ihe Seminary 
township situate<l in Monroe county 
would afford a site combitiing the ad- 
vantages of fertility of soil with a 
healthy climate, as well as a position 
sufficiently central to the various 
sections of the state. To authorize 
the sale of a portion of these lands 
under judicious regulations would in- 
crease the value of the residue, and 
the sooner enable us to lay the foun- 
dations of an institution so desirable." 

This was referred to a committee 
December 11, 1819, and the cominittee 
reported a bill to establish a seminary 
December .31, 1819. The bill, with 
amendments, passed the House Janu- 
ary 11, 1820. It was passed by the 
Senate with other amendments Janu- 
ary 17, 1820. The vote was five af- 
firmative and five negative, and the 
deciding vote was cast by Lieut. Gov- 
ernor Ratcliffe Boone. The next day 
the bill in final form was passed by 
the House and returned to the Senate. 
On January 20, 1820, the day we cele- 
brate, the bill, which provided for the 
organization of a State Seminary at 
Bloomington, was signed by Governor 
Jennings and became law. This was 
the definite beginning of the Indiana 
University at Bloomington, although 
the seminary thus provided did not 
open its doors to students until May 
1, 1824. This was the State Semin- 
ary which grew into Indiana College 
and then into Indiana University. 

Although January 20 is a logical 
date for Foundation Day its selec- 
tion may have been a matter of 
chance. During the sixty-eight years 
after January 20, 1820, there is no 
record of any celebration in com- 
memoration of the founding of the 
University. That there should be 
such a celebration was the idea of 
our beloved David Starr Jordan. 

The first record appears in the 
minutes of the faculty for October 5, 
1SS8, which contain this statement, 
"At the suggestion of the President 
a committee of three was appointed, 
consisting of Profs. Atwater, Dab- 
ney, and Boone, to report on the ex- 
pediency of establishing an annual 
university festival day in commem- 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


oration of the founding of the Uni- 

Under date of December 4, 1888, 
the secretary records that "on behalf 
of the special committee appointed 
October 5 to report on the selection 
and observance of an annual day in 
commemoration of the establishment 
of the University Prof. Atwater pre- 
sented a report. On motion of Prof. 
Clark the report was recommitted." 
No reason is given for the failure to 
adopt the report. 

Then follows an example of Dr. 
Jordan's skill as an executive. The 
next entry in the minutes is that "At 
the suggestion of the President it was 
voted that Judge D. D. Bante, Presi- 
dent of the Board of Trustees, be in- 
vited to deliver a commemorative ad- 
dress on the evening of January 21, 

The minutes of January 4, 1889, 
contain this statement, "The President 
reported the acceptance by Judge 
Banta of the invitation to deliver a 
commemorative address January 21, 

For the meeting of January 17, 
1889, there is this entry, "The Sec- 
retary read a letter from the Indiana- 
polis Literary Club announcing that 
the club would be represented by three 
delegates at the commemorative ex- 
ercises of the University January 21, 
and the President suggested that an 
informal reception be given the guests 
of the occasion. Pres. Jordan and 
. Prof. Clark were appointed to arrange 
for such reception. * * * Prof. At- 
water was added to the committee on 
reception to be given January 21, 

It was evident that this was to be 
a celebration of Foundation Day de- 
spite the failure of the committee re- 
port. So the first Foundation Day 
exercises were held Monday evening, 
January 21, 1889, in the old college 
chapel and consisted of an address by 
Judge David D. Banta, of Franklin, 
then president of the board of trus- 
tees and later dean of the Law School, 
followed by a reception by the faculty 

In the manuscript of his address, 
which was the first of a series of sLx 
on the History of Indiana University 
delivere<l on successive Foundation 
Days, Judge Banta used the heading 
January 20, and followed it with the 
phrase,' "January 20, 1820, the day we 

The first use of the term "Foun- 
dation Day" is found in the report 
of the celebration printed in the 
Bloomington Telephone, January 25, 
1889, which is as follows: "'Founda- 
tion day' of Indiana University was 
celebrated Monday evening at the 
chapel for the first time. Exercises 
of this nature were decided upon at 
the meeting of the board of trustees, 
the intention being to make the oc- 
casion a permanent feature of the 
institution to be eciualed only in im- 
portance by Commencement Week." 

Despite this statement the minutes 
of the Board of Trustees contain no 
record of any action concerning Foun- 
dation Day. 

So whether the date was selected 
by Dr. Jordan or by Judge Banta or 
by both, January 20th became the 

day to be celebrated as Foundation 
Day. Among the standing commit- 
tees of the faculty appointed for the 
school year 1889-1890 is a Foundation 
Day committee. This established a 
precedent which has been followed 
since that time. The first academic 
procession was a part of the celebra- 
tion in 1890. The first University 
catalogue, which lists Foundation Day 
is that for 1889-1890. Since that time 
the day has had a regular place on 
the published University calender. It 
was first listed as a holiday in the 
catalogue for 1897-1898. 

The University celebration has been 
held on January 20th except in 1889, 
which was the first year, 1906, when 
it was held on Friday the 19th, and 
1907, when it was held Monday the 
21st. Since the inauguration of the 
custom only two years have passed 
without a university celebration. One 
of these was 1918, when the day fell 
on "heatless Monday" and Dr. Henry 
Van Dyke was unable to keep his en- 
gagement to make the address. The 
other was 1919 when the celebration 
was cancelled on account of the epi- 
demic of influenza. 

However on both these dates the 
alumni in other parts of the state and 
nation observed the day. So this is 
the thirty-fourth annual Foundation 
Day celebration. 

■fhe custom of a state and nation- 
wide celebration by alumni was in- 
augurated in 1913 when over thirty 
meetings were held. The movement 
grew rapidly and today Foundation 
Day is celebrated in all parts of the 
world where the Indiana University 
people gather together. The day has 
become the occasion for a family re- 
union of the children of the Univer- 
sity, who listen to a message from 
the President and pledge again their 
allegience to the Mother, who gave 
them intellectual life. 

That the University has lived for 
one hundred and two years is an in- 
teresting, but not an especially note- 
worthy fact. Other institutions are 
much older than that. Man has no 
control over the passage of time. We 
acquire age in spite of ourselves. 

The significant fact is that these 
one hundred and two years have been 
years of growth. Where ten pupils 
gathered the University now has 
forty-two hundred. Where there was 
•one member of the faculty there are 
now almost two hundi-ed. Where 
there was one building, costing twen- 
ty-four hundred dollars, there is a 
small city, representing an expendi- 
ture of over one million and a quarter 
dollars. Where only Latin and Greek 
were taught there are the College of 
Arts and Sciences, the School of Law, 
the School of Medicine, the School of 
Commerce and Finance, the School 
of .Journalism, the School of 
Music, the School of Education, the 
Graduate School and the Extension 
Division. Where there was a small 
seminary there is a great university. 

A fact of even greater significance 
is that these one hundred and two 
years have been years of service to 
the people, a justification of the faith 
of the framers of the first state cons- 
titution. Every county in the state 
is represented in the student body. 

Through these students the University 
has given the best that she could of- 
fer without stint. A University must 
be judged by what she produces, the 
quality of her children. The sons and 
daughters of Indiana University oc- 
cupy positions of honor and trust in 
all parts of the world. The Univer- 
sity has received the deserved name 
of "The Mother of College Presi- 
dents." In times of national stress 
the University has offered her entire 
resources for the common good. In 
memory of the men and women who 
gave their lives in the World War 
the University is raising a great 
Memorial Fund. Today the unsolicit- 
ed subscriptions to that fund passed 
one hundred and six thousand dollars. 
That is the significant fact of this 
Foundation Day and it is compelling 
e\adence that the children and friends 
of the University love her and appre- 
ciate her service. 

Let us njark this day by renewing 
our allegience to the University and 
pledging that the future year shall 
be years of service, service through 
"Light and Truth." 

Bryan Prize Awarded. 

A feature of the afternoon exer- 
cises was the oratorical contest held 
in the auditorium of the student build- 
ing which resulted in awarding the 
Bryan prize to Arthur L. Miller, a 
senior, whose home is at Frankfort, 
Ind. The subject discussed was "The 
Duty of the State Toward the Un- 
employed." Mr. Miller is president of 
the Acacia fraternity, president of 
Tau Kappa, national debating fra- 
ternity, and president of the Univer- 
sity Y.M.C.A. He is also a member 
of Sigma Delta Chi, honorary jour- 
nalistic fraternity. The other con- 
testants were Donald Simon, a senior 
of Huntington, Earl Defur, a senior 
of Stewartsville, and Mrs. D. E. 
Swain, a senior of Bloomington. The 
judges were Prof. Stith Thompson, of 
the English department, Prof. T. L. 
Luck, of the economics department, 
and Prof. W. O. Lynch of the history 
department. The prize was the in- 
terest on $250 left to the University 
by William Jennings Bi-yan in 1898 
to stimulate interest among under- 
graduate students in public speaking. 

It was announced that the Bloojn- 
ington branch of the Collegiate 
Alumnae Association had awarded a 
$50 cash prize to Miss Ruth Bourne, 
a senior student, of Evansville for 
excellence in scholarship. Miss 

Bourne, who is earning a part of her 
expenses while attending the uni- 
versity, has been elected to Phi Beta 
Kappa, the national scholarship so- 

In connection with the Foundation 
Day program, Director William A. 
Alexander announced that the $1,000,- 
000 memorial fund has reached $106,- 
000, practically all of which has been 
subscribed by citizens of Bloomington, 
members of the faculty and campus 
organizations. Several $1,000 sub- 
scriptions were announced. 

Unlike the sun, moon and planets, 
each star rises always at practically 
the same point in the heavens. 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 




The old, old excuse made by grown- 
ups: "I thought I'd go to the circus 
so the children could see it," still 
seems popular. But, we recall 
the time when no excuse was even 
hinted at in our little world, when we 
would lay awake nights many times, 
trying to picture ourselves as famous 
acrobats, contortionists, bare-back 
riders or brave lion tamers, such as 
the blazing posters showed on the side 
walls of bams and billboards in the 

That was the period of life when 
we had real poetry in our soul, when 
adventure was dreamed of as the 
prime ambition of our existence — and 
the thought of a gieat circus coming 
right there to our very town was 
enough to occupy our mentality, our 
dreams, and control our aspirations 
for that grand occasion. 

Then, the night before the circus 
was to "pull in" we persuaded our 
parents to allow us to stay all night 
with another boy who lived close to 
the show ground, in order that we 
could be up early enough to see the 
show unload — and then, we got a job 
carrying stakes — then another man 
put us to work carrying water, then 
some other fellow took us in hand 
and gave us a job carrying boards for 
the seats. 

All at once we discovered that 
it was long past the dinner hour, 
and the circus people were lining up 
for the grand street parade which the 
posters said would be a mile long. We 

wanted to see that parade, but the 
man kept us working — and the parade 
left the grounds and returned — still 
we were working as we had never be- 
fore worked. 

Then, it was time for the big show 
to start — we asked the man for our 
ticket in our most humble tone, only 
to receive a blow which broke our 
timid heart; crushed our ambition — 
made us want to cry, oh, so hard. He 
told us: "Get out o' here, you ain't 
Ijeen workin' — what do ye think this 
is? Go on, git out o' here." 

"That rough fellow made us old men 
— cunning, revengful young maniacs 
for the time being — made us "see 

Yes, we saw the show, though we 
were physically worn out, hungry and 

We awaited an opportunity, and 
silently "slipped" under the tait, 
climbed to the very topmost seat in 
the tent and watched the show — we 
took in the menagery on our way out. 

At supper, our fond parent chided 
us merrily for not coming home to 
dinner and "go to the show with the 
rest of the family". Father was so 
worked up over our "wayward" be- 
havior, and the worry we had caused 
our dear mother that he made us go 
to bed without any supper. 

Can any real boy, grown to man- 
hood, forget "Circus Days"? 

"Hold your horses, ladies and gen- 
tlemen — here comes the elephants. A 
free exhibition will be given — etc." 


Beautiful Specimens of Sienite, Greenstone, Quartzite and Flesh-Colored Feld- 
spar Abound — Knobstone 100 Feet Thick East of Monroe's Mill — Granite 
Boulders, Rare Fossils and Pretty Geodes Found. 

Marion township, in Monroe coun- 
ty, has no organized village or town 
but is rich in being populated by good 
people of the county's average mental 
and moral make-up. The town- 
ship was a part of Benton township 
until the forties, when it was organ- 
ized and named for the heroic figure 
of revolutionary times, Francis 

The tovraship is notable for its su- 
perior scenic splendor, and one-fourth 
mile southwest of Monroe's mill, on 
Hacker's creek the bed and banks are 
thickly strewn with granite boulders. 

Some beautiful specimens of sienite, 
greenstone, quartzite and flesh-col- 
ored feldspar also abound. One mile 
east of Monroe's mill the knobstone 
is 100 feet thick. 

On Honey Creek, black sand (mag- 
netic iron ore), similar to the gold- 
bearing sand of Bear Creek, in Brown 
county, may be seen. Granite boul- 
ders also strew the ground, and 
beautiful geodes and fossils are 

Black sand, containing gold traces 
is also found in Wolf Creek, which 
has its head in Brown county. 


The charge has been many times 
made that Indiana has been indif- 
ferent to her history to the point of 
culpability. There has been, so to 
speak, no official recognition of the 

value of documents, and even state 
and local i-ecords of importance have 
been discarded as junk, to the grief 
and wrath of those of the latter day 
who are historically minded. Sev- 

enty years ago Samuel Merrill told 
us of laws, records and other papers 
relating to the business of the terri- 
tory that were not to be found in the 
office of the secretary of state, and 
added that twenty-seven years before 
that some clerk in the state's service 
at Coi-ydon "complained of being 
troubled with useless papers," in con- 
sequence of which a legislative com- 
mittee was appointed to pass upon 
and burn such papers. Soon after, a 
citizen desired a paper of importance 
and when he found that it had been 
consigned to the bonfire he "de- 
nounced the committee as being no 
more fit for their business than hogs 
for a pai-lor." 

Instances of Loss of Material. 
In the Indianapolis Daily Journal 
for May 4, 1857, we find two inter- 
esting instances of loss cited. The 
first, taken from the Vincennes Ga- 
zette reads: 

It is surprising how little attention 
has been bestowed upon the docu- 
ments, papers, records, etc., pertain- 
ing to the early history of Indiana 
and the Northwestern territory. It is 
doubtful whether thei'e is a complete 
copy of the records of the territorial 
legislature now in existence. One in- 
stance will suffice to show what little 
importance has been attached to such 
documents by those who should have 
preserved them. Shortly after the 
removal of the capital of the state to 
Indianapolis all the records, papers, 
etc., pertaining to the early history 
of the territory, which had been col- 
lected in Vincennes as the capital, 
were packed in two large dry goods 
boxes and stored away in an old frame 
building which was liable to be de- 
stroyetl by fire at any time. The 
secretary of state was notified of their 
condition and requested to take 
charge of them. That officer never 
made any reply to the letter inform- 
ing him of the facts. As a conse- 
quence no one knows or can tell what 
became of most of these papers and 
documents. It is known that many of 
them were messages, communications, 
etc., in the handwriting of General 
Harrison, and military orders, and in- 
formation respecting the movements 
of the Indians, Americans, etc., of an 
invaluable character, to the historian. 
But these have all been lost or de- 
stroyed, with possibly a few excep- 
tions, which may have been made by 
the Historical Society of Vincennes. 
The Journal adds this: 
When the old building on the Gov- 
ernor's Circle in this city was re- 
movefl there was a large number of 
old papers of an official character, 
bearing date prior to the formation 
of Indiana territory into a state. 
They were thrown on to the gi-ound 
and scattered to the four winds. A 
few were saved by several persons 
who had curiosity enough to cull from 
the heap those of the most interesting 
character. They should all have been 
saved and kept among the historical 
archieves of the state. 

Valuable Papers Sold as Waste. 
When the material in the old State- 
house had to be shifted to make way 
for the erection of the present one, 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


lantities of papers of unknown 
ilues were, it has been affirmed, 
Id by the janitors as waste; and so 
stances of stupidity are cited all 
ong the line. In many, perhaps the 
ajority, of our county seats to the 
esent day there is little attempt to 
id what is of historical value hidden 
I'ay in corners of the courthouses. 

is a notorious fact among those 
terested that historical societies 
om other states have repeatedly 
rried from under our noses source 
iterial that they appreciated while 
; did not. In brief, so far as public 
terest in such things is concerned, 
e average citizen of Indiana might 
propriately be pictured with a 
lestion mark arising from his cere- 
ation works, after the style so pop- 
•XV with cartoonists, and the ques- 
m mark might be interpreted as, 
[istory ? What for ? What is it all 

"However, the purpose of this ar- 
;le is not to croak but to sound an 
timistic note. If the signs of the 
nes are fairly read there is much 

be noted indicating that historical 
iitiment in the Hoosier state is on 
e up grade, and that the day is, 
rhaps, not far off when the average 
izen will not ask "What is it all 
out?" but will feel a reverential 
ide in his state's past that he has 
t hitherto known, and will realize 
at an evaluation of the experi- 
ces of the past and a considei'ation 

them in proper proporition to the 
folding and experimental present is 
distinct sociological asset. 
Perhaps a compact survey of our 
esent status along this line and our 
st growth in this direction will be 
iiely just now. 

The First Historical Society. 
The pioneers of Indiana, as of all 
w counties, were, with rare ex- 
ations, makers and not writers or 
eservers of history, but neverthe- 
;s we had at a very early day a 
nking few who discerned the his- 
■ical value in things and niade an 
lanized attempt to foster that sen- 
iient. This organization was the 
storical Society of Vincennes, re- 
red to in the above quotation from 
; Vincennes Gazette. With one ex- 
5tion all existing histories and even 
; contempororay files of the Vin- 
ines Western Sun are quite silent 

to the origin of this society, but 
ibbard M. Smith, in his "Historical 
etches of Old Vincennes," has this 


In the year 1808 there was organ- 
:d the Vincennes Historical and An- 
uarian Society, following the or- 
nization of the Vincennes Univer- 
y, and it was originally intended 
be an adjunct to the latter institu- 
n. This society flourished for 
ne years, during which time many 
luable books and paleontological 
jcimens were accumulated. But 
;t as the university was preparing 

build up a flourishing institution 
; newly-fledged state of Indiana 
;sumed that she owned everything 

sight and procee<led to confiscate 
3 university property. * * * 
is unjust and unprecedented pro- 

cedure not only paralyzed the school, 
but gave a death blow to the His- 
torical and Antiquarian Society, as it 
was to rise or fall with the university. 
It had accumulated many rare books 
and specimens of value, but from this 
time forward it eked out a sickly ex- 
istence, and finally gave up the ghost, 
and much of its property was lost, 
Many years afterward a few persons 
of a younger generation bought up all 
the shares of stock that were in ex- 
istence, and for a small consideration, 
conveyed the remaining assets of the 
society to the resusciated university 
which owns the library and antiqua- 
rian specimens. 

Whether this society and the Vin- 
cennes library of that period were 
one and the same, or to what extent 
it accumulated unpublished material, 
as well as books, has not been dis- 
closed by the present writer's re- 
searches. The well-known brief his- 
tory of Vincennes by Judge Law was, 
according to its title page, originally 
read before the "Vincennes Historical 
and Antiquarian Society," in 1839. 
The Indiana Historical Society. 

In the Indiana Journal for Decem- 
ber 8, 1830, appeared this inconspicu- 
ous "card," in the advertising col- 

The members of the general assem- 
Ijly, the judges of the supreme and 
circuit courts, the Rev. clergy, gentle- 
men of the bar, physicians and citi- 
zens generally are requested to meet 
at the court house on Saturday even- 
ing next at 6 o'clock, for the pur- 
pose of taking into consideration the 
expediency of establishing and or- 
ganizing an historical society for the 
state of Indiana. 

The response to this call was "a 
large and respectable meeting" of 
members of the legislature and citi- 
zens, and thus was lauirched the In- 
diana Historical Society, and organ- 
ization that has had the vitality to 
continue to the present day, though 
it has had its long and frequent 
periods of hibernation. Its roster of 
membership through the years has 
shown the names of many prominent 
and public-spirited men, and this has 
given dignity and prestige to the so- 
ciety. Its avowed excuse for being, 
as with most historical societies, was 
the collection and preservation of 
historical material and "the promo- 
tion of useful knowledge touching the 
natural, civil and political history of 
the state." In carrying out these 
aims it has always Ijeen handicapped 
by the fact that it had no home of 
its own but in its local habitation has 
been shifted from pillar to post; 
which was, to say the least, inimical 
to the gathering and keeping of 
books and documents. In spite of 
that it once possessed a quite respect- 
able library, which has now been 
placed in the keeping of the State 

When the creation by the legisla- 
ture of 1913 of a department of his- 
tory and archieves in connection with 
the State Library the theoretical bur- 
den of "collecting and preserving" 
was removed from the old historical 
society, the new department assum- 

ing that function. The tangible pro- 
duct of the Historical Society 'is a 
collection of published monographs, 
now aggregating sLx good-sized vol- 
umes. The larger proporition of these 
are of unquestioned value and some 
have been discovered and rescue<l 
from utter oblivion through the 
agency of the society. 
Department of History and Archives. 

"The department of history and ar- 
chieves above referred to came into 
existence by a law of 1913, as an ad- 
dition to or expansion of the State 
Library. Its function is, "the care 
and custody of official archives which 
came into the possession of the State 
Library; the collection of material 
bearing upon the history of the state 
and of the territory included therein; 
the diffusion of knowledge in refer- 
ence to the history of the state, and 
the encouragement of historical work 
and I'esearch." Also, "the examina- 
tin and classification of documents 
and records not of present-day use to 
their respective departments." It is 
obvious that this law-created and 
popularly equipped institution, unless 
under positive maladministration, 
must be a long step toward the thing 
desired — the conservation of the 
state's historical material. It meant, 
first of all, that the business should 
be attended to by salaried persons 
especially trained for the work, where- 
as heretofore it had devolved upon a 
faithful few whose necessarily lim- 
ited efforts were given without money 
and without price. The department 
of history has amply justified its ex- 
istence, and what it has added to our 
archieves, and what encouragement 
given to historical research is fruit- 
ful material for another story. 
The Historical Commission. 

The Indiana historical commission, 
created by an act approved March 3, 
191.5, covers a field not included in 
the scope of the department of his- 
tory. It is under the control of a 
nonsalaried commission of nine mem- 
bers, one of whom is the Governor of 
the state. The directors of the de- 
partment of history and of the his- 
torical survey of Indiana University 
are designated by law and the remain- 
ing six, appointed by the Governor, 
are chosen with reference to their 
historical interests. The Indiana His- 
torical Society is represented on the 
membership. The commission is au- 
thorized to employ such assistants as 
may be necessary to carry out its 
duties, and this has meant the main- 
tenance of an office with a director, 
an assistant director and stenogi-aphic 

The first work of the commission 
was the promoting of the centennial 
celebration throughout Indiana in 
191G, these including pageants and 
local and state demonstrations of va- 
rious kinds. The result of this work 
was a quickening all along the line 
such as Indiana had never before ex- 
perienced, and to it may be attributed 
the dawning of the historical sense 
that seems to be growing at the pres- 
ent time. Another function was the 
collecting, editing and publishing of 
documentary and other materials re- 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

lating to the history of Indiana in 
pursuance of which several volumes 
have been issued. 

World War Records. 

Our entrance into the world war en- 
tailed a new work on the commission, 
which has been its chief charge since 
the close of the war. This is the col- 
lecting and arranging of records as 
nearly complete as possible of Indi- 
ana's part in the war — records not 
only of soldiers but also of all the 
civilian acti\aties which the popula- 
tion at home carried on, and which 
was such a distinctive feature of this 
war. The result is the accumulation 
of a vast mass of matei-ial for the 
archieves and for the future war his- 
torian, and also the publication of 
several county war histories encour- 
aged by the commission. Publications 
drawn from the collected material are 
contemplated, one of these being al- 
ready issued. This is the "Gold Star 
Honor Roll," a work of considerable 
magnitude containing the portraits 
and sketches of all those from In- 
diana, both soldiers and, who 
died in service. This memorial is the 
first of its kind in the United States. 

Other duties of the commission are, 
"to co-operate with local and county 
historical societies and other organi- 
zations interested in Indiana history," 
and al«o with "patriotic and local his- 
torical organizations in marking his- 
torical sites and spots throughout the 
state. It has been instrument:il ii> 
the establishment of county historical 
societies and in the stimulation of 
local interest in many places. Among 
its other activities it has been pro- 
moting historical and archaeological 
surveys by counties and it has had 
hold of the executive end of the an- 
nual history conference. 

There are other agencies at work 
in the interest of Indiana history and 
that are making for the developn;ent 
of a "historical consiousness," such 
as the historical survey of Indiana 
University, the Society of Indiana 
Pioneers, the patriotic .societies am' 
other organizations, not forgettinj! 
the annual history conferences, three 
of which have been held and which 
represent the first effort at co-ordi- 
nation. The purpose here is not to 
dwell upon the scope of work of any 
of these, but to pre.sent an appioxi- 
mate sur\ey of the field tliat will 
?erve to show where we are histori- 
cally and to point the way to certain 
conclusions. By it we find that, in 
the face of all the hard things that 
have been said about the bovine in- 
difference of the typical Hoosier on 
matters historical, there are a num- 
ber of living springs bursting forth 
and as many rivulets are trickling 
their various ways. Will the lay of 
the land direct them all to a common 
channel where they will merge? One 
of the things needful at the present 
time is a clearly defined policy for 
every agency at work, co-oi'dination 
and a vision to perceive what forces 
are active and whither they are all 

(NOTE— The above article, by George S. 
Cottman, was published in The Indianapolis 
News, Jan. 7, 1922.) 


One of the headline attractions on 
the B. F. Keith "big time" circuit bill 
for 1922 is Frederick Burton, in "Ab- 
raham Lincoln," a dramatized incident 
in the life of the great emanciupator. 
Mr. Burton has attracted national in- 
terest in his study of Lincoln, his 
make-up being startlingly like the 
most familiar of the Lincoln pictures. 
In the progi-am Mr. Burton is de- 
scribed as "Indiana's greatest actor," 
which, of course, discloses the actor 
as Hoosier-born. 

Now, down in Gosport the old- 
timers still think the stage spoiled a 
good store keeper. Some twenty 
years ago Fred Burton was the John 
Wanamaker of Gosport. He had a 
good store and was going along 
toward comfortable success when one 
day a member of the Knights of Pyth- 
ias lodge suggested to Fred that he 

take one of the leading roles in the 
play, "Daymen and Pj-thias," for the 
benefit of the lodge. Prior to this oc- 
casion young Frederick had played in 
Christmas cantatas and the like. He 
had displayed some histrionic talent 
in these affairs, but he was not torn 
from the mercantile world until this 
"Damon and Pythias" enterprise in- 
vaded his Gosportian career. He set 
the old town aglow with his interpre- 
tation of Damon. His fame spread 
throughout the surrounding country; 
in fact, spread as far north as Craw- 
fordsville. Some good Pj^thian up 
there invited Fred to play Damon in 
a Crawfordsville production of the 
heroic drama. Good-by Gosport! Good- 
by, store! 

That Crawfordsville triumph did it. 
From that time on the stage simply 
itched for the talents of Fredrick- Bur- 

Telescope in Kirkwood Observatory, Indiana University 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


ton, thespian devotee. He came to 
Indianapolis and got a job playing 
small parts in the old Grand Stock 
Company, in which Lavinia Shannon 
was the leading lady. Then he blos- 
somed forth into road companies, 
with varying success. There were 
times when ham sandwiches did not 
grow on Frederick's ham tree, but he 
stuck to the footlights. 

Then came the main chance. George 
Ade needed a good "Rube" character 
in his play, "The College Widow." 
Frederick Burton answered the call 
and vi-as assigned to play the role of 
Bub Hicks, the hick. From that mo- 
ment Frederick Burton's success no 
longer was in doubt. He stepped into 
the national theatrical limelight as 
one of the best of character come- 
dians. His quaint performance was 
hailed everywhere as a masterpiece. 
He went to England with the comedy. 
Next he scored a success as Mr. Stub- 
bins, the no-account husband of Miss 
Hazy, in "Mrs. Wiggs of the Cabbage 
Patch." He has scored hits in numer- 
ous other productions, but always 
wished a chance to try something ser- 
ious. And in Abraham Lincoln he 
found it. Critics everywhere have 
praised his splendid portrayal of that 
masterful figure in history, and book- 
ings are certain for at least two years 
ahead, with a possible run in London. 
Englishmen like Lincolnian adapta- 
tions, and that is why Mr. Burton and 
his company probably will go abroad. 
— The Indianapolis News. 


In a speech at Wabash, Ind., at a 
union service of Wabash churches held 
on the night of December 19, 1921, Al- 
bert J. Bevridge, formerly United 
States senator from Indiana, discussed 
the Bible as good reading and re- 
ferred especially to examples of art 
of reporting that it contains. The ad- 
dress, which was under the auspices 
of the Teachers club, contained the 
following : 

"More than three hundred years 
passed from the time Gutenburg, of 
Mainz, invented printing, until the be- 
ginning of modern journalism. As 
we now understand that tremendously 
influential profession, it is the gi-owth 
of scarcely more than half a century; 
yet it has drawn to itself perhaps 
the brightest minds and, speaking by 
and large, the most sensitive consci- 
ences of the day. 

The Heart of Journalism. 

"The basis of this extraordinary 
intellectual development of what is 
called civilization is the collecting and 
reporting of news. The task of the 
reporter and correspondent is the 
throbbing heart of the 20th century 

"The art of reporting requires keen 
intelectuality, incessant energy, and 
above all, high and stern moral stead- 
fastness. The ethical is necessary in 
journalism more than in any other 
phase of modern life. The reason is 
obvious; the people necessarily must 
depend upon the record of facts as 
presented in the daily press. If these 
facts are not set forth in proper pro- 
portion, the people have no just or 

solid foundation for sound and accu- 
rate judgement. 

"The reporter who willfully mis- 
states facts is a public enemy; and 
the same is true, of course, in a much 
greater degree of the managing edi- 
tor who, for any consideration what- 
ever, knowingly misleads the public. 
The art of reporting, then demands 
on the part of the reporter, a study 
of the best models. As a reader oi 
the public press, I should say that 
the essentials of reporting are accu- 
racy, vividness, brevity and through 
all the pure and undefiled spirit of 

Well-Nigh Perfect Models. 

"Among the innumerable examples 
of the amazing interest and useful- 
ness of the Bible, none perhaps are 
more astonishing than the well-nigh 
perfect models it contains of the art 
of newspaper reporting. In a conver- 
sation with one of the foremost edi- 
tors of America, and I think of the 
world, on the exhaustless subject of 
the Bible as literature, this great 
journalist declared that the essentials 
of reporting are better exemplified 
in many biblical accounts than any- 
where else that he had ever been able 
to find. 

"It would, of course, require a ser- 
ies of long and formal lectures to 
deal adequately with this one subject; 
and in a discursive talk, such as this, 
I can only refer to one of a gi'eat 
number of examples of reportorial art 
which the Bible contains. For instance 
take the ninth chapter of II Kings* 
it is very brief, yet it embodies a 
complete account of Jehu's annoint- 
ing, his whirlwind descent on Jezrul; 
the killing of the kings of Isreal and 
Judah, and the awful fate of Jezbel. 
Every detail of many tragic events 
is fully covered. Not a word is wasted, 
although each particular is stated 
fully, picturesquely and entertam- 
ingly. The mind is not left unsatis- 
fied at a single point; no gap in nar- 
rative of facts remains to be filled up 
by the reader's imagination. 

Refers to Story of Jehu. 

"I can think of no better exercise 
for a reporter than to attempt to 
rewrite the story of Jehu as presented 

in the ninth chapter of II Kings, and 

get the whole thing in the same space. 
Take for example the description of 
the death of Jezebel; this tragedy is 
recounted with theatrical pictbresque- 
ness; yet the entire story is told in 218 
words. Jezebel's dramatic action when 
from her window, she reproached 
Jehu; her death by being cast down 
from her chamber into the street; the 
burial of what remained of her, which 
the biblical reporter informs us 'were 
no more of her than the skull and the 
feet and the palms of her hands,' and 
finally Elijah's prophecy that dogs 
should eat her flesh 'and her car- 
cass should be dung upon the face of 
the field'- — all this is set forth in ten 
short sentences nothwithstanding that 
minute particulars are given by the 

"There are men in the newspaper 
profession who, as an exercise in both 
clearness and condensation, have 
taken these verses, 30 to 37, inclusive, 
of the ninth chapter of II Kings, and 
by rewriting, tried, in their own 
words, to state the facts vnthin the 
same space; and after many attempts 
have failed to accomplish the feat. 

"Just as in so-called 'poems of pas- 
sion,' Swinburne and Byron are hec- 
tic and disgusting when contrasted 
with the song of Solomon; just as the 
finest oratory in the world is prolix 
and clumsy when contrasted with 
Paul's speech to the Athenians on 
Mars Hill (unless we except Lincoln's 
Gettysburg speech); just as the creed 
of the modern optimist is thin and un- 
certain contrasted with the noble con- 
fidence expressed in the psalms of 
David; just as the modern philosopher 
is dull contrasted with that most phil- 
osophical conversation of all time set 
down in the book of Job; just as, by 
innumerable such tests, the purely lit- 
eiary aspects of the Bible surpass in 
strength and beauty anything to be 
found in all other literature — just so, 
the best reporting of the most accom- 
plished professional writers of the 
present day does not approach the 
perfection of biblical accounts in brev- 
ity, accuracy, attractiveness of state- 
ment and other essentials of the re- 
porter's noble art." — The Indianapolis 



Business men of the United States 
are providing at their own expense 
training each year for from 2,500 to 
3,000 college graduates in business 
courses at a cost of from $2,500,000 
to $3,800,000. These figures were 
presented by Dean W. A. Rawles of 
the school of commerce and finance 
of Indiana University, before the an- 
nual convention of the Indiana Pub- 
lic Utility association at Indiana Uni- 
versity, Jan. 14, 1922, as proof of 
the willingness of business men to 
co-operate in a most cordial way with 
educational institutions. 

The program included a luncheon, 
address by Edgar Plessing, member 
of the Indiana public service com- 
mission, and addresses by Dean Raw- 

les; on "Utilities and the Public," by 
Arthur W. Bray of Anderson, pres- 
ident of the Union Traction company 
of Indiana; on "Problems Confront- 
ing Indiana Utilities," by Frank E. 
Bohn, general manager of the Home 
Telephone and Telegraph company of 
Fort Wayne; on "Customer Owner- 
ship of Utilities," by Fred A. Byran 
of South Bend, president of the Indi- 
ana & Michigan Electric company, 
and on "The Utility Load as an Indi- 
cation of Industrial Conditions," by 
Howard A. Dill of the Richmond Wa- 
ter Works company. 

"Probably never before have busi- 
ness men been so deeply interested 
in the study of economics and fi- 
nance," said Dean Rawles. "Some of 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

them realize that many of the fail- 
ures attnbuied to the war mignt have 
been avowed nad proper linaucial or- 
ganizations been used and loresignt 
in internal management been applied. 
In tneir eiiorts to iind a way out 
of the disorganized conditions fol- 
lowing the war iney have been forced 
to study the fundamental principles 
whlcn underlie the industrial, com- 
mercial and financial activities of 
manKind. This is evident on every 
hand, jlany large corporations have 
on their staffs one or more tramed 
economists. Colleges and universi- 
ties are conducting scientific investi- 
gations m these subjects and stu- 
dents are flocking to them to pursue 
the courses in economics and its ap- 

Executives in Demand. 

"Representatives of manufacturers, 
merchants, public service companies, 
electric companies, baiiKs, and in- 
vestment companies have told me that 
one of their dilficulties — is to find 
young men who may be developed 
into executives. They tell me they 
want college men who have had train- 
ing in business subjects, the reason 
they give for this preference is that 
such men learn more rapidly, have 
more versatility and adaptability, 
show greater initiative and come to 
have a wider view of the bu.«:iness 

"Business men are coming to have 
a more considerate attitude towaid 
the college man, not because of his 
immediate usefulness, but because of 
his potential value. They are real- 
izing also, that any grovi'iiig indus- 
trial or financial concern which re- 
quires a large person iiel must have 
as an essential part of its organiza- 
tion a comprehensiVH educational 
scheme. A numbtr of companies 
have, therefore, developed carefully 
organized plans for training college 
men in order to facilit.ii-e their tran- 
sition from the academic environment 
to the practical business world. Last 
year I made an investigation of this 
movement and found that fifty-seven 
large companies had more or less 
definitely organized educational plans 
for college men and that thirty-seven 
others while they had no regular 
courses were glad to receive college 
men and let them 'work up.' From 
a study of the figures given it was 
found that employers are providing 
at their own expense, training for 
from 2,500 to 3,000 college graduates 
each year, approximately two-thirds 
of whom are graduates of collegiate 
schools of business and colleges of- 
fering business course. The cost of 
this training, not including the ex- 
pense of providing instruction and 
equipment and other incidental out- 
lays, was from $2,500,000 to $3,800,- 
000. This shows the willingness of 
business men to co-operate in a most 
cordial way with educational institu- 
tions and to provide a means to ef- 
fect a ready adjustment of college 
graduates to business life." 

Utilities and Prosperity. 

Mr. Dill showed how the prosperity 
of utility companies depended upon 
that of the community served. 

"We have weather reports, crop re- 
ports, stock and bond reports, export 

and import reports, iron and steel re- 
ports and other reports ad infinitum," 
he said, "and many of them serve as 
barometers of business conditions, but 
who ever heard of utility reports to 
indicate the trend of business ? And 
yet the output or revenues of utilities 
must necessarily be influenced by the 
ups and downs of industry as a whole. 
In these days of close relationship of 
business, nationally and internation- 
ally, prosperity or depression affects 
all lines of business more or less. The 
experiences of the last few years have 
brought out that fact very noticeably. 
Russia may be thousands of miles 
away, but the conditions of its peo- 
ple and its business have an influence 
on the people of this country. Be- 
fore the world war a famine or a 
business d^ression in a particular 
country would have little effect 
throughout the world, but a cata- 
clysm like that from 1914 to 1918 
reacts upon all civilized people and 
until the stricken nations- are put on 
a productive and consumptive basis, 
a business stagnacy will exist. 
Two Kinds of Objectors. 
"What has this to do with utilities? 
No utility can be prosperous unless 
the community it serves is prosper- 
ous. Utilities do not create business 
in a broad sense. Utilities serve the 
particular line of business for wliich 
they were organized. Utilities- may 
hamper business because of lack of 
the required element, or because of 
indifference or inefficiency, or be- 
cause of prohibitive rates. The first 
may be due to lack of foresight, or to 
inability to secure the funds to pur- 
chase equipment. Tlie second may be 
due to bad management. The third 
may be due to a wrong conception 
of the functions and duties of a utility. 

Most, if not all, of these conditions 
have been or can be remedied by com- 
petent utility commissions, state and 
national. Both the community served 
by and the stockholders of utilities as 
a whole were fortunate in having 
commission control during the last 
few years. 

Of course there are opponents of 
commissions among the utilities as 
well as objectors among the people. 
The former comprise the profiteers 
and public-be-damned type, and the 
latter include the selfish, narrow and 
can't-be-convineed class. 

"If utilities are directly dependent 
upon the business success of their cus- 
tomers, so are the latter interested 
in the financial and mechanical con- 
dition of the utilities serving them , 
A failure in service or railroad, tele- ■ 
phone, electric, water or other utility i 
reacts upon the consumer and may 
mean a loss to him in the year's busi- 

$50,000,000 Estimated Need. 

Present and immediate future de- 
mands of Indiana for telephone, gas, 
water, light and traction service call 
for $50,000,000 for extensions, said 
Mr. Bohn. He added that much need- 
ed expansion was arrested during the 
world war, but predicted an early re- 
vival of business, and said the utilities 
must expand to meet the needs thus 
created. During the war, he said, 
most utilities were losing money be- 
cause utility rates were fixed and ex- 
penditures went up, while other busi- 
nesses were making large profits. 

A state or a community can not 
grow faster than its utilities, he said, 
and it was good policy for a com- 
munity to stand for a square deal for 

Scene on Indiana University Campus 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 



Proposed Indiana University Union Building 

Three new buildings will be con- 
structed as a result of the Indiana 
University campaign for one million 
dollars. Lowe and Bollenbacher, Chi- 
cago architects, submitted their ideas 
as to what the three buildings shouid 
look like. It is probable that other 
plans will also be received from other 

A New Democracy 

The new Union Building will be one 
of the most important additions to 
the campus. It will be used as a 
gathei-ing place for all men of the 
University. There will be lounging 
rooms, soda fountain, rooms for 
alumni, a barber shop, pool and bil- 
liard rooms and numerous places to 
hold meetings. The best part of such 
a building will be the atmosphere it 
will create among Indiana men — one 
of democracy. 

An Auditorium 

In connection with this building an 
auditorium will be built large enough 
to accommodate the entire student 
body. It will be the largest meeting 

place in Bloomington and all kinds 
of entertainment will be given there. 

Dormitories For Girls. 

The women's dormitory is a very 
necessary addition to the campus. At 
present it is impossible to accommo- 
date all the girls who wish to attend 
Indiana. Every semester girls are 
turned away from the university's 
doors because they cannot find places 
to live in Bloomington. On the other 
liand, such an addition will not affect 
the rooming situation in Bloomington, 
as it will only take care of those who 
are now being turned away. 

Athletics In the Future. 

It is the hope that the new stadium, 
besides making Indiana University 
athletics more successful, will also 
make Bloomington a center for high 
school athletics in the southern part 
of the state. It is quite feasible to 
draw large crowds to Bloomington for 
all kinds of athletic contests. This 
has been demonstrated in many other 
places throughout the country. 



The state department of the Ameri- 
can Legion has indorsed the Indiana 
LTniverstiy Memorail Fund by passing 
the following resolution calling upon 
all Legion members to co-operate 
with the University in raising the 

"Whereas, the Indiana University is 
asking the citizens of Indiana for a 
million dollar memorial fund, and 
whereas it is a laudable undertaking 
which will pay honor and homage to 
Indiana's gold star heroes, and at the 
same time will be a contributon to 
the higher education of future gener- 
ations of Hoo.siers: 

"We, the executive committee of the 
American Legion, Department of In- 
diana, assembled in meeting Decem- 
ber 20th, 1921, do hereby endorse the 
million dollar fund of the Indiana 
University, and urge the American 
Legion members as well as all citizens 

Bloomington An Athletic Center — Indiana University is to have an athletic stadium as the result of 

her memorial campaign. 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


'<. .,/ 


r. • Vii 



1^ . 'f' 

> j 

Women of the University are especially interested in the proposed plans for a girls dormitory. 

of Indiana to co-operate in the raising 
of such a memorial fund." 

Adjutant The American Legion, De- 
partment of Indiana. 

Claude E. Gregg, State Commander 
of the Legion, a gi'aduate of Indiana 
University, class of 1910, has added 
his personal endorsement to the me- 
morial project in the following state- 

"The proposal to raise a Million 
Dollar Memorial Fund, dedicated to 
the memory of the sons and daugh- 
ters of Indiana University, who 
served in our three preat wars, is one 
which should commend itself to every 
Hoosier, and particularly to the stu- 
dents and alumni of old Indiana. 

"Indiana furnished her fair .«hare 
of those who were not privileged to 
see the outcome of their effort. Many 
a potential leader was lost to the Uni- 
versity and State. She is poorer by 
far, yet she gave without stint. 

"Is it not fitting and proper that 
we, the living, should now dedicate 
ourselves to making a reality the 
dream and high hopes these men and 
women had for our Alma Mater? 

"Ours is the high privilege of car- 
rying out the desires and 
the ambitions of the boys and girls of 
the past, of putting into concrete 
form our appreciation of their seiv- 
ice and devotion. 

"Remember, he who fails tliis chal- 
lenge, fail them too!" 

The most severe criticism of the 
colleges of America within recent 
yeai's is that instead of broadening 
the aveiage student's outlook upon 
life, they make it more narrow thru 
fostering a nasty spirit of class, club 
and clique snobbery. It is true that 
the American college man knows less 

of life, is more intolerant and is less 
liberal than the student of any other 
country on earth. He is ruled by his 
prejudices, and inborn belief in cer- 
tain fallacies. He is not a real demo- 
crat. He loves power, tribute and 
"classes," if he may cling to the high- 
er i-ungs of the ladder. 

This is due to the fact that he falls 
more into the system and is made 
part of it, whether he wishes or not. 
As Woodrow Wilson puts it, "the 
sideshows have swallowed up the cir- 
cus." It is not the indi\iduars fault, 
for the University has provided no 
real "mixer," no melting pot where 
cliques and classes are broken up; 
where men are simply men; where 
that greatest school of all, the school 
of life, teaches love and kindness, and 
toleration and real democracy, thru 
mixing, mingling and rubbing elbows 
with all manner of men. 

The new Union Building, born of 
the Million Dollar Memorial campaign, 
dedicated to Indiana's men who were 
weighed in the balance and not found 
wanting, will provide such a center. 
It will serve as the very heart of the 
University, and thru it, we shall each 
gain some of that broader education 
which comes from knowing, under- 
standing and loving each other. 

Of the thousands of benefits which 
will come to Indiana because of the 
success of the Memorial campaign, 
none is greater than the new demo- 
cracy which shall arise within the 
new Union Building. — Jamos S. 
Adams, An Organized Student. 


First Woman to .\ct as Judge in 
Monroe County. 

The first case ever tried by a wom- 
an judge in Monroe county was heard 
September 7, 1921, by Mrs. Minnie 
Waldron, a member of the local bar. 
The case was that of Charles Bill- 
meyer, proprietor of a restaurant, 
who was charged with violating the 
liquor laws. Mrs. Waldron acted as 
special judge in the case after the 
defense had taken a change of venue 
from Mayor W. W. Weaver. Sha 
found the defendant guilty and se'.i- 
tenced him to six months at the Indi- 
ana State Farm and fined him $300. 
Then .'ihe suspended the fine and sen- 
tence on a promise of good behavior. 
Mrs. Waldron is a graduate of Indi- 
ana University. She has been for 
many years at the head of the local 
charity organization and was ad- 
mitted to the Monroe county bar a 
short time before. 

George Andrew Gordon, only sur- 
viving member of the Indiana sonsti- 
tutional convention of 18.50--T1, who 
now li\-es at Eureka, K?.s., was 101 
years old January 22, 1922. Mr. Gor- 
don, who was a lawyer, lived in How- 
ard county when he was elected a 
member of the convention to repre- 
sent a district composed of Howard 
and Cass counties. He wa- a Demo- 
crat and was placed rn nomination at 
a convention in Howard county by 
Dr. J. H. Kern. Dr. Kern was the 
father of John W. Kern, who was a 
United States senator Indi.-na 
and was at one time candidate for 
Vice-President of the United States. 

When John W. Kem was nominated 
for Vice-President , Mr. Gordon, July 
22, 1908, wrote a letter of cong-atuia- 
tion and he told how he wa.=^ nominat- 
ed for the constitutional convyntion 
in 1850. 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 



The pathos of the mental anguish 
which thousands of soldiers in this 
country are suffering is suggested by 
an article in the December number 
of the Atlantic Monthly written by 
"An American Soldier" who was a 
colonel and a West Pointer. The 
writer describes his own reactions 
from shell-shock. "Back in my own 
country, back among friends, among 
He was haunted by terrible dreams, 
shut away on a battlefield of solitary 
struggle without the help of human 

Others, he knew, must be suffering 
as he was. "This fact," he said, 
"bums in the ininds of thousands of 
men who at this very moment are liv- 
ing their broken lives in alms houses, 
jails, insane asylums, and hospitals, 
or wandering hopeless about the 
streets." The story recalls with trag- 
ic force the vast army of young men, 
their country's defenders, who have 
never really come home. They are 
still wandering, dazed, and often in 
want, lacking the care and treatment 
that might restore them to health and 
sanity. — The National S chool Digest. 

Facts and figui-es, together with 
"en even dozen unquestioned points 
is proof that the eighteenth amend- 
ment is being enforced," were made 
public January 14, 1922, by Prohibi- 
tion Commissioner Haynes in a formal 
statement on the eve of the second 
anniversary of the national prohibition 
act, which became effective Jan. 16, 
1920. The twelve points cited as "so 
outstanding that no attempt can be 
made in denial," follow: 

"1. Disappearance of the open 

"2. Abatement of open drinking in 
public dining rooms. 

"3. Passing of the treating evil, 
which was recognized as the greatest 
contributing agency in the develop- 
ment of a liquor appetite. 

"4. Closing of whisky cure and 
similar institutions. 

"5. Increased savings accounts. 

"6. Record breaking Christmas 


"7. Decreased drunkenness. 

"8. Prohibitive prices of 'bonded' 
liquor for beverage use. 

"9. Dangerous character of illicit 

"10. Surreptitiousness of present 
day drinking. 

"11. Wail of howling minority who 
would go to the length of undermin- 
ing the Constitution in order to nulify 
an amendment which their action 
demonstrates is in actual effect. 

"12. Changed attitude of former 
hostile statesmen, political leaders and 

the press ." 


The 1920 election found the oldest 
male voter and the oldest wom.-.n vot- 
er in the United States, both ex- 
tremely active considering their ad- 
vanced years. "Uncle John" Shell of 
Leslie county, Kentucky, is l;i2 and 
has been a voter for 111 years. 

Miss Anna Stone, 102 years of age, 
is the oldest woman voter; she voted 
in Roxbury, Conn. What is their 
politics? Huh! When you "grow up" 
as they have, you'll know better than 
to tell how you voted. 

Alexander Stoute, a resident of 
Bloomington, is now 95 years of age, 
and still voting, and Mrs. Eleanor 
Buskirk, 98, cast her first vote in 



The year 1922 comprises the latter 
part of the 146th and the beginning 
of the 147th year of American Inde- 
pendence and coiTesponds to: The 
year 6635 of the Julian Period; the 
year 5683 of the Jewish era begins at 
sunset on September 22nd; the year 
2675 since the foundation of Rome, ac- 
cording to Varro; the year 2582 of 
the Japanese era and to the 11th 
year of the period entitled Taisho; the 
year 1341 of the Mohammedan era, or 
the era of the Hegira, begins at sun- 
set on August 23, 1922. The first 
day of January, 1922, is the 2,423,- 
056th day since the commencement of 
the Julian period. 


Sixty-seven thousand eight hun- 
dred and fifty persons were born, and 
35,134 persons died in Indiana last 
year, according to the annual report 
of H. M. Wright, director of the div- 
ision of vital statistics of the state 
department of health, issued Jan. 19, 
1922. The report also shows 4,860 
infants under one year old died. 

The mortality statistics issued by 
Mr. Wright are given with a compar- 
ison of the four years preceding 
1921. The mortality from tubercu- 
losis of the lungs is decreasing, the 
report shows, there being in 1921 a 
total of 2,659 deaths from this dis- 
ease, and in 1921 a total of 2,254 
deaths. On the other hand, deaths 
from cancer are on the increase, ac- 
cording to Mr. Wright's statistics. In 

1920 there were 2,592 deaths froni 
this disease in all its forms, and in 

1921 the deaths were 2,681. 

Diseases from which the most 
deaths resulted in 1921 are, in order, 
as follows: Organic heart disease, 
4,003; acute and chronic Bright's dis- 
ease, 2,714; apoplexy, 2,701; cancer, 
2,681; early infancy and malfor- 
mations, 2,358, and pneumonia in all 
forms, 2,349 deaths. 

There were 1,913 deaths by acci- 
dent in 1921. Diseases of the arter- 
ies and diarrhoea of infants each 
claimed more than 1,000 victims. 

The department of vital statistics 
lists 189 diseases from which death 
most frequently results. Of these 
only forty are tabulated in Mr. 
Wright's statistics. From all other 
diseases than those listed in his re- 
port, 4,140 persons died in 1921. 

Influenza claimed only 311 persons 
last year, the report says. Four hun- 
dred and thirty-one persons com- 
mitted suicide. Seventy persons met 

death from unknown causes. There 
were 168 homicidal deaths. Pellagra 
caused the death of five persons. 

The 1921 birth rate for 1,000 popu- 
lation was 23.2. In 1920 it was 2.21. 
The death rate for 1921 was 12 for 
1,000 population, a decrease from 
1920, when it was 13.4. The death 
rate of infants under one year old 
was decreased from 81.4 in 1920, to 
71.6 last year. 

"On the whole, the report shows," 
said Mr. Wright, "that the health of 
the people of Indiana is gradually im- 
proving, and that life may be length- 
ened considerably in the coming years 
by preventive social measui'es, and 
by an increase of knowledge about 
the laws of health and happiness." 



Hero of "Blood and Thunder" Novels 
Passes Away a Pensioner 
in California. 

Deadwood Dick is dead — again. 
Every time an old timer named Rich- 
ard dies in the Black Hills the report 
goes out that "Deadwood Dick is 
dead." But this time it is the real 
Deadwood Dick who died — Deadwood 
Dick, the gold guard of the Wells 
Fargo overland days, the Deadwood 
Dick who brought $350,000,000 in 
gold down from the Black Hills and 
never lost an ounce of "dust," the 
Deadwood Dick who fought Indians 
and outlaws with the same calmness 
and composure with which he ai,e nis 
dinner, the Deadwood Dick of the 
days of Calamity Jane, Wild Bill, 
Lame Johnnie and Laughing Sam. 

His name was Richard Bullock. His 
death took place in southern Califor- 
nia where he went to live after the 
express company retired him on a 
pension. He came to the Black Hills 
at such an early date that it's a 
question whether he was named for 
Deadwood or Deadwood named for 

This was Deadwood Dick, the hero 
of a hundred novels of the "blood and 
thunder" type. He was the hero of 
thousands and thousands of American 
boys thirsting for the "one man" 

Last of Shotgun Brigade. 

In actual life Deadwood Dick was 
the last of the shotgun brigade — nine 
men whose duty it was to guard the 
gold coach from the Black Hills to 
the railroad, 200 miles away, through 
a wild country infested with Indians 
and outlaws. The country was so dan- 
gerous that the express company 
built a stage coach entirelv of iron. 
It was called the "ti-easure coach," 
and Deadwood Dick had charge of 
the eight men with shotguns who 
rode in the coach and protected the 

Twice the coach was attack''d by 
outlaws when Deadwood Dick v/as on 
duty. The only man of the two bands 
who escaped died a few days later in 
a frontier hospital of buckshot 
wounds received in the fight. 

The fame of the shotgun brigade 
became so great among the road 
agents and outlaws that the very rat- 
tle of the old iron coach would cause 
a stampede among them. 

After the coming of the railroad 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

Deadwood Dick was retained as a 
g:uard for the gold which came 
through by train. Twice each month 
The Homestake gold mine had a 
"clean up," and at each $500,000 was 
shipped to the mints. On these occa- 
sions, just before time for the train 
to leave, a dray would drive up to the 
Ktr t on. On the dray was a little old 
iron safe. Sitting on the safe was a 
little old one-eyed man. In his hands 
was a sawedoff shotgun with a bore 
so large that buckshot was used. 

Strapped round his waist was a belt 
containing two bone handled .45 guns. 
That little old one-eyed man was 
Deadwood Dick Bullock. He climbed 
into the express car, took a seat on 
the safe and sat there until he de- 
livered his charge over to the express 
company in Omaha, 500 miles away. 
He guarded this shipment of $500,000 
twice a month for years and never 
lost a cent. 

Deadwood Dick used to laugh at 
the stories told about him in novels. 

ceived in prompt response to the re- 
quest, for which we are, indeed 




Forest M. Hall. 

828 E. Cottatre Grove. 

Bloominjrton, Ind. 

November 15. 1921. 




Names and Addresses Supplied from Indiana State Records in the Office of 
.Adjutant-General Harry B. Smith— >Ien Whose Life Paid the Supreme 
Forfeit for Rijthts of Humanity Come First. 

"Go yourselves, every man of you. and 
stand in tie ranks and either a victory be- 
yond all victories in its glory awaits you. 
or fallinff you shall fall greatly, and worthy 
of your past." — Demosthenes to the Athenians. 

After much worry and seeminp- un- 
ending ia.lure in obtaining a correct 
list Oi Monroe county men who went 
into military service .n the Inte World 
War, on November IG, 1921, the writer 



Washington, D. C. 
To All Former Service Men 

1. The United States Veteran.s 
Bureau was created to serve all ex- 
nervice men and women anil 1 in- 
sist that all veterans get a sijuare 

2. Employees will give you a 
coi'dial welcome and full informa- 
tion concerning your case. The 
law will be administered in the 
broadest and most sympathetic 
way possible. 

3. You are entitled to informa- 
tion, assistance, and advice con- 
cerning the law and the Bureau's 
re(|uiiements. Employees will 
make these plain to you. 

4. You will not be given short 
and unsatisfactory answers to your 
(juestions, but will be properly and 
sympathetically advised. 

' 5. The services of the Bureau 
are at your disposal as a tribute 
to your patriotic service during the 
World War, and it is expected that 
you shall always receive courteous 
and helpful treatment. Any devia- 
tion from these rules should be re- 
ported to me. I want you to have 
every benefit which your grateful 
Government has provided. 

C. R. FORBES, Director. 

This bureau is your bureau. 
Here's its invitation. 

appealed to Adjutant-General Harry 
B. Smith, of the State of Indiana, for 
any assistance he could give in pub- 
lishing a verifed list of these men, in 
order that coming generations might 
know the patriotic support Monroe 

county give to our country in this war 
for Democracy. 

The following communication was 

Dear Sir: 

I have your letter of November 14. and 
the work which you are dointr is certainly 
one that should be accomplished in every coun- 
ty in the State. It is almost imi>ossible to 
jret you the data which you ought to have for 
your work repardinj^ the soldiers of the World 
War, within the time mentioned in your 

I can, however, supply you with a list of 
the men who were taken into service from 
Monroe County. It would be impossible, how- 
ever, to give you a list of their records, be- 
cause it could not be completed under thirty 
or forty days. 

If the list of names would be of benefit 
to you. I will gladly send it on receipt of 
your reciuest. 

Yours very truly. 

Adjutant General. 

Shown by State Records. 

The list of names of Monroe coun- 
ty's service men was received from 

Scene on Indiana University Campus 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M- "Pop" Hall 



Typical Scenes in One of America's Great Training Camps During the World War 

the adjutant-general of Indiana on No- 
vember 19, 1921. We are rather proud 
of the magnificent showing of Bloom- 
ington and Monroe county men in this 
long list of soldiers, sailors and ma- 
rines who so bravely answered the 
call to colors. We must realize, how- 
ever, that this list may not include 
some names of men who went into ser- 
vice from places outside of the county 
or State of Indiana, as they are cred- 
ited to the district from which they 

went into service, and not the local na- 
ive county. 

The largest number of men went 
from Bloomington, as is seen in the 
following rolls, which we believe are 
now being published for the first time 
in whole, as the county's quota to the 
world war. The men from each com- 
munity has been classified and placed 
in alphabetical order under each place 
name, in order to simplify reading, 
with those names of deceased heroes 
leading in each community's list. 

Deceased From Bloomington. 

Joseph K. Barclay— (deceased) — widow, Mrs. 
Elenor Bowles Barclay. 1418 N. ColleKC 

Charles O. Croy— (deceased)— brother. El 
mer Croy, lUi.5 W. Eishth street. 

Horace Holmer Hay— (deceased) — mother, 
Mrs. Florence M. Hay. 717 W. First street. 

John O. HeitKer— (deceased) — father, Peter 
Heitper, 41.'» S. Dunn street. 

Wilbur Hunter — (deceased) — father. John 
E. Hunter, R. R. No. 6. 

Ernest James Osborne — (deceased) — father. 
John F. Osborne. 

Lee John Meyers — (deceased) — father Frank 
S. Myers, R. R. No. 6. 

(Names Continued on Next Page.) 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

(Names Continued from Last Page.) 

Earl H. Prince — (deceased) — father. Wil- 
liam Prince. R. K. No. 4. 

Robert Reeves — (deceased) — father, Sylves- 
ter Reeves. R. R. No. 1. 

Earl H. Rogers — (deceased) — father, Harry 
I'. Rogers. 346 S. Rogers street. 

Hiciiard B. Simmons — (deceased) — father, 
H. T. Simmons. 717 N. College avenue. 

Thomas A. Shields — (deceased) — mother. 
Mary E. Shields. 

O ra C. Smith — (deceased) — father, Henry 
Smith, 623 S. Rogers street. 

Laurens B. Strain — (deceased) — father. 
Homer E. Strain, 527 N. Washington street. 

Henry B. Woolery — (deceased) — father. 
Henry A. Woolci-y, 315 E. Seventh street. 

Bloomington Men. 

Frank J. Adams, 503 E. 10th ; Ralph Adams. 
R. R. No. ii : Raymond E. Adams, 833 E. 
4lh ; William Baker Adams, 431 S. College; 
Wil.iam Adams, R. R. No. 5 ; Robert Aikens. 
418 E. Sith : R. A. Akin ; BelWlle Alexander. 
Gen. Del. ; Ezra D. Alexander, 1003 W. 6th : 
Melville Alexander, (jen. Del ; Edmund A. 
Alvis : Adolphus C. Anderson, W. 10th ; Hen- 
ry J. Andrews, 715 E. 10th ; Dure L. Archer, 
R. F. D. No. 5. 

Edward Ba'.dridge. 727 Atwater ; Garnett 
F. Baines, 322 E. 4th : John Thomas Barrow. 
615 E. 13th: Edgar Bartlett. 500 E. 6th; 
Steler Carl Bartlett, 508 E. 6th ; Calvin Ba-x- 
ter : Horace N. Baxter ; Roy D. Beard, 523 
E. Smith ave. ; George Milburn Beck, E. lOlh ; 
Bert S. Beidon, 601 W. 5th ; Harley E. Bell. 
R. R. No. 10 ; Pete F. Bender ; Enis Bingham. 
207yj N. Morton: Samuel Rollenbacker. 602 
W. 7th : Henry B. Boleman ; Charles Booth. 
I. C. Railroad Company : Harold E. Bowers, 
220 E. 6th ; Clarence Brown, 319 E. 12th : 
James L. Branam, 507 E. 7th : Fred Branam. 
302 E. 12th ; James O. Bringger, R. R. No. 2 ; 
Clarence Brown, 319 E. 12th; Floyd Brown. 
413 E. 6th ; Frederick L. Brown, R. R. No. 9 : 
James L. Brown, 507 E. 12th : Lyman Henry 
Brown, 412 E. 'Jth ; Neff Brown, 802 Atwater ; 
William E. Brown, 314 N. Washington : Neal 
Bj-uner, Lincoln and 21st : Guy Buckner, 204 
E. 3rd: Edward Burke, 325 S. Rogers; Law- 
rence Burke, 325 S. Rogers : Reeves B. Burke : 
Martin Bush. 022 W. 2nd : Maurice Bush, R. 
R. ; Alfred Henry Buskirk, 400 W. 2nd: N. 
Jelfers Buskirk. loth st. pike: Earl K. Bus- 
saird, 703 W. 2nd : Gilbert B. Butcher. R. F. 
D. No. 3 : Lennie Butcher : Gordon S. But- 
rolf; Earl K. Bussaird, R. R. No. 1: Layton 
W. Bussaird. R. A. : 

Alonzo Cain. 429 S. Henderson : Ralph Cain. 
410 W. 3rd: Robert B. Cain, 818 W. 6th: 
Fred L. Campbell. 325 S. Lincoln ; Royal H. 
Carlock. 421 E. 5th: Edward S. Carnes, 314 
S. Grant : Homer C. Carnes. 814 S. Grant : 
Joseph H. Carson. 604 S. Washington : Floyd 
R. Carter, Ind. University : Geo. K. Carter. 
703 W. 7th : John Henry Carter. 337 S. 
Maple: Wm. Harley Carter. 322 W. 2nd: Wm. 
Wylie Carter, 709 W. 6th : Heanian Carl Cas- 
per, 429 E. Uth: Joseph Emerson Cassell. 
504 E. 5th : Edw. Thos. Gates : Wm. Cham- 
bers, 33 Allen Flats : Andrew Chandler, S. 
Walker : Christena Chandler, 645 Maple : 
Emanuel F. Chandler. S. Waterman ; Hobarl 
Chandler. 714 W. Park: Marion A. Cedar. 
R. R. : Joseph C. Chambers, 604 Washington : 
Robert Chandler, 409 E. 10th: Wesley V. 
Chapin. R. R. No. 1 : Martin L. Chestnut. 
Allen Flats; Nick Chrisomolas, 114 E. 6th: 
John Christy, 1230 W. 7th : Wm. Earl Clas- 
by, 1009 W. 6th : Osbin A. Clay, R. F. D. 
No. 5: Wm. Earl Cleeby, 1009 W. 6th; 
Bennie Clendening, 313 S. Fairview ; Grover 
Clossin, R. R. No. 6 : Benj. L. Coleman, 410 
N. Lincoln ; Wm. Oliver Coleman, R. F. D. 
No. 2 : Clifford Collier : Lawrence S. Collier. 
R. F. D. No. 9; Chas. A. Colliers, R. R. No. 
9 ; Leon Eugene Collis. 527 N. Grant : Irvin 
Conder. R. F. D. No. 5 : Marion A. Conder, 
R. R. No. 6 ; Carl Naaman Cooper. 429 E. 
nth: Richard A. Cordell. 215 E. 3rd; Carl M. 
Cormann ; Edwin G. Corr, 322 E. 5t)i : Ben 
Cray. 1105 W. 8th: Alfred D. Crebs ; Bruce 
Crider. 109 E. 4th : Joseph E. Crider, R. K 
No. 9 : Elmer Crown. 209 E. loth : Ben Crory. 
1105 W. 8th: Wayne L. Culley, W. 11th: 
Walter N. Culmer : Edgar R. Curry. 513 E 
2nd : Wm. Francis Curry, R. R. No. 10. 

Luther Daniel. R. R. No. 1 : Daiid Earl 
Davis. 327 S. Henderson : Guy Davis. 217 S. 
Washington : Edw. Willie Davis. 1019 W. 
Howe: Everett S. Dean. 1012 E. 2nd: Geo. 
Benj. Dean. 301 E. Cottage Grove : John S. 
Dearman. 609 N. Fairview ; Bernard F. Desu 
tal. 115 E. 4th: Guy M. Dillmann, 1114 W. 
6th: Oscar L. Dillmann, 223 S. Maple: Geo. 
Thos. Dix, W. 6th : Wm. Henry Dobbins. 
214 26th: Ha Franklin Dobson, 435 S. Wal- 
nut: Nawell W. Dodds. 515 E. 7th: Howell 
W. Dodfee, 615 E. 7lh : Cuba G. Dowling, 339 
S. Fairview: Howard R. Duncan, 502 E. 12th: 

Otto Dumel, 1011 Grant: Chas. E. Dutchess, 
E. Kirkwood. 

Wade Ead. 409 E. University : Ernest E. 
Eagleson. 420 E. 9th : Walter V. Eagleson, 
314 N. Morton : Wilson V. Eagleson, 921 W. 
7th : Wm. Richard Easton. 216 S. Indiana : 
Homer Otto Edwards, 1134 W. 5th: Wm. M. 
Egnew, 725 S. Walnut : Theo. Smith Eigen- 
mann, 630 Atwater; Robert E. EKer, 341 S. 
Jackson : Warren Thos. Ellcr, 431 S. Jack- 
son : Herman Elred. R. R. No. 4 : Clarence 
Edw. Engledon, R. F. D. No. 1 : Walter 
Englesse. 214 N. Morton; Theodore Eulures, 
114 E. 6th. 

Emil Faris, 17th and Fess ; Vanney Faris. 
12th and Fess : Ambry W. Farr. 626 W. 5th 
Theodore L. Farr, 626 W. 8th : Roy C. Fat- 
zinger, 208 S. Rogers: Gee. E. Fearman, N. 
Adams : Ollie Feddrill, 828 W. 7th ; Albert 
Feins; Paul L. Feltus, 613 E. 2nd: A.bert 
E. Feming, 324 E. Fess ; Albert R. Fielder. 
R. F. D. No. 7; John Da\is F'ielder. R. R. 
No. 7 ; Theo. S. Figemann. 630 Atwater ; 
John Edgar Finn, 802 S. Washington : Martin 
N. Finn, • 910 S. Walnut ; Edgar, S. 
Rodgers: Groden B. Fletcher. 1124 W. 5th; 
James Lyne Fletcher, 114 E. 4th: Leonard 
Fletcher. 920 S. Walnut: Paul L. Fletus, 613 

E. 2nd ; Braxton Flick. 424 S. Washington : 
John Flues, R. R. No. 4 ; OIlis Foddrill, 828 
W. 7th : Clyde Fordyce. 509 W. 12th ; Dale 
T. Foster. 631 N. Walnut ; Thos. Foster. 925 
N. College: Bi-yon F. Fowler. 417 S. Hender- 
son : Glen Fowler, 615 Lincoln : Raymond 
D. Fowler. 322 W. 2nd: Bert Fanklin. 324 
S. Maple ; Carl V. Frantz, R. F. D. No. 4 ; 
Wm. J, Franzman, 720 W. 7th : Thos. J. 
French, 120 E. 4th: Wm. J. Frenzmann. 720 
W. 7th; Albert H. Froemming, 324 S. Fess: 
Fred B. Funk, 216 Lincoln : Lee Otto 
Furgeson. R. R. No. 2 ■ Sheffman Galyan. R. 
R. No. 8: Hubert H. Galyan. R. R. No. 8: 
Sherman Galyan. R. R. No. 8 : Dr. Fletcher 
Gardner; Howard O. Gartin. 411 W. Howe: 
Chas. V. Graham. R. R. No. 10 : Ralph Gasi- 
man. R. R. No. 10: Leonard F. George. 516 
S. Rogers : Chester R. Gillie. 819 Dunn : Frank 
Goodman. 1104 Cottage; Ralph Goodman, R. 
R. No. 10; Harry Wm. Greunds. 809 W. 7th: 
Ben Grey, 1105 W. 8th ; Chas. O. Grey, 1105 
W. 5th: King Grimes. 1113 7th: Clay L. 
Gross. N. College : Harry Wm. Grounds, 809 
W. 7th ; Cammerate Guiseppe. 221 6th. 

Merlin C. Hainey. 346 S. Washington ; 
Chas. Edw. Hall. 304 S. Rogers : Oscar Hall. 
17th and Madison : Robert A. Hail. 414 W. 
5th : Geo. Ham. R. R. No. 1 : Martin Ham. 
633 N. Morton ; Charley Harden, E. 13th 
Robert M. Hardy, 14th and Dunn : Walter W. 
Harris. 1026 W. 6th: Albert Harriett. R. R. 
No. 1 ; Chas. W. Harris, 920 W. 6lh : Arthur 
Hatton. 710 Cottage: Harry Hays. R. F. D. 
No. 5 : Wesley Hays, R. R. No. 5 ; John H. 
Head'ey. 507 N. Walnut ; Jesse Headlev ; Vin- 
cent E. Heaton, 113 E. 10th : Price Hedrick, 
N. Morton; James Edw. Helen. 421 College: 
Chas. E. Hendricks. R. R. No. 1 ; Harvey 
Hendrickson. R. R. No. 10; Ben A. Hendrix, 
R. R. No. 9 : Robert Hendrixson. R. F. D. 
No. 10; Andrew H. Hepburn. 203 Forest 
Place; Renberto A. Hermandez, 815 E. 17th: 
Joe Hickam. 402 S. RoKers : Jas. Sherman 
Higgens. 721 N. Walnut ; Orvillc O. Higgens, 
409 E. 10th: Ezekiel Hill, R. F. D. No. 5: M. 
Luther Hillenburg, R. F. D. No. 9 : E. Jus- 
tin Hills; Clevc Hines. 819 N. Indiana; Omor 
Hinkle, 822 Uth: Thos. Hinkle. 822 E. 11th: 
Geo. F. Holland : Jas E. P. Holland ; Ebert 
Otts Hope. 822 E. 3rd ; Arthur W. Howard. 
R. R. No. I : Fred Howe, 118 E. Smith : John 

F. Huntington. 423 S. Henderson : Ed Huff- 
rian : Raymond S. Hunt. 503 E. 6th ; Dcinald 
V. Hunter. 408 S. College: Clifford Hurst. 
503 N. Grant: Joseph A. Hurst, 311 E. 8th: 
John F. Hutton, 800 S. Rogers. 

Lonie Isom. R. R. No. 1. 

J. Chas. Jackson, 915 N. Fairview ; Walter 

C. James, R. R. No. 1 ; Walter J. James, 
R. R. No. 10: Albert Glen Johnson. 714 E. 
3rd : Alve Oscar Johnson, 934 W. 2nd ; Guy 
Johnson. 1224 W. 6th: J. Walter Johnson. 
322 E. 8th : Luther David Johnson, R. R. No. 
5; Oscar Theo. Johnson, 121 E. 6th: Way'an 
Johnson. 710 S. Jefferson : Wm. Robert John- 
son. 315 N. Grant. 

R. Hay Kelley. 320 E. 7th : Howard Kelly. 
2nd and Lincoln ; Harold J. Kemp, 632 N. 
College : Mike Kemyathy, R. F. D. No. 1 : 
Muir Wells Kenny; Joseph Kentling ; Blaine 

G. Kerr : Chas. Francis Kerr. 338 S. Wash- 
ington : Joseph K. Kerr: John R. Kerr, R. R. 
No. 1 : Samuel Ross Kerr, R. R. No. 8 ; 
Joseph J. Kcll : Lancelot H. Kell, 309 N. 
College: Chas. Edw. King. 501 E. 11th: Aug- 
ust Von Kirk. 714 W. 8th ; Chas. O. Koontz. 
338 S. Maple: Raymond I.. Koontz, R. F. 

D. No. 2 : Arnold O. Krebs, 503 Uth ; Miles 
Krelby, 626 N. Jackson : Herbert M. Krut- 
singer. 836 W. 6th: Theo. Kulures, 114 E. 

Harry A. Lampkins : Denzil Languell, 813 

E. University : John P. Langley : Parks Lang- 
ley, 14th and Fess: John L. Lantz : Bert H. 
Lawhead, SU Cottage: Thos. J. Laikin, 808 
W. 1st : Daniel M. Lawrence. R. R. No. 7 : 
Minus 1 awson. R. R. No. 9 : Fred V. Lav- 
shore, 114 E. 6th; Guy Edw. Leach, W. 8th: 
Roger A. Lee, 626 N. Co.lege; Guy Edw. 
Leesch, W. 8th : Estel Lehman, 1004 S. Wash- 
ington ; Cecil P. Lenam. 304 E. 4th : Walter 
Lentz, R. R. No. 8 : John Levaggi, 905 Uth : 
Chas. H. Lewis, R. R, No. 2 ; Zuasso Lingi. 
R. R. No. 4 : Ir\in M. Livingston, 948 Jack- 
son ; Guy Fdmund Leesch, W. 8th : Geo. R. 
Louden, 117 Forest Place: Quasse Lueig, R. 
R. : Quase Luigi, R. R. No. 1. 

Sam McAffe. 708 S. Washington ; Marcus 

F. McCaughan, 4.35 S. Dunn ; Walter R. 
McCord, 302 S. Madison : Emmett R. McCor- 
mick. W. Uth: Horace W. McCormick. W. 
Uth: Claud McCubbins, R. R. No. 3: Martin 
McKinncy. R. R. No. 9 : Earl Theo. McMillin, 
720 E. University. 

Alfred Mack, 222 N. Grant: Dclzie D. 
Marce. 404 S. Lincoln : G'en L. Marshall. 223 

E. 1st: Carl B. Martin, 309 E. 6th; James 
Edw. Martin, R. R. No. 9; Lewis A. Masters: 
Lewis A. Master: Rosco Mastrangels, Box 
52 ; John Mathews, 727 W. 5th : Chas. Emery 
Mathis. R. R. No. 6 : Daniel C. May : Jonas 
Thompson May. R. R. No. 2 ; Kenneth C. 
May. 216 S. Indiana; Louis Evcret May, R, 

F. D. No. 4 : Fred A. Medearis, 715 N. Maple: 
Ancil Leon Mercer, 349 S. Col ege ; Cecil L. 
Meser, 315 S. Dunn ; Benjamin H. Michels, 
1009 W. 4th : Elmer Miller, R. R. No. 4 : 
Henry E. Miller. 509 W. 5th : John Mitchner. 
1105 S. Walnut: Thos. Grant Minett, 428 E. 
6th : Iva C. Mitchell. R. F. D. No. 4 : Bruce 
V. Moore. 710 S. Fess; Ellsworth Moore, R. 
R. No. 5 ; Wm. David Moore, W. 6th ; Geo. 
Wm. Morris. R. R. No. 7 ; Milford G. Mor- 
ris, 421 S. Dunn ; Wm. A. Morris. 1005 E. 
10th: .\:bert Morrison. R. R. No. 1; Cecil 
Lester Moser. 315 S. Dunn: Joseph E. Moser ; 
Fred B. Mosier : Hartwig H. Motlur, 215 
Forest Place: Geo. B. May. 108 S. College: 
Wm. F. Mulder. R. F. D. : Ora Murphy. 310 
W. 4th: Claude W. Myers. R. R. No. 8: 
Thos. Perry Myers. 221 S. Walnut : Glen E. 

Ray Neal. 712 W. 3rd: Chas. Nelson, R. 
R. No. 10: Clarence Newman, R. R. No. 9: 
.\lbert M. Newton. R. R. No. 9 : Benjamin 
H. Nichols, 1009 W. 6lh ; Stacy Elmer Nikirk, 
W. Uth: Jack K. Nolan. 421 S. College: 
James Edw. Nolan, 421 College : Hugh Woods 
Norman, 506 Fess. 

Robert O'Bennon, 425 Walnut : Edgar A. 
O'Harrow, 413 N. Walnut: Virgil F. Ooley. 
713 W. 7th Wm. Orahe. R. F. D. No. 2. 

Ross D. Parke, 214 N. Rogers: Homer 1). 
Parks. R. R. No. 10 ; Dwight Parsons. 514 
N. Washington : Geo. Henry Pate. 241 S. 
Davidson ; Shirley Patterson, E. 14th : John 
W. Patton. R. F. D. No. 10; Geo. L. Pear- 
man. N. .Adams ; Edw . O. Peerson, 501 W. 
2nd: Carl Pentercll, W. Uth; John H. Pere, 
R. R. No. 4 : Earl Perry 723 E. 10th ; Geddes 
Perry. 314 S. Madison ; Chas. Earl Peterson. 
911 N. College; Theodore V. Petranolf. 403 
E. 6th ; Chester Pettit, Fee Lane ; Thos. H. 
Pettit. 215 S. Walnut: Herbert Wm. Peyton. 
McDcal House : James. Wm. Pfaff, R. R. 
No. 1: Ira E. Phelps. R. R. No. 10: Dwight 
W. Ping. Box 298 ; John H. Pinkham, N. Indi- 
ana : Geo. H. Pitman. 1114 W. 6th: Mark 
Cay Poling, 708 W. 3rd ; Elza Albert Polley, 
R. R. No. 7: Carl Pontarell, W. Uth: John 
H. Pope. R. R. No. 4 ; Roy J. Pope. R. R. 
No. 4: Bennett Chas. Potter, 314 N. Walnut: 
Emil Hollie Prince. R. R. No. 4 : Hall Hullic 
Prince. R. U. No. 5. 

Harry L. Qninn, 421 W. Howe. 

Russell L. Ranard, 914 W. 8th : Frank 
Raper. 226 N. Adams: Lee Ratlilf, N. Wal- 
nut; Wm. Peat Rawles, 924 E. 3rd; H. 
Holmes Ray. 717 W. Ist-r Carl B. Reed. 822 
E. Hunter: Clyde W. Reed. R. R. No. 3: 
Geo. Reed. 802 E. 3rd ; Blaxton B. Reeves : 
Elvyn Al Regestcr. 401 N. Indiana : Noyes 
Reid. 411 W. 3rd; Arthur W. Reward. R. R. 
1; Ben Reynolds. 413 N. Rogers; Melvin R. 
Rherer. 316 University: Russell M. Rhorer, 
R. R. No. 5 : Claud C. Richardson : 
Forest Richardson : John M. Richardson, 726 
W. Sixth : John F. Rigg. 215 N. Indiana : El- 
bert M. Robbins, R. R. No. 9 : Chas. C. Rob- 
erts, 522 N. Grant : Wm. B. Roberts. 1003 W. 
Ninth : Ernest H. Robertson. 308 E. Third : 
Frank H. Robertson. 308 E. Third : Cary Rob- 
inson. 920 S. Walnut : Causmere C. Robinson, 
R. R. No. 9 : Darrell R. Robinson, R. R. No. 
9: Erkless L. Robinson. R. R. No. 6: Geo. M. 
Rock. E. Tenth ; Frank H. Rogers. 346 S. 
Rogers : James Rogers. R. R. No. 6 : Homer 
Chas. Rogers: Leon B. Rogers, SU E. Smith 
Leslie M. Rogers, looo vj. Tenth; Marion C. 
Rogers. 511 E. Smith: Robert T. Rogers. 322 
E. Fifth: Wade D. Rogers, 401 S. Rogers: 

(Names Continued on Ne.xt Page.) 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


(Names Continued from Last Page.) 

Melvin H. Roorer. 316 University: Jesse Jas. 
Routen. 9i8 S. Walnut : Harold Rowland. 314 
S. Walnut : Wade Ruds. 409 University : Fred 
Rush. 547 S. Lincoln: Johnathas M. Ryan. 
R, R. No. !). 

Mertin Sam, 63:i Morton : Fred H. Scales, R. 
R. No. 3 ; Harley Scott : Henry G. Scott. 1206 
W. Sixth ; Jesse L. Sears ; Lloyd E. Setser. 
21.5 E. Second: David H. Shapr. 515 Fess : 
Ray Shaw, 217 N. Morton ; Claude Slrerrill. 
R. R. No. 4 : Elmer Sherrill : Ambros W. 
Shields, S. Jackson : Leco E. Shields : Carl 
Elmer Shicley. R. R. No. 1 : Everett H. ShiK- 
ley. R. R. No. 3 : John W. Shit'ley. R. R. 
No. 3 : Leroy J. Shigley : Eupcene Short. 343 
S. Rogers : Wm. Albert Shotwell, 608 W. 
Sixth : Merle Hubert Sims. 1020 S. Lincoln : 
Claud Simpson, 302 E. Kirkwood : Roy S. 
Singleton, Fourteenth and Indiana : Chas. L. 
Siscoe. R. R. : Earl Skirvin, 1113 W. Eighth: 
Harley M. Skirvin, 407 N. College: Leroy 
Skirvin, Thirteenth and Fess; Samuel Skir- 
vin, R. R. No. 6; Noble J. Smallwood. HI N. 
Dunn : Elmer G. Smith. R, R. No. 4 : Hobart 
Smith. 917 W. Fifth : Rodney D. Smith, E. 
Sixth ; Walter Smith. 910 Washington : James 
Solmotto. 1035 W. Sixth : Evert L. Souders. R. 
R. No. 4 ; Floyd Southern, 1001 N. Indiana : 
Carl Watson Spicer. general delivery : Henry 
R. Springer. 521 E. Seventh ; Clifton B. 
Steele, 442 S. Walnut : Walter B. Stern, 322 
E. Fourth : Homer S. Stevens. R. R. 7 ; Roy 
Stewart. 602 S. Walnut; Ulysses G. Stewart. 
714 S. Rogers : Chess Stillions ; Elzie Stillions. 
R. R. 4 : James Earl Stogdill, 811 W. Fifth ; 
Herlie Stone, 322 E. Eighth : Walter S. 
Storm. 322 E. Fourth : Nathaniel Strong. 
1131 W. Eighth; Fred W. Stuart. 602 N. 
College : Reginald B. Stull. 725 E. Second ; 
James Sturgeon. R. E. No. 10: James Stur- 
gess. R. R. No. 1 : John M. Swain. 1201 At- 
water : George Wm. Swaney. 322 S. Buck- 
ner: Walter J. Swartz. 514 S. Lincoln: Chas. 
B. Swaync. 618 E. Third : Chas. H. Szatke- 
wski. 515 W. Third : Ervin Taylor, 421 S. 
Dunn ; Forest Edw. Taylor, -1017 W. Second : 
G'.en Teague. 409 S. Madison : Kahn B. 
Thasher. R. R. 3: Oscor T. Thacker, 718 W. 
Eighth: Chas. Thomas, 1201 W. Seventh: Or- 
ville Thomas, 219 1-2 E. Walnut ; Dale Elmo 
Thompson, 616 N. Grant : Homer P. Thra.^her, 

703 W. Second ; Kahn B. Thrasher. R. R. 3 ; 
Lamis E. Thrasher. 1001 S. Washington : 
Shirl Edw. Titusk. R. R. 9 : Clyde O. Todd, 
11119 W. Seventh; H. Roy Townsend. 448 E. 
Second : Oscar C. Trayler, 603 Nineteenth ; 
Levi E. Trisler, R. R. 3 ; Cleo Turner. R. R. 3. 

Ben Van Buren. W. Eighth ; Alfred Van 
Buskirk. 400 W. Second ; Hiram E. Vaugh. 
1014 Howe: Harold L. Voliva, R. R. 4 : John 
E. Vos. 720 E. Third. 

Bennie Walker. 621 Washington ; Albert 
Jesse Walls. 412 Thirteenth ; Bert Wampler. 
304 W. Second : Carl E. Wampler. R. R. 8 : 
Cecil R. Wampler. R. R. 8 ; James B. Wami>- 
ler, R. R. 5 : William Warley. 1122 W. Elev- 
enth : Ray Warriner. 315 E. Sixth : Frank 
Watts, 822 W. Third: Harry Watts. 221 E. 
Ninth ; Cecil W. Weathers, 429 E. Seventh ; 
Harold L. Weatherwax. 610 N. Lincoln ; Chas. 
R. Weaver, 907 S. Washington ; Gilbert Weav- 
er. 602 S. Walnut ; Francis Wells, 431 Fourth : 
Forest R. Whaley. 713 N. Lincoln : James H. 
Wells. 322 S. Indiana : Wm. Werley, 1122 W. 
11th; Frank White. R. R. 4; James White: 
Leon E. Whitsell : Harry T. Whitte. 310 Fair- 
view : Edwin R. Whitted, R. E. No. 1 : Chas. 
Henry Wible. E. R. 9 : Robert E. Wiles. 509 
E. Fourth : Chas. E. Wilkinson. 615 E. Fourth : 
Kenneth P. Williams. 405 N. Indiana ; Denis 
Wilson, 720 S. Fess: Donald E. Wilson, 714 E. 
Second ; Matthew Winters, 1022 E, Third ; 
Elmer Wray, 621 S. Walker: Finis Wooten. 
R. R. 4 : Wm. Worley. 1122 W. Eleventh ; Ab- 
raham Zimmerman. 616 N. Lincoln. 

Ellettsville, Ind. 

Men who went into the military service 
from Ellettsville were as follows: 

Charles Brough — (deceased) — father. R. A. 

Earnest A. Bastin : Jake Wm. Bastin ; Fe- 
lix Jno. Brown : Mathews J. Carpenter : Rob- 
ert Coffey : Rex Cowden, R. R. No. 1 : Carl 
Crismore. R. R. 1 : Dewey A. Davis, R. R. 
4 : Henry A. Denny ; Harley O. Dunning ; R. 
Dunning : Herschell Ducker ; Bryon P. Faulk- 
ner : Frank Gab'.e : John Gabel : Jesse C. 
Gentry. E. R. 1 : James M. Gillesiy. R. R. 1 : 
Carl Gob'.e ; Gilbert Henry Goodall ; Silbert 
H. Gosdell : Albert Henry Gross. 

O iver K. Harris : Samuel A. Harris : Sam- 
uel M. Harris: William B. Harris; Hal H. 

Hensley ; Hal Homer Kinsley ; Willie Hou- 
ions : Robert A. Johnson : John Earl Kates : 
John R. Karr; William Cornelius McGown ; 
Dea Wallace Marshall-; Lester W. May : Elda 
L. Myers : Willie Nevius. R. R. 1 ; Benton A. 
Oliver, R. R. 1 ; Maurice H. Parks ; Marnicie 
Perks; Russell H. Rice: Curnel M. Richard- 
son ; Wm. Ralph Ridge ; Guy W. Reeves ; Geo. 
R Reynolds : Cornel M. Richardson. 

Raymond Stanger. R. R. 1 : Herman M. 
Steele ; Otis Stevens : Kenneth Stines : Ralph 
S. Stines: Chas. D. Stuart; John Taylor; Les- 
lie H. Wampler. R. R. ; Bruce Whiseand, R. 
R. 1 : Harmon W. Young. 

Harrodsburg, Ind. 

Men who went into military service from 
Harrodsburg were as follows : 

Earl H. Mitchell — (deceased) — father, James 

Bert H. Freese — (deceased) — father, Walter 
P. Freese. R. R. No. 1. 

Edwin O. Parker — (deceased) — father, Rob- 
ert Parker. 

Ishmel O. Barrett : Homer Bougher ; Alley 
Beuher : Hamer Beuher : Riley Bouher ; Bert 
Chambers ; David Frank Crouch ; John Dal- 
ton. R. R. 1; Thos. Dalton : Oral W. Fowler: 
Wyatt Fowler, R. R. 1 ; Brant Rays Freeman : 
Floyd Jones ; Claude Jas. Keente ; Claude Jas. 
Koontz ; Ches. Lewis ; Ralph McGlothlin : Earl 
E. Mitchell ; Joe C. Mitchell. R. R. 1 : Perry 
Mitchell ; Bee Prince ; Willard Chas. Phil- 
lips ; Alva M. Sherlock ; Edgar C. Smith ; 
Thos. Southern ; Ordia Swango ; Wm. Lizzie 

Stanford, Ind. 

The following men from the community of 
Stanford. Ind.. were in military service: 

Dexter Hancil Crum. R. R. 1 ; Cyrus I. 
Cunningham. R. R. 1 : Joseph P. Cunningham : 
Gilbert Greene. R. R. 1 ; Warren N. Hast- 
ing, R. R. 1 : Sherman Hawkins ; Leland 
Keentz ; Jewctt Amos Kirk. R. R. 1 ; Leland 
Koontz, R. R. ; John McCoy. R. R. 1 ; Orvel 
McCoy : Wm. Herbert May, R. R. 1 ; James 
M. Patton : Bert Sare. R. R. 1 : G. Samuel 
Sheley ; Wm. G. Sullivan : Chas. Evert Van- 
pelt. E. R. 1 : Samuel G. Whaley ; Walton 
L. Werley. E. R. 1 ; Wilton L. Worley, R. R. 1. 

(Names Continued on Next Page.) 

Scene on Indiana University Campus 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

(Names Continued from Last Page.) 

Stinesville, Ind. 

Men from Stinesville, who went into the 
service from that place follow : 

Wm. Acculi: Wm. L. Aduff ; Scott Fox Ail- 
Han : John R. Buskirk : Roy M. Brown : Frank 
Campbell : John Carter : Homer E. Culross : 
Harvey N. Dewehes : Harvey Downs : Wil- 
lian Scott Fox : Paul C. Heltman : Ervin F. 
Medley : Raymond E. Moore : Wm. Hershel 
Neal : Chas. Roy: Calvin M. Summett : Chris 
Summit : Allen Ross Taylor : Sam E. Taylor ; 
Commodora Taylor : Raymond Truebiood : 
John R. Van Buskirk : Andrew M. Vlist. 

Gosport, Ind. 

Gosport men who went into the ser\ice in 
the great World War were: 

Henry R. Collier: Alvin Fields: Chas. C. 
Fry : Earl Fulford. R. R. 4 : Lawrence E. 
Godfrey ; Ola F. Gooldy. R. R. 4 : Archie Roy 
King ; Earl C. King. R. R. 4 : Clarence Le- 
vine ; Clarence Lovins : Lawrence D. Mad- 
ding. R. R. 4 : Raymond Martin. R. R. 3 ; 
Raymond Morton, R. R. i ; Francis O 
Schultz. R. R. 3 : Francis O. Shultz. R. R. 3 ; 
Willie Taylor, R. R. 3 ; Brvan W. Walden. 
R. R. No. 3. 

Sanders, Ind. 

Sanders men who went into military serv- 
ice were : 

Sam Chambers— (deceased) — mother, Eliza- 
beth Jerls. 

Thos. B. Hays— (deceased)— Thos. F. Hays 
George W. Adams ; Theo. M. Deckard : 
Joseph Dick : Joshua Dick : Odon Grubb ■ 
Elmer Johnson : Stanley Earl Johnson ■ G'en 
C. McGlolhlin : Albert Patton : Marshall 
Deckard Theodore. 

Unionville, Ind. 
Winfred C. Chiiwood : Chas. F. Durnell 
R- R. 1 : James Fishel. R. R. 1 ; Milaey Fis^el • 
Walter A. Hadden, R. R. 1 : Hershel Hart- 
sock : James O. Peterson : Jw Fryer • Jno 
Pryer : James V. Richardson : Henry Robert- 
son, R. R. 1 : John Wm. Teme. R. R. : John 
Wm. Tomey : Garrett McKinlev Young. R R 1 

Yellowstone. Ind. 

The community of Yellowstone furnished 
the lollowmg men : 

John V. Axon : Millard E. Axson : William 
Dillman: Roy E. Fleetwood: Robert Hayne ■ 
John Hillsburg: Robert Hoyse : Jacab Hush- 
eur: William Pillman : Rilin Roll: John 

Smifhville. Ind. 

SmithviMe men who went inta military 
ser\-ice were : 

Guy S. Adams : John D. Cantrell : Merion E 
^•■Yobs: Edward L. Harrell : Leo McCormick : 
Ralph May : George Sanders ; Wm. Sciscoe ■ 
Paris E. Shields. 

Other Neighborhoods. 

Monroe county's men who went into service 
from other neighborhoods in the rural parts 
of the county were: 

Clarence Deckard and Everett Deckard. 
Chapel Hill. Ind. 

Fred Sciescee. Ora W. Sciscoe, Harley \\'. 
Ellis, and Roy H. Eads, Aliens Creek. Ind. 

Dewey D. DeHman, Elmer C. Tris er and 
Willis W. Wariner. Clear Creek. Ind. 

Oscar Kinser. Hcn^ei- H. Miller. Vada Smith 
and Oscar Owings, Lecton, Ind. 

Osborn Bowman. R. R. No. 2 : Geo. Wayne 
Godsey : Minor Godsey. R. R. ; Harry H. Ow- 
ens. R. R, 8. and Tony Edw. McGown, Mart- 
insville. Ind. 

Millard Spoor - (deceased) — father, John S. 
Spoor, Brooklyn, Ind. 

Wm. Harvey Abbitl, R. E. 1 ; Lcland Free- 
man, R. R. 1 ; Leiand Gemen, R. R. 1. Spen- 
cer. Ind. 

Fred Keller. Joe Ham and Peat Ham. Hend- 
rixville. Ind. 

Richard O. Wagner — (deceased)— Mrs. John 
E. Wagner. Box 28. West Point, Miss. 

Ben A. West - (deceased) — mother. Mrs. 
Laura West. Cass. Ind. 

Elmer Earl Cooper--(deceased) — father. Gif- 
ford A. Cooper. Huntingburg. Ind. 

Fredley Robertson, R. R. 2, and Luther 
Stewart. Norman Station, Ind. 

Floyd James. Hensenberg, Ind. 

William B. Hudson. Palestine. 111. 

Hoyt S. Massoy (deceased) — widow. Wi- 
Freeda Massy, 315 E. Oak street, Mitchell. 

Albert D. Smith — (deceased) — father, Dan- 
iel Smith, R. R. 3, Monroe, Ind. 

Carl M. Eggman, Lapel, Ind. 

Jewett Snow, Benne Vinta, Ind. 

Elmer Tomey, R. R. 3, Plainville. Ind. 

Raymond R. Hutchings. R. R. 1, Marj'S- 
ville, Ind. 

James R. Hobbs — (deceased) — uncle, Louis 
Turner, Marion, N. C, 

Carl E. Anderson — (deceased) — father, Ed- 
ward L. Anderson, Box 13, R. R. 3, Bed- 
ford, Ind. 

Glynn C. Haller — (deceased) — widow, Mrs. 
Ada Haller, 3420 Fir St., Indiana Harbor. Ind. 

Harry Caulross, 231 E. St. Joe, Indiana- 
polis. Ind. 

Olin M. Smith— (deceased) — Tilman K. 
Smith, Davenport, la. 

Dewey Dillman. Clear Creek, Ind. 

Other Names. 

Through some cause we find the following 
Bloomington men who were in serWce are 
not included in the list furnished from State 
records. There may be others who do not ap- 
pear here, but it is because we are unable to 
obtain same at this time, but we must be 
grateful that the list is as near complete as 
it is: 

Clifford R. Young, Stanford. Ind. ; Glen B. 
Woodward, 501 Park Ave. : Rex. R. Forsyth, 
208 E. Tenth : A. H. Berndt. 314 N. Walnut : 
John W. O'Harrow. Jr.. 413 N. Walnut : Paul 
V. McNutt, 316 N. Indiana Ave. : W. Austin 
Seward. 721 E. Atwater Ave. : Allen V. Bus^ 
kirk, N. Walnut ; Humphrey M. Barbour, W. 
11th ; Roger M. Barbour. W. 11th : Maurice 
Parks. 316 N. College Ave. 


Nineteen men composing the ad- 
visory committee of the American Le- 
gion met in the Chamber of Commerce 
rooms Jan. 24, 1922, and completed 
plans for initiated plans for the mem- 
bership drive of the Burton Woolery 
Post. Stunts rangnig all the way 
from collecting the trophies of all the 
wars since the Revolutionary about 
the public square, visiting the various 
outlying towns and putting on a pro- 
gram and having the 155 millimeter 
guns of Battery D. on display about 
the public square were discussed. The 
plan finally agreed on was personal 
solicitation, publicity and solicitation 
by mail. The members of the ad- 
visoi-y board were each given slips 
and . told to start a pre-campaign of 
personal solicitation among their 
friends. Fifty new members have 
signed up to date. 


The Old Board Walk on In diana University Campus 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 



Phonographs and Records 
Typwriters and Supplies 
Adding Machines • 
Musical Instruments 
Office Furniture • 

Our Leaders 

Brunswick Phonographs and Records 
Woodstock and Corona Typewriters 
Dalton Adding Machines and the 
"G. F." line All Steel Office Furniture 




East Side Square 
Bloomington, Ind. 

PHONE 111 

Hall & Rumple 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


Nash Cars Stand the Test of Years 


Bloomington Nash Motor Co. 

North College Avenue 

Robert, Wiles 

Kenneth May 

First in the Art of Printing 
and Newspaper Making 


Publishers of 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 



Grocery and Meat Market 





The Home of Good Groceries and Meats, Fresh and Cured. 
Corner College Avenue and Fourth Street 



Dinnerware Dry Goods 
Glassware Hardware 
Alumnumware Notions 
Enameled Ware Jewelry 
Silver Ware Candies 

Anything to be found in 
5c- 10c and Variety Store 

W. A. TURNER, Prop. 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

U. S. Boilers 






538 and 747 



Jesse A. Ho\ve 

Jobber and Manufacturer of 



"Milady" and "Rex Brand" 


121 North College Avenue 



has been ser\ang those who have made 
Monroe County History. 


Bloomington's Biggest and Best Department Store 



PHONE 893 

Bloomington, Ind. 

We Deliver 

* • • 

The . . 


"The Best For Less" 




r ^ 

You may take advantage of our SERVICE Department, re- 
K'ardless of what kind of car you have — It's Different! 

CALL 2434 

We will send a careful driver for your car. and deliver same. 
Our tester will test out your car to yuur own satisfaction — His 
verdict will assure you a sraooth-runninfr motor if we do the work. 

Over Night Storage 
60 Minutes Work in Each Hour Under Our System I 


312 North Morton Street. 

BInomington. Ind. 


Home of first au- 
tomobile and first 
pneumatic tires 
made in America. 

218 W. Sixth St. 
Phone 293 


(Opposite Home Bakerv) 


"Express it Siveetly" 


Chocolates and Confections 
Ice Cream and Ices 


Best Since 1892 


. L. 



All Work Guaranteed 

We Grind Our Own Lenses 

Artificial Eyes Sold and Fit 

Broken Lenses are Replaced in One Hour 

Phone — 371 Opposite Harris Grand 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 





Model "FB22" 

This popular model appeals to those who desire a roomy Coupe of Four Passenger 
Capacity; powerful, good-looking, complete in refined appointments and equipment, yet 
economical to purchase and maintain. 

College Ave. Motor Sales Co. 

North Side Square. . Bloomington Ind. 







Stoute's Pharmacy 

■"= " ■« FI ' "J ' ^r^ ' ^r^ ' "^ ' "= " " ^ ' " = " " ^'" 

Prescriptions filled promptly by registered pharmacist while you 
look around. 

Magazines, Cigars, Fancy Candies, and Toilet Articles. 





Records of all the Popular Song Hits or the Greatest Classical 

West Side Square 

Phone 235 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 




Tires are subject to every kind of injury and are required to stand the very hardest 
service of any part of your car. They become ill, much as does the human body when 
neglected, and need a doctor. 

WHEN YOU HAVE A TIRE REPAIRED you want the very best work and ma- 
terials applied in the repair of that tirel Don't you? That is just what you Ret when 
I repair your tires. The famous 


is the method I employ, in repairing every injury, such as TREAD CUT, SAND BOIL, 
CUT TIRES. Come in and watch me work. 

You can save money by allowing me to put several thousand more miles wear into 
your old tires. I guarantee every job I put out to outlast the tire — and I stand back 
of my guarantee. 

Card's Tire Service Station 

116 E. SIXTH ST. 




French and American Perfumes, Fine Stationery, Ivory Toi- 
let Articles, of most any quality you may desire, 

Allegretti's Famous Candies 

High-grade Kodak Finishing and Eastman Films 

Presciiptions Carefully and Correctly Compounded by a Compe- 
tent Registered Pharmacist —Our Specialty 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 



Phone 1900 or 










Plumbing and Heating 

Wm. N. Douglass 


Leonard Fletcher 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 





O M 







-1— > 
















o i 





Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


The Daily World and Courier Give the News. Monroe County's Democratic Daily and Weekly. 

OSCAR H. CRAVENS. Editor and Publisher. 

The Pleasing Family Newspaper of Bloomington. Evening World 10c a week by Carrier. 


Is the picturization of WHO'S WHO AT INDIANA UNIVERSITY. It is also the history of the past year of 
University life. It was established here years ago antl is now one of Indiana's institutions. It is and always 
has been the annual publication of the Senior class. The Centennial Arbutus of 1921 has been recognized 
as the best volume ever issued. It was not only the most complete, but was the direct result of the best editing 
and business management ever devoted to this cause. It was a triumph, but it had one defect. It was not 
attractive. -- 


IT will be bound in a beautiful cover. It will contain a four-color section of campus views never before pub- 
lished, a group of novelty photos of the campus taken from an aeroplane and pictures of the proposed Memorial 
buildings. Aside from this, the book will embrace all of the usual features among which will be included all 
of the new organizations, etc. 


Sign for yours today at the University Library 



Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 



|J The universal and economical car for business and pleasure. Ford cars 

-■- ^ are now cheaper by several dollars than ever before in their history. To 

Dthe person who is thinking of buying any kind of car, we ask that you in- 


You pay a part down — and the balance on easy terms, payable in monthly 
/^"^ isntallments. 

— Our Ford Service and Battery Departments are fully equipped to give you 

A the very best service. 

R Graham Motor Sales Co. 

S Phone 156 




W. A. FULWIDER, President 

EDWIN CORE. Vice President 
C. L. RAWLES, Cashier 

S. E. ALEXANDER, Asst. Cashier 

W. E. BALDRIDGE, Asst. Cashier. 







207 N. 

E. J. Porter 


104 East Kirkwood. 

Where Service is the Motto. 
New and fashionable equipment in every respect. 


in perfect condition, assures scientific and pleasurable 
satisfaction to players. 

TOM HUFF, Proprietor 

Phone 2.319 Next door to Bloomington National Bank 



Telephone 2196 

Agent for 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


170 Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

Keeping Faith 

N ancient days of merchandising the traders operated under the theory 
of caveat emptor — which means, "Let the buyer beware." It may have 
been a good law, but to our notion it was an inexcusably bad business 

There is great satisfaction in knomng that what you buy and pay your perfectly 
good money for is backed by the store you bought it from; that in case of any 
possible defect in your purchase you may go back for reparation — and be sure that 
you will get it cheerfully. 

It is nothing more than right and just, that you should ha\e this protection — the protection of 
Guarantee which this store gives to all its customeis. 

We would not be keeping faith with you unless we dealt fairly and honestly with 
you. The goods we sell must be absolutely satisfactory to you as well as to us — 
if they are not, we make them so. 

No matter how much or little the article you buy may cost, if you are not fully 
satisfied with your purchase you may return it and 

Get Your Money Back or Its Equivalent 



Retail Steam 

Wholesale Domestic 

I Quality and Weigh! Guaranteed I 

C. F. Tourner Coal Co 

I PHONE 2400 I 

Brazil Block West Virginia Splint 

Indiana (Jolden Glow Lincoln Eastern Kentucky 

Fourth Vein Mine Run Birch Fork Semi-Anthracite 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 





Auto Sheet 

Metal Work, 


Repairing a 






Installed and 


Phone 761 - - 120 N. Rogers St. 







Phone 156. 

Bloomin^on, Iml. 



Clothing, Hats and Furnishings 

South Side Public Square 
Bloomington, Ind. 

B. M. Correll, Pres. Geo. Walters, Sec'y. 


The value of preserving the memory of our 
departed benefactors and loved ones by giving 
coming generations substantial, undestructable 
data as our duty to both, can be seen. 

We design and carve any size or shape 
monument desired from rough g:ranite that 
will withstand the ravages of time. 
620 S. Rogers Street, Bloomington, Indiana. 




119 E. Kirkwood Ave., 

Bloomington, Ind. 


(Wholesale Only) 
Wholesale Dealers in 

Tobacco, Candy, Chewing Gum and 
Telephone 2417 Bloomington, Ind. 




VINT ROBINSON, Prop. Res. Phone 1564. 

This book is a history of Bloomington in words; 

I am an historian of its people in pictures! 

Have You Neglected Yours? 


Maker of Fine Photographs 

Bloomington, Ind. 


Phone 594. 

Bloomington, Ind. 

172 Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "P 

op" Hall 

','liW"!'Bli|>Hi||iiH"i'!H"'liB'llllB"'''H''' ■'Hi'Hi-'H" ' ■liliHul'iB' ':iB:i|i'Bii|iiBii:|iH i- ■ i|'iB'i|i'H:iiia'T'Hi|':'Bl|lliB'liliailliiHiliiaTii| 




Since 1869 


Has been a trading center 

for Monroe County 


WOOD WHILES, Proprietor 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 





The Official Republican Paper 
of Monroe County 

Established 1877 


BLAINE W. BRADFUTE, Managing Editor 






You have just made a purchase at THE FORSYTH & BRIDWELL GRO- 
CERY, for this we thank you. We have made every effort to satisfy you — and 
we believe we've succeeded. However, should you decide, for any reason, that 
your purchase is not exactly what you want, don't hesitate to bring it back. We 
do not consider this transaction closed until YOU ARE SATISFIED. It is on 
this basis only that we solicit your patronage, 


Phone — 1427 Corner Tenth and Grant Bloomington, Ind. 


Historic Treasures. Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


o 1 UK h/ 

Prescriptions are Filled "While You Wait. 

We Try to Have You Feel at Home 
in This Store. 

Wall Paper of the most tasty design at the Best Piiees. Our line 
of Paints and Varnishes can not be Beat. 

Drop In, Any Time — Our Store faces South Entrance to Court 




Established 1821 

WF ^PV|^^^| 



w^- ., "JBilwt^MBIIill 

^^^^^tm ' ' 'fjdy ' 

Machinists and Founders 

I^^^^B^^^HMff~^' -^fXt^L^^TuJr^^r^ *^^^ l£i^^> 

^jT imWt^MmK.^' 

Acetylene Welding 


Mill Supplies 

Si<ipiB*^ -« 



Total Resources _ $1,094,454.39 

Total Liabilities $1,094,454.39 

James Showers, President; Roy O. Pike, SecyTrcas. 
L. D. Rodgers, Insurance; S. O. Harrel, Asst. Cashier 

J. D. Showers W. T. Hicks Ira C. Batman 

Roy 0. Pike W. S. Bradfute Fred Matthews 

W. E. Showers 



Loans, Bonds, Insurance, and Real Estate 
Phone 835 111 S. CoUege Ave. 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


Evans Electric Co. 

Electric Construction and 
Repairing Guaranteed Elec- 
tric Light and Power Equip- 

Phone 870 117 S. Walnut 
Bloomington, Ind. 

Gould Battery Service* Station 

Everything in Building Material 


(Established 1882) 

Lumber - Coal - Cement - Plaster - Sash 
Doors - Roofing - Paint - Oil 


Office, Cor. Fourth and Monon R. R. 
Telephone 47. 



RUE as History 
Reliable Clothing 
and Furnishings, at 





Telephone 91 and 382. 
Southeast Cor. Square. Blooniingtoii, Iiul. 



Cigars, Tobacco, Candies and Soft Drinks. 
Northeast Corner of Square. 





Cleans and Polishes the finest varnished 

and enameled finish, removes scars and 

prevents checking — Keeps Things New. 

"The Polish That Shines" 



On Sale at Wiles Drug Store 
V.^ _- J 


L. LEVENTHAL, Manager. 

Dry Goods, Notions, Furnishings, Shoes, 


Ready-To- Wear 

South Side Square. 

Bloomington, Ind. 

Phone 70. 

Bloomington, Ind. 



Poultry, Eggs, Cream 
Phone 151 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 


J. R. McDaniel & Co. 

Furniture and Undertaking 

Office Phone 633. 

Res. Phone 899. 

Nort Side Square Bloomington, Ind. 

For a board, 

Or, a Bungalow, 
Just a word — 

Telephone THREE OH! 



CALL 30. 


Dealer in 



Phone 692. Bloomington, Ind. 119 S. Walnut St. 


Jimmie Campbell's Always Open 
210 North Wahiut 

Good things to eat when your hunger 
hurts makes the fame of this Res- 

Telephone 67. 

James M. Campbell, Prop. 

American Made 



American Women 

We have numberless dcsijarns 
taken from Parisan fashions 
but our American designers are 
fast overshadowing those of 
Europe. No matter what your 
taste, we think we can fill your 
Come In and Permit Us to Try 

Millinery & Art Shop 




Henry & Kerr 


Bakers and 

no E. Kirkwood 


Telephone 171. 


We Only Sell the Best 


Coal or Ice 

• Phone Main 425 , 

Bloomington, Indiana. 


You .save $1 or $2 on every pair of 
Men's or Women's Shoes that go out of 
this store. . We guarantee our shoes to 
give satisfaction. 
Children's Shoes, the kind that wear well. 


East .Side of Square. 

Bloomington, Ind. 



Established 1884 


Fine Watch Repairing 

Diamonds Remounted 

Bloomington, Ind. 

121 S. Walnut St. 


Landscape Gardener 

All kinds of Nursery Stock, Bulbs, Growing 
Plants and Cut Flowers for Sale. 

Tree Pruning a Specialty 

703 E. Cottage Grove Ave. 

Phone 410. 

Bloomington, Ind. 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 



Indiana Daily Student 



The Student is recognized 
as the best advertising me- 
dium in the city for reaching 
the 2,500 students enrolled 
in Indiana University. In- 
diana University students 
represent an annual buying 
power of $1,250,000. Have 
you thought of that, Mr. 

The Student also is the 
best means for reaching the 
190 members of the faculty. 
Practically every teacher is 
a subscriber. If you have 
anything from a suit of 
clothes or a piece of furni- 
ture to a Ford car for sale, 
it will pay you to say so in 
The Student. 

Has 2100 Circulation Daily 

Was Established in 1867 

Subscription Price $3.00 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 

Bioomington Hardware C^ 



Room 17, Buskirk Bldg. 


Kearney G. Buskirk Bioomington, Ind. 




Prices Reasonable, Prompt Service 
Satisfaction Guaranteed 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Fop" Hall 



(Established I880) 


South Side of Square. 

Bloominp:ton, Ind. 



Bottles of 

Cherry Blossoms — Coca-Cola — Orange 

PHONE 1698 

405 South Washington. W. R. Cuirie, Prop. 


Clothing and Men's Furnishings That 


Bloomington, Ind. 


Automobile Tires and Tubes, and Accessories 


Phone 1.31 For Service— We Will Come Get You I 

College Ave. and Fourth St., Bloomington, Im!. 


We buy alt makes of ttutomobiles. some sur|)risinj:rly wood 
merely to put the difft-rent ^rood pieces into use aijain as 


You will find just what you want in second-hand parts for 
nearly any make car, which we are able to sell at sometimes 


We pay good prices for secund-hand cars, bul by dividiiiK the 
jirice by the number of good pans, we reduce the cost less than 
that of the maker. 


North Morton St. Blnominiclon, Ind. 

Shaffer & Wylie 

North East Corner of Square 
Phone 241, Bloomington Ind 


108 East Sixth Street. 


We buy and sell second-hand Furniture, Stoves, 
Books, Clothing, Jewelry, or Guns. In fact, anything 
\'ou don't want. 


Phone 20.56. (Cash or Payments) Bloomington, Ind, 

V. . J 

scon PAULEY 


In O'Harrow Drug Store 

Bloomington, Ind. 


Bloomington's Oldest Established Shoe Shop. 



120 South College Ave. 

Bloomington, I ml. 

Modern and Scientific in Detail 

Comfortable Quarters combined with Efficient Staff of Gradu- 
ate Nurses assures patient and physician the best results obtain- 
able in treatment of human ills. 

Rates For Hospitalization 

Room, with private bath, per day $5.50 

Room, without private bath, per day 4.75 

Two-bed Ward, per day 3.00 

Three-bed Ward, per day 2.75 

Operating-Room Fees 

Attendance in Major Operations $10.00 

Attendance in Minor Operations 5.00 

Telephone 216 Harriett Jones, Supt, 


Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 







J. Kentling, M. D. 

Office 201 South College. 
Telephone 71. Bloomin^on, Ind. 



Jess B. 










Rodney D. Smith, M. D. 

124 East Sixth St. Phone 895. 

Bloomington, Ind. 

Dr. A. M. Snyder 


Phone 40.5. 108 '2 E. Fifth St. 

Bloomington, Ind. 

Res. Phone 

Office Phone 


J. W. Wiltshire, M. D. 

Fiist National Bank Building-. 
Bloomington, Ind. 

/■ ^ 

Q. Austin East 

Phones— Office 103, Res. 1948 


You may have a lot of old papers — or 
family history that has never been writ- 
ten- N*> one has ever taken the trouble 
to com, .lie this in readable form. 

Do not allow this important family his- 
tory to be destroyed to comintr generations. 

The .ompilor of this book will be jrlad 
to look over, or hear any data you may 
have, r".d help you put it into form, by 
writine an intcrestins history from the 
true facts you may have. 

Address a letter to me, telling what you 
want to do, and I will be iilad to help 
you. Pi-ofessional ser\-ices at moderate 


Telephone 2109 Bloomington, Ind. 

Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 



Leon E. Whetsell, M.D. 

Completely Equipped 

X-Ray Laboratory 

For Diagnosis and Treatment 

Sanatorium 407 N. College 

Phones. 620 and 101(5 

Dr. Wade D. Rodgers 


Room 2 Gentry Building 
Phone 1098 

Dr. G. F. Holland 

Physician and Surgeon 

Office 124 W. Seventh Street 

Residence 514 N. College Avenue 

Phones 150 and 538 

Joseph L. Strain 
Homer E. Strain 


Bloomington, Indiana 

Phone 20.3 




^ (g [^ D E) 









The University Bookstore 

Bloomington, Indiana 
Maintained by Indiana University in the Interest of Its Students 

Mail orders for notebooks, blue-books, cross-section paper, 
outline maps and other supplies will be filled promptly. 

Books ordered through the Book Store that are not in stock 
are sent direct from the publishers. 



Historic Treasures, Compiled by Forest M. "Pop" Hall 















Try at 


Hardware Store 

If you want to buy 

General Hardware 

Stoves Ranges 


Keen Kutter Cutlery 
Farm Wagons 
Fencing Wire 
Harness and Auto Tops 

Cream Separators 
Gasolene Engines 
Fanning Implements 
Auto Tires and Accessories 
Suit Cases Repaired 


Aluminum and Granite Cooking Utensils 
Electric Washers 

We try to please you and you will like our prices 

C. C. Smallwood 

Phone 31 213 N. College Ave. 


^iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiMii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiir 

*:,,,''' f'r 'f, '/!'!:' ".'''V^v;;';.!^ rii 



There is no substitute for Butter. Our customers go one better 
and state, "There is no subsitute for *Shady Brook'." Our many 
satisfied customers are our best advertisement. We have de- 
voted much time and money equipping this department >vith the 
view of maintaining or improving the quality of "Shady Brook". 


Food and nutrition experts pronounce ice cream one of our very 
best foods. One quart of ice cream is equal in energy food value 

10% lbs. Tomatoes or 3^/i lbs. Chicken 

4'/j lbs. Peas , or 

or 14 Eggs. 1% lbs. Beefsteak. 

These facts show that ice cream is highly nourishing and economi- 
cal. Consider in addition its wonderful deliciousness, and there 
is every reason why people — ^both young and old — should use it 


Every physician, nurse or mother >\ ho investigates our methods 
used in producing our milk cannot help being convinced of its 
superior qualities both for the baby and the other older members 
of the family. 

Be sure our name and the word pasteurized appears on the cap 
of the bottle. 


Our Ice is frozen from pure distilled water. All of the most 
modern equipment has been installed to properly safeguard the 
health of its users. The new addition of another machine and 
the 1,600 ton storage room insure plenty of ice for all. 

Johnson Creamery Co. 

400 W. Seventh St. 

PHONE 188 

Bloomington, Indiana 

PHONE 188 


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